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Full text of "Kirby's wonderful and eccentric museum; or, Magazine of remarkable characters. Including all the curiosities of nature and art, from the remotest period to the present time, drawn from every authentic source. Illustrated with one hundred and twenty-four engravings. Chiefly taken from rare and curious prints or original drawings"

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THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 

OF  CALIFORNIA 

LOS  ANGELES 


F  JROTTTIS  FIE  CIE  . 


Pi.h'fSFji'.i.oi^o,  hv  t;  .'.K,i  hv  l.ctidcnHci,srTardA:.T.Jt-cUJt,n>,./ . 


KIllD  Y'S 
WONDERFUL 

AND 

ECCENTRIC  MUSEUM 

OR, 

MAGAZINE 

OF 
INCLUDING    ALL    THE 

CURIOSITIES  OF  NATURE  AND  ART, 

FROiVI    THE    RKMOTEST    PERIOD    TO    THE    PRESENT    TIME, 
Drawnfrom  every  aul/ientic  Source. 

ILLUSTKATED    WITH 

ONE  HUNDRED  AND  TWENTY-FOUR  ENGRAVINGS. 

CUIEFLY  TAKEN   FROM  RARE  AND    CURIOUS    PRINTS 
OR    ORIGINAL    DHAWINGS. 


SIX    VOLUMES. 

VOL.  II. 


LONDON: 

R.    S.    KIRBY,    LONDON    HOUSE    YARD,  ST.  PAUL'S. 
1820. 


MR,  MATTHEW  BUCHINGElRc 


Having  given  the  Lives  and  Portraits  of  several  Original  Characters, 
2»  oi<r  First  Volume,  which  zee  have  the  satisfaction  to fnd,  has  been  jnost 
corcliaUi/ received  by  the  CvKiovs,  and  the  Lovers  of  Oricih alii v  ;  in pur^ 
suanceof  the  same  entertaining  Plan,  u-e  commence  our  SzcoaOf  ivith  an  Ac- 
count and  Portrait  of  the  above  5  conimonhj  culled, 

THE  WONDERFUL  LITTLE  MAN  OF  NURExMBERG, 
IN  GERMANY. 


JVIr.  Buchinger  was  born  June.  2,  1674,  without  hands, 
feet,  or  thighs.  He  was  the  last  of  nine  children,  by  one 
father  and  mother,  viz.  eight  sons  and  one  daughter  ;  and 
after  arriving  at  the  age  of  maturity,  from  the  singularity 
of  his  case,  and  the  abilities  he  possessed,  he  attracted  the 
attention  not  only  of  the  Continent,  but  of  this  country 
also  ;  the  public  at  that  time  being  anxious  to  obtain  the 
likeness  of  a  person,  whose  abilities  seemed  peculiarly  ori- 
ginal, and  not  less  remarkable  for  his  acquirements,  tlian 
for  the  singular  privations  he  laboured  under,  from  tlie  pe- 
culiarity of  his  formation. 

To  come  to  particulars,  as  co  liis  capacity,  it  was  re- 
marked of  him,  by  his  cotemporaries,  *'  that  this  little  man 
performed  such  wonders  as  had  never  been  done  by  any 
but  himself.  It  was  said,  that  he  played  on  various  sorts  of 
music  to  admiration,  as  the  strange  flute  in  consort  with 
the  bagpipe,  dulcimer  and  trun)pet.  He  was  likewise  sup- 
posed to  possess  considerable  abilities  for  the  mechanics, 
having  conceived  the  design  of  constructing  machhies  to 
play  on  all  sorts  of  music. 

Vol.  II.  ^  He 


8  UNCOMMON  ELEVATION  IN  A  BALLOON. 

He  was  no  less  eminent  for  writing,  drawing  coats  of 
arms,  sketches,  &c.  with  a  pen ;  was  an  adept  at  cards*  - 
and  dice.  He  also  performed  tricks  with  cups  and  balls, 
corn,  and  living  buds,  and  could  play  at  skittles  and 
nine-pins  with  great  dexterity  ;  with  other  particulars,  not 
less  surprising-,  in  a  person  so  mutilated  by  nature,  as  he 
appeared  to  be. — But  among  the  most  remarkable  of  hij> 
drawings,  is  his  own  portrait ;  and  as  an  embellishment  in 
the  delineation  of  his  wig,  he  most  curiously  contrived,  that 
its  curls  should  exhibit  in  several  fairly  Avritten  lines,  tho 
fl7th,  121st,  128th,  130th,  140th,  149th,  and  the  150th 
Psalms,  concluding  with  the  Lord's  Prayer.  As  another 
singularity  in  his  domestic  affairs,  it  is  remarkable  that 
he  was  married  four  times,  and  had  eleven  children  ;  viz. 
one  by  his  first  wife,  three  by  his  second,  six  by  his 
third,  and  one  by  his  last. — His  whole  stature  was  no  more 
than  29  inches  in  height ;  the  portrait  accompanying  this 
description  of  his  person,  was  copied  from  diat  drawn  bj 
himself. 

C7«6ww;ww  Elevation  m  a  Balloon,  at  Hamburgh. 

JMr.  Robertson,  whose  experiments  we  have  before 
heard  of,  renewed  his  late  attempts  about  the  7th  of  No- 
vember. This  balloon,  constructed  of  taffety,  was  30  feet 
in  diameter,  and  was  filled  so  as  to  carry  a  w^eight  of  445 
pounds.  Mr.  Robertson  ascended  with  a  friend,  having 
ballast  to  the  Aveight  of  140  pounds.  They  continued 
rising  till  the  barometer  stood  at  1 2  deg.  and  they  were 
supposed  to  be  3,679  toises,  or  measures  of  6  feet  from  the 
earth.  No  Aeronauts  had  ever  ascended  so  high  ;  nor  did 
Mr.  Robertson,  or  his  friend,  even  think  it  possible. — But 
here  they  soon  found,  that  the  apathy,  inactivity,  and 
di'owsiness  that  began  to  seize  upon  them  Avas  inexpres- 
sible. Their  ej^es  were  suffused  with  blood,  their  lips 
swelled,  their  veins  distended,  and  their  pulse  beat  un- 
coiiiinonly  hi^h.     Their  throats,  in  the  next  place,  became 

affected  ; 


jC  galvanic  battery,  &c.  5 

affected  ;  and  they  found  it  very  difficult  to  swallow.  In 
fact,  a  degree  of  numbness  and  drowsiness,  that  must  in- 
fallibly have  brought  on  death,  began  to  gain  very  fast 
upon  them,  so  that  if  they  had  not  taken  the  resolution  of 
fastening  a  cord  round  their  bodies,  by  which  they  could 
pull  each  other  heartil}"^ ;  and  made  use  of  some  stimulants, 
M'hich  they  applied,  upon  the  principles  of  electricity  and 
magnetism,  they  certainly  must  have  perished.  In  the 
course  of  five  hours  they  descended  in  the  Hanoverian  ter- 
ritory, 78  miles  from  the  spot  where  they  ascended.  One 
of  the  birds  they  carried  Avith  them  was  dead,  the  other  was 
unable  to  fly.  When  at  the  vast  height  from  whence  they 
descended,  though  they  spoke  to  each  other  veiy  loud, 
they  could  hear  but  with  great  difficulty.  The  sun  was 
no  longer  of  that  dazzling  brightness  in  which  it  appeared 
on  the  earth,  being  a  fine  day  ;  but  all  the  whole  circle  of 
the  heavens  appeared  of  a  most  beautiful  blue.  Maugre 
these  difficulties  which  Mr.  Robertson  met  with,  he  proposed 
making  another  excursion,  in  order  that  he  might  enlarge 
his  physical  experiments. 


A  GALVANIC  BATTERY  AND   INFLAMMABLE  AIR-PISTOL. 

VV  HiLE  the  Philosophers  of  the  Continent  are  busied  with 
Galvanic  experiments  upon  the  dead,  we  are  glad  to  find 
the  subject  occupying  the  attention  of  some  gentlemen  of 
science  in  this  country,  Avith  a  laudable  vieAV  of  applying 
tlie  powers  of  this  surprising  principle  to  objects  of  general 
utility.  The  battery  which  Mr.  Wilkinson,  of  Soho-square, 
has  constructed,  and  by  which  he  some  evenings  since  made 
numerous  curious  experiments,  exposes  a  surface  of  nearly 
30,000  square  inches,  containing  more  than  a  ton  Aveicrht 
of  metal.  Gold  and  silver,  till  lately  considered  as  indis- 
tructible  by  fire,  Avere,  by  INIr.  Wilkinson,  together  Avith 
popper  and  tin^  deflagrated  Avith  an  uncommon  brilhancy  ; 

»  2  a  platina 


4  BRUTALITY    IN   ITS    PURITY. 

a  platina  wire,  1-1 0th  of  an  inch  thick,  was  greatly  dis- 
tended, and  fused  with  a  globular  form  ;  steel  harpsichord 
wire  was  ignited,  and  fused  into  red-hot  balls  ;  brass,  cop- 
per, and  silver,  produced  the  same  eifect.  On  applying 
charcoal  to  the  Galvanic  apparatus,  the  most  intensely 
brilliant  light  ensued,  so  luminous  in  fact,  that  the  blaze 
of  a  patent  lamp  exposed  to  it,  was  so  far  eclipsed  as  to  be 
scarcely  distinguishable  ;  the  light  continued  about  ten 
minutes,  and  the  Umiinous  extremities  of  the  charcoal  pro- 
duced a  most  beautiful  radiation,  rendering  every  part  of 
a  large  room,  previously  darkened,  as  light  as  if  exposed  to 
an  unclouded  sun.  The  inflammable  air-pistol  was,  for  the 
first  time,  fired  by  Galvanism,  Mr.  Wilkinson,  among 
some  interesting  observations  on  the  influence  of  Galvanism, 
in  the  important  science  of  Magnetism,  remarked,  that  the 
polarity  of  any  metallic  substance,  as  lately  mentioned  by 
a  continental  Philosopher,  did  not  appear  correct.  With 
steel  and  iron  ueevlies  he  had  frequently  magnetised  by 
Galvanism^ 

TO   THE    EDITOR, 

*'  Sir,— If  the  foTIwving  Miscellaneous  Articles  are  any  waj'S  useful  to  you,, 
to  be  inserted  in  the  Number  commencing  the  Second  Volmne  of  your  truly 
Entertaining  Magazine,  they  are  wholly  at  your  service  }  and  by  cemplying^ 
will,  at  the  same  time,  greatly  oblige  your  occ^ional  Correspondent, 

Nottivghamy  Dec.  15,  1803.      D.  B.  L." 

BRUTALITY     IN    ITS    PURITY, 

A  Farmer,  on  Friday  evening,  January  9th,  1795, 
sittins]j  amoncn  a  small  circle  of  his  neio-hbours,  fuddlins: 
their  noses  over  a  large  fire  and  a  full  tankard,  in  order  to 
prove  the  degree  of  subjection  and  command  he  had  over 
a  fine  young  mastiff  (then  lying  before  the  fire),  took  a  large 
blazing  coal  and  applied  it  to  the  belly  of  the  animal;  at 
the  same  time  ordering  him.to  lie  still,  which  the  poor  crea- 
ture actually  did,  until  his  entrails  had  nearly  appeared ; 

wlien 


REMARKABLE  INSTANCES  OF  SAGACITY  IN  DOGS.       S 

when  extreme  torture  forcing  hini  to  fly,  his  tender-hearted 
master,  as  a  reward  for  his  htleUty,  took  a  gun  and  imme- 
diately shot  him.  The  scene  wiicre  this  singular  act  of  hu- 
vianity  took  place,  was  at  the  Robinhood  public-house, 
near  Helsby,  in  the  county  of  Chester.  The  authenticity 
of  which,  many  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  place  can  testify. 


TWO  REMARKABLE    INSTANCES  OF  SAGACITY  IN  DOGS. 

In  the  latter  end  of  the  month  of  February  1795,  as  Mr. 
Boustead's  son,  of  Great  Salkeld,  Westmoreland,  was 
shepherding  upon  Great  Salkeld  Common,  he  had  the  mis- 
fortune to  fall  and  break  his  leg.  He  Avas  then  at  the  dis- 
tance of  three  miles  from  home,  no  person  within  call,  and 
evening  ftist  approaching.  Besides  fciie  anguish  he  was  suf- 
ferine  from  the  fracture,  how  dreadful  must  his  feelinjis 
have  been,  from  the  accumulated  distress  of  his  situation. 
At  a  moment  when  distraction  was  likely  to  overcome  the 
powers  of  reason  and  reflection,  Providence  directed  him 
to  the  following  expedient : — He  folded  one  of  his  gloves 
jn  his  handkerchief,  which  he  tied  round  the  neck  of  tJie 
do"-,  and  ordered  him  home.  The  do^s  which  are  trained 
to  an  attendance  on  the  flock,  are  known  to  be  under  ad- 
mirable subjection  to  the  commands  of  their  masters.  The 
animal  instantly  set  off,  arriving  at  the  house,  scratched  at 
the  door  for  admittance.  The  young  man's  parents  were 
alarmed  at  his  appeai'ance,  and  more  especially  when  they 
took  off  and  unfolded  the  handkerchief ;  concluding,  be- 
yond a  doubt,  that  some  accident  had  befallen  their  son, 
they  instantly  went  in  search  of  him.  The  dog  needed  no 
instruction,  apparently  .sensil)le  tliat  the  chief  part  of  his 
duty  was  yet  to  be  performed,  he  led  the  way,  and  con- 
ducted the  anxious  parent  to  the  spot  where  their  son  laid! 
Happily  this  was  eiVec.ted  before  night  had  set  in  ;  the 
young  man  was  brought  home,  and  the  necessary  aid  pro- 
cured ; 


$  REMARKABLE  INSTANCES  OF  FECUNDITY,  &C. 

cured  ;  and  he  shortly  after  Recovered.  A  writer  of  no 
small  eminence,  says,  "  There  is  a  moral  obligation  between 
a  man  and  a  dog:"  in  the  present  instance,  that  obligation 
is  very  strong,  indeed.  The  shepherd  owes  his  release, 
from  a  situation  the  most  dreadful  that  can  be  conceived^ 
to  the  wonderful  sai?;acity  of  a  faithful  doii:. 


In  the  month  of  June  ISOO,  as  Mr.  J.  Seaman,  of  Rupert- 
street, was  going  from  the  Hay-market  to  Bond-street,  he  fell 
tlown  in  a  fit ;  a  crowd  of  people  soon  collected  :  but  a 
Newfoundland  dog,  belonging  to  Mr.  Seaman,  kept  them  at 
a  distance  from  him,  thereby  promoting  his  recovery,  by  the 
jadmlsion  of  air,  and  preserving  a  large  sum  of  money  which 
he  had  iii  his  pockets  ;  and  of  wliich,  it  is  probable,  he  had 
otherAvise  been  deprived.  This  dog,  about  two  years  pre- 
ceding the  above  time,  saved  his  master's  life  at  Ports-, 
mouth,  when  he  fell  into  the  harbour  ;  and,  but  for  th^ 
exertions  of  this  animal,  must  have  been  drowned. 


Three  remarkable  Instances  of  Fecundity  in  different 

AXIMALS, 

j^i.  SINGULAR  instance  of  which  Avas  proved  in  the  Vipef, 
on  Monday,  August  16,  1791,  by  George  Dickinson,  a 
Labourer,  at  Edwinstowe,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham  ;  he 
being  at  work  in  a  rushy  meadow,  observed  a  female  vipef 
basking  in  the  sun,  upon  an  old  bank.  He  took  up  a  rail 
and  killed  her  ;  v.  hen  seeing  the  belly  uncommonly  large 
for  that  species  of  serpent,  he  opened  her  down  from  the 
jaw  to  the  tail,  with  the  point  of  his  scythe  ;  when  there 
came  out  18  young  vipers,  in  full  vigour,  and  snapped  at 
the  scytlic  Avith  the  greatest  avidity  ;  and  most  of  theni 
lueasuved  eight  inches  in  length :  the  old  viper  was  two 
feet  eight  inches  in  lenG,th. 

Aa 


^ 


AN    EXTRAORDINARY    CASE    IN    SURGERY,    &;C,  If 

An  Ewe  belonging  to  J.  Horton,  Esq.  of  Elliot's-Hall, 
in  Warwickshire,  which  brought  three  lambs  in  1800,  and 
four  in  1801  ;  and  on  the  3d  of  March  1802,  yeaned  fivcj 
all  alive. 

In  the  month  of  July  of  the  present  year,  a  Sow  lie- 
longing  to  Mr.  Porter,  of  Marham,  Lincolnshire,  had  a  litter 
of  25  pigs,  all  alive;  18  of  which  were  living  a  fortnight 
after, 

AN    EXTRAORDINARY    CASE    IN    SURGERY, 

riAPPENED  in  February  1796,  in  the  county  of  3Icatli- 
Hospital,  on  the  Coomb  : — A  woman  of  the  name  of  Sarah 
Dillon,  who  had  been  pregnant  for  two  years  and  two 
months,  underwent  the  C^efarean  operation,  and  had  a  full- 
grown  child  extracted,  which  had  not  tlic  least  appearance 
of  putrefaction.  The  woman  was  shortly  after  discharge^ 
from  the  Hospital  perfectly  healed  and  Aveil, 


Singular  Instance  of  Shells  being  found  under  a   solid 
Stratum  of  Rock. 

In  working  a  stone-quarry,  in  1795,  belonging  to  Lord 
Dncie,  on  the  road  leading  from  Tedbury  to  I^ath,  tlie  re- 
mains of  a  large  tree,  supposed  to  be  oak,  was  discovered 
\5  feet  from  the  surface  of  the  ground,  and  under  a  solid 
stratum  of  rock,  several  feet  thick.  Near  the  tree,  which 
was  of  a  considerable  size,  and  measured  in  length  20  feet, 
(lying  in  a  Sbuth-East  direction,)  an  oyster,  and  some  other 
shells  were  found.  This  is  one  of  the  singular  occurrences 
Avhicli  confound  philosophy,  and  demonstrate  the  sup^r- 
ficialness  of  human  conception. 


REMARKABLE    AURORA    BOREALIS. 

About  eight  o'clock  on   Thursday  night,    the  21st  of 
October    1791,  a  remarkable   Aurora  Borealis  was  seen, 

near 


S         REMARKABLE    HISTORY    OF    A    CANADA    GOOSE.. 

near  Mansfield,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham  ;  its  appeal*-* 
ance  was  that  of  a  Avhite  steady  hght,  without  any  of  those 
shooting  streams  of  the  electric  fluid,  which  are  always  seen 
in  the  common  Aurora  Borealis  ;  it  seemed  to  extend  from 
N.  E.  to  S.  W.  and  where  it  was  observed  from  a  high  situ- 
ation, it  formed  the  segment  of  a  large  circle..  There  had 
been  a  little  frost  in  the  morning,  the  day  was  fine,  and 
the  evening  perfectly  clear. — Tlie  wind  N.  W. ;  barome- 
ter 30  deir.  and  thermometer  47  deo-. 


A  Pig  of  Lead,  2  feet  long,  7  inches  thick  at  top, 
3|  inches  at  bottom,  and  185  pounds  weight,  was  found  in 
the  year  1795,  at  Snelbitch,  in  Shropshire,  with  the  in- 
scription, "  J.  M.  P.  Hadriani  A.  V.  C.  ;"  supposed  to 
have  lain  there  since  the  reign  of  Adrian  the  Emperor,  who 
died  in  the  year  139,  being  1657  years  ago,  from  the  time 
of  bcino;  found. 


REMARKABLE    HISTORY    OF    A    CANADA    GOOSE. 

The  following  Stoiy  is  extreme!)'  well  attested,  and  furnishes  a  very  curious 
Article  in  Natural  History. 

1  HE  following  account  of  a  Canada  Goose,  is  so  extraor- 
dinary, that  I  am  aware,  it  would,  with  diflicult}^  gain 
credit ;  was  not  a  whole  parish  able  to  vouch  for  the  truth 
of  it. 

The  Canada  Geese  are  not  fond  of  a  poultry-yard,  but 
are  rather  of  a  rambling  disposition  :  one  of  these  birds  was, 
however,  observed  to  attach  itself  in  the  strongest  and 
most  affectionate  manner  to  the  house-dog  ;  would  never 
quit  the  kennel,  except  for  the  purpose  of  feeding,  when 
it  would  return  again  immediately.  It  always  sat  by  the 
dog,  but  never  presumed  to  go  into  the  kennel,  except  in 
rainy  weather  ;  whenever  the  dog  barked,  the  goose  would 
cackle  and  run  at  the  person  she  supposed  the  dog  barked 
at,  and  try  to  bite  them  by  the  heels.   Sometimes  she  would 

attempt 


REMARKABLE    HISTORY   OF    A    CANADA    GOOSE.  9 

attempt  to  feed  with  the  dog  :  but  this  the  dog,  who  rather 
treated  his  faithful  companion  with  indifference,  would  not 
suffer. 

This  bird  would  not  go  to  roost  with  the  others  at  night, 
unless  driven  by  main  force  ;  and,  when  in  the  morning,  she 
is  turned  in  the  field,  she  would  never  stir  from  the  yard- 
gate,  but  sit  tliere  the  whole  day  in  sight  of  the  dog.  At 
Jast  orders  were  given  that  she  should  not  be  molested,  but 
suffered  to  accompany  the  dog  as  she  liked  :  being  thus 
left  to  herself,  she  ran  about  with  him  all  night,  and  what 
js  particularly  e!xtra ordinary,  and  can  be  attested  by  the 
whole  parish,  that  Avhenever  the  dog  went  out  of  the  yard, 
and  ran  into  the  village,  the  goose  ahvays  accompanied 
him,  contriving  to  keep  up  with  by  the  use  of  her  wings  ; 
and  in  this  way  of  running  and  flying,  followed  him  all  over 
the  parish. 

This  extraordinar}^  affection  of  the  goose  towards  the 
dog,  which  continued  till  his  death,  two  3-ears  after  it  was 
first  observed,  is  supposed  to  have  originated  from  his  hav- 
ing saved  her  from  a  fox,  in  the  very  moment  of  distress. 
While  the  dog  was  ill,  the  goose  never  quitted  him,  day 
nor  night,  not  even  to  feed  ;  and  it  was  apprehended  she 
would  have  been  starved  to  death,  had  not  the  orders  been 
given  for  a  pan  of  corn  to  be  set  every  day  close  to  the 
kqnnel.  At  this  time  the  goose  generally  sat  inside  the 
kennel,  and  would  not  let  any  approach,  unless  it  was  the 
person  that  brough  the  dog's  or  her  own  food. 

The  end  of  this  faithful  bird  was  melancholy  ;  for  when 
the  dog  died,  she  would  still  keep  possession  of  the  kennelj 
and  a  new  house-dog  being  introduced,  which  in  size  and 
colour  resembled  that  lately  lost,  the  poor  goose  was  un- 
happily deceived,  and  going  into  the  kennel,  the  new  in- 
habitant seized  her  by  the  throat  and  killed  her. 

A  similar  affection  was  observed  between  a  cat  aixl  a 
pigeon,  some  years  ago,  at  the  house  of  the  late  Robert 
James,  Esq.  of  Putney  ;  with  this  difference,  that  it  ap- 

c  pearod 


no         FROM  hutton's  history  of  derby. 

peared  to  be  reciprocal. — What  rendered  it  more  extraor- 
dinary was,  that  they  were  both  found  one  day  on  the 
wall  of  the  garden,  and  both  became  domesticated  ai 
Mr.  James's,  where  they  continued  to  be  inseparable 
companions,  ^^-^.^^-^^^  Carolus. 

FROM    button's    HISTORY    OF    DERBY. 

J\  Regiment  of  troopers  in  1647,  in  the  Parliament 
service,  marching  over  St.  Marj^'s  bridge,  in  their  way  to 
Nottingham,  observed  a  girl  of  15  years  of  age,  a  few 
yards  below  the  bridge,  lading  water  into  her  pail,  w^hile 
standing  upon  a  bating  lag,  (beating  log,  upon  Avhich  the 
dyer  stands  to  beat  his  cloth)  ;  some  soldiery  jokes  ensued, 
Avhen  one  of  them  dismounted  and  cast  a  large  stone,  with 
a  design  to  splash  her  ;  but  not  being  versed  in  directing  a 
stone  so  well  as  a  bullet,  he  missed  the  water,  and  broke 
her  head.  Alarmed  at  this  unexpected  result  of  his  rude 
attack,  he  hastened  to  the  front  of  the  regiment,  to  avoid 
the  consequence:  Thus,  the  man  who  had  boldly  faced  the 
enemy  in  the  field,  fled  with  fear  from  an  helpless  female. 
Nothing  disarms  like  offered  injuries.  She  instantly,  with 
tears  and  cries,  left  her  pail,  Ment  home,  when  her  mother 
Ava'i  frightened  to  behold  her  covered  with  blood.  The  un- 
known  consequences  of  this  adventure,  hung  heavy  upon 
the  trooper's  mind  :  lie  rode  in  the  regiment  eleven  years 
after. — When  discharged,  the  Avorld  was  all  before  him, 
whei'e  to  chuse,  he  fixed  on  Derby  ;  followed  his  occu- 
pation, courted  and  married  a  young  woman.  In  the 
course  of  their  conversations,  he  proved  to  be  the  very  man 
that  cast  the  stone,  and  she  the  woman  with  a  broken  head. 
They  lived  in  Bridge-Gate,  and  in  harmony  about  thirty 
years  :  during  that  period,  they  produced  ten  children, 
the  eldest  of  whom  was  my  grandfather  {the  Author), — His 
sword,  in  my  possession,  w'as  drawn  for  liberty,  at  Mars- 
ton  Moor,  under  the  Earl  of  Manchester  ;  at  Naseby,  un- 
der Fairfax  ;  and  at  Worcester,  under  Cromwell ;  and  was 
carried  in  pursuit  of  the  unfortunate  Charles,  to  Boscobel." 

T/ic 


(    n    ) 

The  History  of  the  famous  Bottle  Conjuror,  in  the 
Year  1148 — 9,  (now  for  the  first  J^ime  collected)  .•  being 
the  Advertisements,  &(c.  ti(c,  that  appeared  in  all  the  public 
Papers  of  that  Period,  relative  to  that  entertaining  and 
extraordinarij  Imposition, 

January  12,  1749. — At  the  New  Theatre  in  the  Hay* 
market,  on  Monday  next,  the  16th  instant,  is  to  be  seen, 
a  person  who  performs  the  several  most  surprising  things 
following;  viz. — 1st,  He  takes  a  common  walking  cane 
from  any  of  the  spectators,  and  thereon  plays  the  music  of 
every  instrument  now  in  use,  and  likewise  sings  to  sur- 
prising perfection  ;  2dly,  He  presents  you  with  a  common 
wine  bottle,  which  any  of  the  spectators  may  first  exa- 
mine ;  this  bottle  is  placed  on  a  table  in  the  middle  of  the 
stage,  and  he  (without  any  equivocation)  goes  into  it,  in 
the  sight  of  all  the  spectators,  and  sings  in  it;  during  his 
stay  in  the  bottle,  any  person  may  handle  it,  and  see 
plainly  that  it  does  not  exceed  a  common  tavern  bottle. — 
Those  on  the  stage,  or  in  the  boxes,  may  come  in  masked 
habits  (if  agreeable  to  them]  ;  and  the  performer,  if  de- 
sired, will  inform  them  Avho  they  are. — Stage,  7s.  6d. 
Boxes,  5s.  Pit,  3s.  Gallery,  2s.  Tickets  to  be  had  at 
the  Theatre  : — To  becfin  at  half  an  hour  after  six  o'clock. 
The  performance  continues  about  two  hours  and  a  half. 

Kofc,  If  an}^  gentlemen  or  ladies  (after  the  above  per- 
formance), either  single  or  in  company,  in  or  out  of  mask, 
is  desirous  of  seeing  a  representation  of  any  deceased  per- 
son, such  as  husband  or  wife,  sister  or  brother,  or  any  in- 
timate friend  of  cither  sex,  upon  making  a  gratuity  to  the 
performer,  shall  be  gratilied  by  seeing  and  conversing 
with  them  for  some  minutes,  as  if  alive  ;  likewise,  if  de- 
sired, he  will  tell  you  your  most  secret  though'ts  in  voiir 
past  life,  and  give  you  a  full  view  of  persons  who  have 
injured  you,  whether  dead  or  alive.     For  those  gentlemen 

c  2  an4 


12  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE 

and  ladies  who  are  desirous  of  seeing  this  last  part,  there 
is  a  private  room  provided. 

These  performances  have-  been  seen  by  most  of  the 
crowned  heads  of  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe,  and  never  ap-- 
peared  public  any  where  but  once  ;  but  Avill  wait  on  any  at 
their  houses,  and  perform  as  above,  for  fiv-e  pounds  each 
time.    A  proper  guard  is  appointed  to  prevent  any  disorder. 

The  following  is  an  account  of  the  performance,  as? 
published  in  one  of  the  ncAvspapers  the  following  day  : — 
January  13. — Last  night  the  much-expected  Drama  of  the 
Bottle-Conjuror  of  the  New  Theatre  in  the  Hay-market, 
ended  in  the  tragic-comical  manner  following.  Curiosity 
had  drawn  together  prodigious  numbers.  About  seven, 
the  Theatre  being  lighted  up,  but  without  so  much  as  a 
-single  fiddle  to  keep  the  audience  in  a  good  humour,  many 
grew  impatient.  Immediately  followed  a  chorus  of  catcalls, 
heightened  by  loud  vociferations  and  beating  with  sticks  •<, 
when  a  fellow  came  from  behind  the  curtain,  and  bowing, 
*aid,  that  if  the  performer  did  not  appear,  the  money  should 
be  returned.  At  the  same  time,  a  wag  crying  out  from  the 
pit,  that  if  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  would  give  double 
prices,  the  Conjuror  would  get  into  a  pint  bottle ;  pre- 
sently ayoung  gentleman  in  one  of  the  boxes  seized  a  lighted- 
candle,  and  threw  it  on  the  stage.  This  served  as  the  charge 
for  sounding  to  battle.  Upon  tliis  the  greatest  part  of  the 
audience  made  tlie  best  of  their  way  out  of  the  Theatre  ^ 
some  losing  a  cloak,  others  a  hat,  others  a  wig,  and  others 
hat,  wig,  and  swords  also.  One  party,  however,  stayed  in 
tlie  House,  in  order  to  denjoUsh  the  inside  ;  when  the  mob 
breaking  in,  they  tore  up  the  benches,  broke  to  pieces  the 
scenes,  pulled  down  the  boxes,  in  short  dismantled  the 
Theatre  entirely,  carrying  away  the  particulars  above  men- 
tioned into  the  street,  where  they  made  a  mighty  bonfire  ; 
tlie  curtain  bcmg  hoisted  on  a  pole  by  way  of  Hag.    A  large, 

party 


FAMOUS   BOTTLE    CONJUROR.  13 

party  of  the  guards  Avere  sent  for,  but  came  time  enough 
only  to  Avarm  themselves  by  the  fire.  We  hear  of  no  other 
disaster  than  a  young  nobleman's  chin  being  hurt,  occa- 
sioned by  his  fall  into  the  pit,  with  part  of  one  of  the  boxes, 
which  he  had  forced  out  with  his  foot.  It  is  thouirht  the 
Conjuror  vanished  away  with  the  money,  &c. 

Another  account  says  ; — January  13, — Last  night  there 
was  a  very  numerous  and  polite  modern  company  of  choice 
spirits  J  to  see  the  extraordinary  performances  of  the  Hay- 
market  Conjuror,  When  the  time  was  elapsed,  according- 
to  his  conjuring  advertisement,  a  great  uproar  was  made  ; 
when  one  of  the  conjuring  tribe  appeared  on  the  stage,  and 
made  a  speech ;  declaring,  among  other  things  of  equal  im- 
portance, that  if  the  gentleman  did  not  appear  in  a  quarter 
of  an  hour,  they  slwuld  hav^  their  money  returned :  but 
to  the  great  surprize  of  the  company,  their  money  was 
<;onjured  away,  without  any  other  performance.  Imme- 
diately a  great  confusion  ensued ;  the  benches  were  torn  up, 
i)onfires  were  made  of  them ;  and  happy  were  they  who 
got  off  safe  with  their  watches,  &c.  It  was  reported,  that 
a  great  General  *  lost  his  sword  in  the  quarrel  ;  cmii  multia 
£iliis.  ^^^^^^^^ 

January  13. — Lost,  last  Monday  night,  at  the  Little 
Play-house  in  the  Hay-market,  a  Sword,  with  a  oold  hilt 
and  cutting  blade,  with  a  crimson  and  gold  sword-knot 
tied  round  the  hilt.  Whoever  brings  it  to  Mrs.  Cheveiiix'3 
Toy  Shop,  over-against  Great  Suffolk-street,  near  Cliariiio-. 
•cross,  shall  receive  30  guineas  reward,  and  no  questions 
asked.  -^^^^^^^^ 

II  Inch  was  antuered  by  the  following  Adverti^emtni  : 

January  18.— Found  entangled  in  the  slit  of  a  Lidv's 
demolished  smock-petticoat,  a  Gold  hiked  Sword,  of  mar- 
tial length  and  temper,  nothing  worse  for  wear,  with  tlie 
spcy  curiously  wrought  on  one  side  of  tl)e  blade,  and  th.e 

(•  The  Duke  of  Cumbe/land  was  there:) 

scheld 


14  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE 

scheld  on  the  other ;  supposed  to  have  been  stolen  fronnf 
the  plump  side  of  a  great  Genei'al,  in  his  precipitate  retreat 
from  the  Battle  of  Bottle  Noodles,  at  Station  Foot.  En- 
quire at  the  Quart  Bottle  and  Musical  Cane,  in  Pottei^'s- 
row. 

N.  B.  Every  word  of  a  certain  late  advertisement  is 
true,  except  all  the  advertisement. 

January  18. — To  the  Public. — As  I  am  accused  of  bein^ 
accessary  to  the  cheat  imposed  upon  the  town,  on  Monday 
night,  in  the  Hay-market,  I  hope  the  Public  will  pardon, 
as  my  reputation  and  interest  are  so  essentially  engaged, 
my  taking  this  method  to  acquit  myself  of  the  least  concern 
in  that  transaction.  Mr.  Potter,  the  Proprietor  of  the 
Play-house,  sent  me  word  last  week,  that  the  Theatre  was 
engaged  for  Monday  night ;  for  what  purpose,  the  Public 
were  informed  in  the  next  day's  Advertiser. 

On  Monday  morning  I  called  upon  Mr.  LeAvis,  who  is 
Attorney  to  Mr.  Potter,  and  has  the  direction  of  the  House 
in  his  absence  ;  I  gave  him  my  opinion,  that  a  fraud  on  the 
Public  was  intended  ;  and  advised  him,  on  no  account,  to 
open  his  doors.  His  answer  was,  that  if  the  man  complied 
with  his  agreement,  the  doors  must  be  opened.  I  then  de- 
sired him  not  to  suffer,  on  any  pretence,  the  man  himself, 
or  any  of  his  confederates,  to  receive  a  shilling ;  but  to 
sppoint  a  treasurer  of  his  own,  who  might,  if  the  audience 
were  either  disappointed  or  displeased,  return  them  their 
money.  This  advice  he  took.  I,  in  confidence  of  his 
promise,  told  a  gentleman  near  me  in  the  Boxes,  who  was 
clamorous  for  his  money,  the  measures  I  had  taken  for  his 
security.  This  is  all  that  I  know  of  the  affair  ;  and  to  Mr. 
Lewis,  I  appeal  for  the  truth  of  it  in  every  circumstance. 
^^^^^^^^  Sam.  Foote. 

January^  19. — To  the  Public. — Whereas  I  read  an  adver- 
tisement in  this  Paper  yesterdav,  signed  Sam.  Foote,  wherein 

h& 


i-AMOUS    BOTTLE    CONJUROft.  15 

he  makes  use  of  Mr.  Lewis's  name  ;  in  answer  to  whieh  I 
think  it  incumbent  on  me  to  declare,  that  Mr.  Lewis  neither 
lett,  or  had  any  concern  whatsoever,  directly  or  indirectly, 
in  letting,  or  advising  about  letting  my  Theatre  on  Mon- 
day last.  w#-^^-#-^^^^  John  Potter. 

January  19. — To  the  Public. — All  the  facts  related  in  Mr. 
Foote's  advertisement  of  yesterday,  are  true,  except  that 
the  conversation  was  with  Mr,  Lewis's  Clerk,  Avho  is  Ne- 
phew to  Mr.  Potter,  and  transacted  the  business  of  the 
Theatre  for  INIr.  Potter ;  and  not  Mr,  Lewis,  as  by  mistake 
■was  inserted.  ^.^-^^^^.^■^  Sam.  Foote, 

From  Mr.  John  Potter,  the  Proprietor  of  the  Ne^i? 
Theatre  in  the  Hay-market. 

As  the  resentment  of  the  town  for  the  disappointment  of 
the  performance  advertised  to  be  exhibited  in  my  Theatre, 
on  Monday  last,  falls  entirely  upon  me,  I  hope  I  may  be 
allow^ed  to  acquaint  the  Public  with  the  nature  of  my  case. 

It  is  never  yet  been  expected,  (nor  I  presume  is  it  rea- 
sonable) that  I  should  answer  for  the  misbehaviour  of  any 
person  that  takes  my  House,  nor  did  I  ever  think  any  thing 
(in  that  respect)  incumbent  on  me,  more  than  to  caution 
the  persons  who  took  it,  against  acting  contrary  to  the 
la\vs  in  being,  and  to  acquaint  them  witli  the  consequences 
thereof;  which  I  have  always  done.  But  in  this  particular 
case,  as  the  performance  proposed  was  so  very  extraor- 
dinary, I  was  under  some  apprehension  of  an  imposition, 
and  therefore  insisted,  tliat  there  should  be  a  person  of  my 
own  appointment  in  the  Office  ;  and  in  case  there  should 
be  no  performance,  or  that  there  should  appear  any  noto- 
rious equivocation  in  it,  that  the  money  should  be  returned ; 
all  which  the  person  readily  consented  to.  And  as  he  paid 
the  rent  of  the  house,  and  must  consequently  be  at  some 
other  necessary  expences  before  the  doors  would  be  opened, 
I  was  thereby  strongly  induced  to  believe,  that  he  intended 
po  real  imposition,  but  that  something  (of  that  kind)  would 

be 


J^  THE    HISTORY    OF    THE 

be  exiiibited  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  spectators.  All  the 
caution  above  mentioned  was  taken,  and  the  money  locked 
up  in  the  Otfice,  guarded  by  persons  of  reputatior*,  who 
would  have  returned  it  ;■  and  publicly  on  the  stage  tdd 
them,  that  if  the  person  did  not  appear,  their  money  should 
be  returned.  But  instead  of  accepting  ef  that  offer,  my 
house  Tras  pulled  down,  the  Office  broke  open,  the  money 
taken  out,  and  the  servants  obliged  to  fiy  to  save  their  lives. 
I  liope,  therefore,  this  may  be  deemed  a  sufficient  justification, 
iu  my  behalf,  and  all  that  could  be  reasonably  expected  of 
me  :  and  that  those  gentlemen  who  are  conscious  of  having 
injured  me,  will  be  so  generous  as  to  make  me  a  reasonable 
satisfaction,  considering  the  damage  I  have  suffered  ;  which, 
which  on  a  moderate  computation,  will  amount  to  upwards 
of  o£'400.  John  Potter. 

Note^  The  person  who  took  the  House,  was  a  man  of 
genteel  appearance,  said  his  name  was  William  NichoUs,. 
and  directed  letters  to  be  left  for  him  at  th^  Bedford  Cof- 
fee-house, Covent-garden. 


Jannar}'  20. — Wl>ereas  a  Letter  signed  S.  M. ;  dated 
the  18t.h  inst.  was  sent  j'csterday  by  the  Penny  Post,  di- 
rected to  Mr.  Potter,  in  the  Hay-market ;  which,  by  the 
contents^  seems  to  come  from  the  person  who  took  Mr. 
Potter's  Theatre  for  Monday  last ;  wherein  he  complains 
of  roucii  ill  usage,  and  insists  that  the  man  can  perform, 
the  things  he  advertised,  and  would  have  performed  them„ 
and  was  actually  in  a  coach  in  order  to  come,  but  was  in- 
timidated by  two  gentlemen  Avho  came  from  tlie  Gun  Ta- 
Tcrn,  vv^ho  told  him  he  would  be  taken  up  if  he  performed  : 
And  in  his  letter  he  threatens,  that  in  case  Mr.  Potter  will 
not  give  him  c£22,  which  he  says  he  was  ©ut  of  pocket, 
that  he  will  apply  to  some  Court  of  Law  or  Equity,  for 
justice  :  He  also  desires  an  answer  in  this  paper. — In  an- 
swer to  which,  S.  M.  is  desired  to  appear  personally,  and 

to 


FAMOUS    BOTTLE    CONJUROR,  17 

to  give  an  account  of  his  name  and  place  of  abode  ;  and  he 
shall  have  such  satisfaction  as  in  justice  he  deserves. 

^^^^^^  John  Potter. 

Jan.  20. — Whereas  the  Public  v;b.s  on  Monday  last  basely 
abused  by  an  impostor,  who  pretended  to  perform  what  was 
impracticable,  at  the  Theatre  in  the  Hay- market;  the  same 
imposition  someevil-minded  villains  imagined  John  Coustos, 
Lapidary,  to  be  the  author  of:  this  is  to  assure  the  Public, 
that  the  said  John  Coustos  had  never  such  design,  nor  ever 
hired,  or  caused  to  be  hired,  the  House  on  any  occasion 
whatever  ;  and  to  caution  those  his  enemies,  who  are  the 
authors  of  this  report,  not  to  assart  a  thing  which  they 
know  to  be  a  gross  falsity  :  And  thei;e  are  those,  who  are 
ready  to  attest  on  oath,  that  he  was  in  their  company  that 
evening,  and  was  at  the  Theatre  as  a  spectator  onlv- 

-^^■^-^-^-^  John  Coustos. 

The  following  Advertisement  tvas  inserted,    assigning  the 
reason  xihy  the  Bottle  Conjuror  did  not  perform. 

"Whereas  various  stories  have  been  told  the  Pubhc,  about 
the  Man  and  the  Bottle,  the  following  account  seems  to  be 
the  best  as  yet  given  of  that  odd  affair  ;  viz.  A  gentleman 
went  to  him  the  same  evening  he  was  to  perform  in  the 
Hay-market,  and  asking  liim  what  he  must  have  to  perform 
to  him  in  private,  he  said  £S,  on  which  they  ao-reed,  and 
tlie  Conjuror  getting  ready  to  go  into  the  bottle,  which 
was  set  on  a  table,  the  gentleman  having  provided  a  parcel 
of  corks,  fitted  one  to  the  bottle  ;  tlien  the  Conjuror  havino- 
darkened  the  room  as  mucli  as  was  necessary,  at  last  with 
much  squeezhig  got  into  the  bottle,  which,  in  a  moment, 
tile  gentleman  corked  up,  and  whipt  into  his  pocket,  and 
in  great  haste  and  seeming  confusion,  went  out  of  tlie 
liouse,  telling  the  servants  who  waited  at  the  door,  that 
their  master  had  bewitched  him,. and  bid  them  go  i-n  and 
t;ike  care  of  him.  Thus,  the  poor  man  being  bit  himself, 
y[\.  being  confined   in  the  botije,    and  in  a   gentleman's 

o  l)ocket. 


1$  THE    HISTORY   OF   THE 

pocket,  could  not  be  in  another  place  ;  for  he  never  adver- 
tised he  would  go  into  two  bottles  at  one  and  the  same 
time.  He  is  still  in  the  gentleman's  custody,  who  uncorks 
him  now  and  then  to  feed  him,  and  to  let  in  some  fresh 
air  to  him  ;  but  his  long  confinement  has  so  dampt  his  spi- 
rits, that  instead  of  singing  and  dancing,  he  is  perpetually 
crying,  and  cursing  his  ill  fate.  But  though  the  town  have 
been  disappointed  of  seeing  him  go  into  tlie  bottle,  in  a 
few  da3-s  they  will  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  him  come 
out  of  the  bottle  ;  of  which  timely  notice  will  be  given  in 
the  daily  papers.  ^^^^^^ 

This  Datf  is  published,  (puce  Sir-pence,  J 

A  Letter  to  the  Town,  concerning  the  Man  and  the 
Bottk. — Printed  for  W.  Reeves,  in  Fleet-street ;  and  A. 
Dodd,  opposite  St.  Clement's  Church  in  the  Strand. 

Thif:  Da;/  ore  published,  {^price  Six-pevce,) 

The  Bottled  Heroes;  or,  Madness  and  Folly  A-la-mode. 

Humbly   inscribed  to  Mr.  H — g — h,    and  Mr.  G k. 

With  a  humorous  Copper-plate  Head-piece.  By  Angli- 
canus,  M.  D.  To  be  had,  by  the  Author's  appointment, 
of  T.  Ewart,  Publisher,  facing  Slaughter's  Coffee-house, 
St.  Martiu's-lane  ;  P.  Griffin,  in  Fleet-street ;  and  all  shops 
in  Town  and  Country. 

Jan.  .30  — This  Day  at  Noon  will  be  published,  fprice  6d.  plain  ;   \s.  coloured,  > 

English  Credulity  ;  or,  Ye're  all  bottled  : — A  humorous 
Print.  Exactly  representing  the  particular  Characters 
that  attended  at  the  Hay-market  Theatre  ;  together  with 
their  different  requests,  according  to  their  several  stations, 
to  converse  with  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Lower  Resions ; 
viz.  the  Soldier,  Engineer,  Parson,  Phjsician,  Fop,  Sailor, 
Fille  de  Joye,  &c.  To  which  is  an?iexed,  a  Poem,  pro- 
pex'ly  adapted  to  the  subject- — Printed  for  B.  Dickinson, 
the  corner  of  the  Bell-Savage  Inn,   Ludgate-hill. 

NotCj  All  the  Bottle  Prints  that  have  been  published, 
arc  l)y  this  Print  out-bottled. 

Jusf- 


FAMOUS    BOTTLE    CONJUROR,  19 

Just  published,    (price  Six-pence,) 

A  IVIodest  Apology  for  the  Man  in  the  Bottle.  By  Him- 
self : — Being  a  full  Answer  to  all  that  ever  was,  or  ever 
will  be  said  on  that  important  occasion.  Containing 
amongst  other  curiosities,  a  particular  account  of  the 
Scheme  ;  some  Sketches  of  a  late  Minister  ;  the  Year  1720, 
with  the  S.  S.  Directors  ;  a  Dialogue  between  Mordecai 
^nd  a  Christian,  on  Foreign  Loans ;  the  Bottloman's  Name, 
what,  and  who  the  greatest  Impostors,  and  why?  the  Blind 
lead  the  Blind  ;  Foreigners  most  encouraged ;  the  Bottle- 
man  not  the  Aggressor  ;  Miracles  proved  ever  since  the 
Revolution,  &c. — Ridentan  dice  e  Verum. — Printed  for 
J.  Freeman,  near  St.  Paul's ;  and  sold  by  the  Booksellers 
in  London  and  Westminster. 


Feb.  8, —  This  Day  at  Noon  tcill  be  published^  f price  Six-pence, J 

An  Apology  to  the  Town,  for  Himself  and  the  Bottle, 

By  J.  Nick-all.     N.  B.  Mr.  P was  mistaken  in  the 

name.  To  which  is  prefixed,  an  exact  Representation  of 
the  Scene  of  Harlequin's  Escape  into  the  Bottle,  intro- 
duced in  the  Pantominc  Entertainment  of  Apollo  and 
Daphne,  or  the  Burgo^Master  tricked  ; — the  Character  of 
Harlequin,  by  Mr.  Phillips. — Printed  for  B.  Dickinson, 
the  corner  of  Bell  Savage  Inn,  Ludgate-hill. 


ftb.  2b— -This  Day  is  published,  f price  ^d.  plain;  Is.  coloured),  a  comical  Print  of 

The  Bottle  Conjuror's  reflecting  Mirror  :  or.  One  Fool 
makes  many,  from  the  Head  to  Foot,  without  Equivoca- 
tion.— Sold  in  May's  Buildings,  Covent  Garden.  Where 
may  be  had,  The  Wheel-barrow  Cries  of  Europe. 

Apollo  and  Daphne  ;  or,  the  Burgo-Master  tricked.     In 

v^hich  will  be   introduced,   an  additional   ScQue   of  the 

Escape  of  Harlequin   into  a  Quart  Bottle. — Boxes,   5s. 

pit,  3s.    First  Gallery,  2s.    Upper  Gallery,  Is.     To  begia 

^xagtly  at  six  o'clock. 

U  ^   -  Apollo 


20  THE    HISTORY   OF    THE 

Apollo  and  Daphne  ;  or,  the  Burgo-Master  tricked,  Tn 
V'hich  M'ill  be  introduced  the  Escape  of  Harlequin  into  a 
Quart  Bottle.  Also  Don  Jumpedo  (though  not  the  origi- 
nal) will  jump  DOWN  his  own  throat ;  and  (as  a  new  ad- 
dition) afterwards  jump  up  again  I — Boxes,  5s.  Pit,  3s. 
First  Galler}-,  2s.  Upper  Galler}'-,  Is. — Tickets  delivered 
out  for  this  night  will  be  taken.  Places  for  the  Boxes  to 
be  taken  of  Mr.  Page,  at  the  Stage  Door. — To-morrow 
will  be  presented,  the  Careless  Husband ;  for  the  Benefit 
of  Mr.  Leveridge.  w#-^-*-^-r-^ 

Lately  arrived  from  Italy^ 

Sig.  Capitello  Jumpedo,  a  surprising  Dwarf,  no 
taller  than  a  comvion  Tavern  Tobacco  Pipe;  who  can  per- 
form many  wonderful  Equilibres  on  the  Slack  or  Tight 
Rope  :  likewise  he  Mill  transform  his  Body  in  above  ten 
thousand  different  Shapes  and  Postures  ;  and  after  he  has 
diverted  the  spectators  two  hours  and  a  half,  he  M'ill  open 
his  Mouth  ■uu'de,  and  Jump  doxim  his  oxen  Throat !  He  being 
the  most  wonderfullest  wonder  of  wonders,  as  ever  the 
world  wondered  at,  would  be  willing  to  join  in  perform- 
ance with  that  surprising  Musician,  on  Monday  next,  in 
the  Hay-i^arket.  He  is  to  be  spoke  with  at  the  Black 
Raven  in  Golden-lane,  every  day  from  seven  till  twelve, 
and  from  two  to  all  day  long. 

Latehi  arrived  fi am  Et/'iopia, 

The  most  wonderful  and  surprising  Doctor  Benimbe 
Zammampoango,  Oculist  and  Body  Surgeon  to  the  Em- 
peror of  jMoncemungi,  who  will  perform  on  Sunday  next, 
at  the  Little  P in  the  Hay-market,  the  following  sur- 
prising operations  ;  viz.  1st,  He  desires  any  one  of  the 
spectators  only  to  pull  out  his  own  eyes,  Avhich  as  soon  as 
he  has  done,  the  Doctor  will  shew  them  to  any  lady  or 
<Tentleman  then  present,  to  convince  them  there  is  no  cheat, 
and  then  replace  them  in  the  sockets  as  perfect  and  entire 
as  ever.     2dly,  He  desires  any  officer  or  other,  to  rip  up 

b.is 


FAMOUS    BOTTLE    CONJUROR.  2J, 

Kis  own  belly,  which  when  he  has  done,  he  (without  any 
equivocation)  takes  out  his  bowels,  Avashes  them,  and  re- 
turns them  to  their  place,  Avithout  the  person's  suffering  the 
least  hurt.  3dly,  He  opens  the  head  of  a  J —  of  P — ,  takes 
out  his  Brains,  and  exchanges  them  for  those  of  a  Calf;  the 
Brains  of  a  Beau,  for  those  of  an  Ass  ;  and  the  Heart  of  a 
Bully,  for  those  of  a  Sheep  ;  which  operations  render  the 
Persons  more  sociable  and  rational  Creatures,  than  they 
ever  were  in  their  lives.  And  to  convince  the  town  that 
no  imposition  is  intended,  he  desires  no  money  until  the 
performance  is  over.  Boxes,  5  guin.  Pit,  3.  Gallery,  2. 
N.  B.  The  famous  Oculist  will  be  there,  and  honest 
5 —  F —  H —  will  come  if  he  can.  Ladies  may  come 
masked,  so  may  Fribbles.  The  Faculty  and  Clergy  gratis. 
The  Orator  would  be  there,  but  is  engaged. 


January  27,  1748 — 9. — Don  John  de  Nasaquitine, 
sworn  Brother  and  Companion  to  the  INIan  that  was  to  have 
jumped  into  the  Bottle  at  the  Little  Theatre  in  the  Hay- 
market,  on  Monday  the  IGth  past ;  hereby  invites  all  such 
as  were  then  disappointed,  to  repair  to  the  Theatre  afore- 
said, on  Monday  the  30th ;  and  that  sliall  be  exhibited  unto 
them,  Avhich  never  was  heretofore,  nor  ever  will  be  here- 
after seen.  All  such  as  shall  swear  upon  the  Book  of  Wis- 
dom, that  they  paid  for  seeing  the  Bottle-Mau,  will  be  ad-, 
mitted  gratis  ;  the  rest  at  Gotham  prices. 


This  is  to  inform  the  Public, 

That  notwithstanding  the  great  abuse  that  has  been  put 
upon  the  Gentry,  tiiere  is  now  in  Town  a  Man,  who, 
instead  of  creeping  into  a  Quart  or  Pint  Bottle,  will  change 
himself  into  a  Rattle  ;  which  he  hopes  -will  please  ijoth 
young  and  old.  If  tiiis  Person  meets  witli  Encouragement 
to  this  Advertisement,  he  will  then  acquaint  the  Gentry 
^vherc  and  when  he  performs. 

But 


22  SKELETON    OF    THE    MAMMOTH. 

But  not\\ithstaiKling  all  this  exercise  of  wit  and  humour 
upon  the  credulity  of  the  times,  it  seems,  a  Foreigner  stili 
thought  there  was  some  room  left  for  a  further  trial ;  he 
therefore  published  tlie  following  advertisement  very  soon 
after,  and  which  we  insert,  that  nothincf  mi^ht  be  wanting: 
to  shew  the  extent  of  some  people's  efforts,  then  to  avail 
themselves  of  the  general  disposition  of  the  day. 

To- l)c  xecn,  at  Mr.LEAOER's,  the  Old  JTorse-slioCy  in  Wood-street yCfieapside,  from 
Nhic  (ill  Twelve,  and  from  Four  to  Seven  o''Clock,  lately  brought  from  France, 

A  full-grown  Mouse  alive,  confined  in  a  small  two-ounce 
Fhial,  the  neck  of  which  is  not  a  quarter  of  an  inch  dia- 
meter. This  amazing  Creature  hath  lived  in  the  Phial  three 
Years  and  a  half  without  drink,  or  any  sustenanee,  but 
bread  only.  It  cleans  out  its  little  habitation,  and  hatb 
xyany  other  pretty  actions,  as  surprising  as  agreeable;  but 
particularly  creates  wonderful  diversion  Avith  a  Fly,  and  is 
allowed  to  be  an  extraordinary  curiosit}^  never  before  seen 
in  England  ;  at  the  expence  of  6d.  each  Person. 

Note,  Gentlemen  or  Ladies  who  don't  chuse  to  come,  it 
sliail  be  carried  to  them,  by  sending  a  line  to  Mr.  Leader, 


A  Skeleton   of    the  Mammoth,  found  in   Essex^ 
October  1803. 

jjY  tlic  falling  down  of  a  piece  of  the  cliff,  on  Walton 
shore,  near  Harwich,  the  skeleton  of  an  enormous  animal 
was  discovered,  measuring  nearly  30  feet  in  length. — Some 
of  the  bones  were  nearlj-  as  large  as  a  man's  body,  and  six 
or  seven  feet  long  ;  the  cavities  which  contained  the  mar- 
row^ were  large  enough  to  admit  the  introduction  of  a 
man's  arm  \  the  bones,  on  being  handled,  broke  to  pieces. 
One  of  the  molar  teeth  was  carried  to  Colchester,  by  Mr. 
W.  Jackson,  who  took  it  from  the  spot,  in  whose  posses- 
sion it  now  is  ;  it  weighs  seven  poinids,  is  of  a  square 
form,  and  grinding  surface  is  studded  tvith  several  zig-zag 
vows  of  lamina',  wliich  seems  to  denote  that  it  belonged  to. 

a  car* 


DREADFUL    INUNDATION    AT    MADEIRA.  2i 

s  carnivorous  animal, — There  were  more  teeth,  which  were 
unfortunately  hroken,  one  of  which  weighed  twelve  pounds. 
It  is  probable  that  the  tusks  will  be  found,  by  searching 
further  into  the  cliff,  or  amongst  the  earth  which  has  fallen 
down.  The  above  skeleton  is  supposed  to  belong  to  an 
animal  of  the  same  species  as  that  called,  the  Manmioth  ; 
the  remains  of  which  liave  been  found  in  North  x'Vmerica, 
Great  Tartary,  &c,         -*-^^-#~^^ 

DREADFUL    INUNDATION    AT    MADEIRA, 

31adciiuy  \3tk  OcL 

1  HE  weather  had  continued  fine  with  us  till  the  end  of 
September.  The  wind  then  changed  to  the  Southward  and 
^V'estward,  attended  with  much  rain.  On  the  2d  October, 
the  major  part  of  the  vessels  were  obliged  to  put  to  sea. 
The  weatlier  continued  bad,  with  occasionally  fair  intervals, 
till  the  9th.  On  the  morning  of  that  day  I  took  a  walk  up  to 
a  place  in  the  neighbourlwod,  and  returned  about  eleven 
o'clock. — Up  to  that  hour,  scarce  any  rain  had  fallen  ;  but 
it  then  came  on  violently,  and  rained  incessantly  for  the 
remainder  of  the  day.  While  it  was  light,  no  accident 
happened  ;  but,  in  the  course  of  the  niglit,  the  rivers 
swelled  prodigiously,  overwhelming  in  their  progress  a 
considerable  part  of  the  town. 

Tiie  river  of  St.  John's,  after  destroying  every  thinw  in 
its  course,  carried  SLway  the  upper  bridge  at  St.  Paul's,  and 
rose  to  such  a  height,  as  to  throw  down  the  Cypress  tree  at 
the  church,  carrying  away  the  travendas  as  far  up  as  Capm, 
Memuel  Henriquez's  house  on  the  ascent  from  the  bridoe. 
Luckily  the  bridge  attlie  Beco  das  Arenhas  escaped. — 
About  thirty  persons  are  supposed  to  have  lost  their  Jives 
by  the  overflowing  of  this  river,  Avhich  carried  out  such  an 
immense  quantity  of  stones  to  sea,  as  to  forU)  a  sta-t  of  bay 
for  boats  to  the  Westward  of  the  Trantcs,  and  siieltercd 
from  the  wind  in  that  direction.  A  reniarkubJe  circumstance 
kippened  on  this  river.     In  Hying  from  oiie  of  the  fallin"- 

liouses. 


24f  DREADFUL    INUNDATION   AT   MADEIRA* 

houses,  a  maid-servant  dropped  an  infant  from  her  arms, 
■vvhich  ^^•as  supposed  to  have  perished.  Next  day,  however, 
it  was  found  unhurt,  on  a  dry  piece  of  ground,  along  with 
a  lap-dog  belonging  to  the  same  family.  The  dog  was  close 
by  tlie  child,  and  it  is  imagined  that  the  child  was  kept 
alive  by  the  waraith  of  the  aninmrs  body.  The  river  of  St. 
Lucia,  or  the  Praca,  came  doM  n  with  the  utmost  violence. 
At  a  small  quinta,  or  country-house,  near  the  Dean's,  Mad. 
Lucia  Vulpa  and  eight  persons  were  drowned  ;  the  current 
of  the  river  proceeded  with  the  utmost  impetuosity,  fortu- 
nately, however,  leaving  the  buildings  standing  at  Pombal 
and  Porto  Nova,  The  Valle  Verde,  the  bridge  at  the 
Recedas  Fe^rieres,  were  swept  away  Avith  the  greatest  vio- 
lence: From  thence  it  rolled  with  increased  impetuosityj 
sweeping  av.ay  in  its  course  the  whole  of  the  streets. 
Tinocnos  Piquina,  the  back  part  of  the  houses  on  the  West- 
side  of  the  Rua  Directa  Avere  destroyed,  and  the  stream, 
after  carrying  away  the  Ponte  da  Piaca,  a  great  part  of 
Mr.  Cock's,  and  sevei'al  other  adjacent  houses,  dis- 
embogued itself  into  the  sea  by  its  old  channel. 

A  new  channel  was  formed  close  by  Mr.  James  Gordon's 
house  at  the  Piaca.  The  number  of  persons  who  perished 
here  cannot  be  accurately  ascertained.  Among  the  persons 
of  most  note,  were  the  family  of  Jere  Ignacio  de  Sorias, 
consisting  of  eighteen  persons,  of  whom  only  one  Avas  saved. 
Rilta,  Fostei''s  relation,  Avho,  a  short  time  ago,  had  been 
married  to  his  son,  also  perished.  Her  body  Avas  afterwards 
found  at  the  Varadoveres,  buried  amidst  the  boats,  with  all 
her  trinkets  and  other  valuable  articles  in  her  pockets. 
The  Morgyda  de  Palhas's  daughter  also  fell  a  victim,  and 
many  other  individuals.  A  boat  laden  Avith  Avine  from 
Machito,  Avith  ten  men  on  board,  anchored  off  the  Piaca, 
and  Avas  never  seen  after  dark.  It  Avas  of  course  destroyed 
with  the  crew  and  cargo. 

The  river  of  Joao  Gemes  distended  with,  if  possible,  still 


DREADFUL    INUNDATION    AT    MADEIRA.  25 

greater  violence,  carrying  with  it  stones  of  an  immense 
size.  A  little  way  above  the  bridge,  near  the  Roxenha,  it 
broke  through  the  town-wall  on  the  right,  carrying  with  it 
every  thing  till  it  joined  the  main  branch  ;  which  keeping 
to  the  left,  swelled  to  such  a  degree,  as  to  level  the  parapets 
of  the  bridge  and  the  sides  of  the  road  several  feet  above  it, 
in  the  direction  of  Manoel  de  Santeago's  house,  though  the 
arch  of  the  bridge  did  not  give  way.  It  then  carried  away 
almost  the  whole  of  the  street  Des  Panguinos,  not  long  since 
built ;  the  wall  keeping  off  the  Avater  almost  the  whole  length 
of  the  Hospital  Velpo,  and  from  the  Church  of  Nra.  Sacra 
Calhor,  except  the  Tower,  and  Perlro  Mendanca's  new 
granaries  and  stores.  The  bridge  afterwards  giving  way,  a 
house  built  by  him  some  years  since,  and  occupied  by  Mr. 
Tatlock's  family,  was  overwhelmed,  and  every  one  of  the 
family  perished.  A  part  of  the  fort  and  all  the  adjoining 
small  houses  were  either  carried  away  or  greatly  damaged. 
The  Rebecccnho  swelled  prodigiously,  and  joining  the 
former  river,  contributed  to  increase  the  mischief,  though 
its  bridge  stood.  The  bridge  over  the  river  Gencalo  A3'res 
was  partly  destroyed,  and  rendered  impassable.  The  vil- 
lages of  Santa  Cruz  and  Machico  were  more  than  half  swept 
away.  At  the  former,  three  or  four,  and  at  the  latter, 
23  persons  perished.  Cristeras  de  Embdos's  house  was 
carried  away.  Other  accidents  of  the  same  kind  hap- 
pened in  other  quarters  ;  and  though  it  is  impossible  to 
form  an  accurate  estimate,  I  think  I  may  safely  say,  that 
two  hundred  persons  at  least  have  lost  their  lives  in  the 
island. 

The  British  that  perished,  are  Mr.  and  Miss  Tatlock, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morris  and  child,  and  Mr.  Richard  Sealy. 
The  effects  of  this  disaster  were  extended  to  the  North-East 
parts  of  the  island,  but  to  the  Westward,  they  were  not 
much  felt  beyond  Magdalcna.  Betwixt  that  place  and  Funchal 
M)e  rivers  did  much  damage,  but  only  nine  persons  were 

Ji  drowned. 


26      A   SINGULAR   DISPOSITION    FOR    BLEEDING,    &C. 

droM'ned.  The  Friarj-  at  Series  de  Decs  was  carried  away, 
but  the  Church  stood.  It  will  require  many  years,  and  all 
the  attention  of  our  Government,  to  repair  so  dreadful  a 

calamity. Another     aocount    from    Funchal,    in    the  ^ 

island  of  Madeira,  dated  October  15th,  says; — "  By 
eight  o'clock  in  the  evening,  the  three  rivers  which 
pass  through  the  city,  had  increased  far  beyond  what  was 
ever  known,  and  made  a  most  tremendous  noise,  with  vast 
stones  continually  collecting,  and  coming  down  rapidlj' 
with  them.  Four  of  the  bridges  out  of  seven  in  the  town, 
gave  May  nearly  at  the  same  time  with  a  dreadful  crash. 
A  Church,  with  whole  streets  and  rows  of  houses,  exclusive- 
ly of  many  detached  buildings,  were  almost  instantaneously 
swept  away  or  laid  in  ruins,  with  whole  families,  and  all 
their  propert}'  and  effects.  The  destruction  has  been  dread- 
ful, and  the  loss  of  lives  estimated  at  500  in  the  town  and 
its  vicinity.  It  appears  by  the  accounts  from  the  different 
parts  of  the  island,  that  this  calamity  has  been  general,  and 
about  the  same  time,  though  the  extent  of  the  damao-e  is 
not  yet  correctly  ascertained." 

A  SINGULAR  Disposition  for  Bleeding,    inherent  in 
several  Families. 

[Related  by  Dr.  Otto,  of  Philadelphia.] 

J_)r.  Rush,  says  this  author,  has  informed  me,  he  has 
been  consulted  twice  in  the  course  of  his  practice  upon 
this  disease.  The  first  time  by  a  family  in  York,  and  the 
second  by  one  in  Nortiiamptonshire,  in  this  State.  He 
likewise  favoured  me  with  the  following  account,  which  he 
received  some  years  since,  from  Mr.  Boardley,  of  a  famiU' 
in  Maryland,  afilicted  with  this  singular  disease.. 

"  A.  B.  of  the  State  of  Maryland,  has  had  six  children, 
four  of  whom  have  died  of  a  loss  of  blood  from  the  most 
trifling  scratches  or  bruises.  A  small  pebble  fell  en  the 
nail  of  a  fore-finger  of  tlie  lust  of  them,  when  at  play^ 

beino; 


AN    INSTANCE    OF    FEMALE    FORTITUDE.  27 

being  a  year  or  two  old.  In  a  short  time  the  blood  issued 
from  the  end  of  the  finger,  until  he  bled  to  death.  The 
physicians  could  not  stop  the  bleeding,  two  of  the  brothers, 
still  living,  are  going  the  same  way,  they  bleed  copiously 
upon  the  slightest  scratch  ;  and  the  father  looks  every  day 
for  an  accident  that  will  destroy  them.  Their  surviving 
sister  shews  not  the  least  disposition  to  that  threatening 
disorder,  although  scratched-  and  wounded.  The  father 
gave  me  this  account  two  days  since  ;  but  I  was  not  in- 
quisitive enough  for  particulars." 


Extraordinary  Instance  of  Female  Fortitude. 

1  HE  followino^  interestinjy  account  of  Mons.  and  Mad.  O, 
is  taken  from  Mr.  Carr's  Stranger  in  France  ;  or  a  Tour 
from  Devonshire  to  Paris  : — 

*'  M.  O.  spoke  of  his  lady  with  all  the  tender  eulogium 
of  a  young  lover.  Their  union  Avas  entirely  from  attach- 
ment, and  had  been  resisted  on  the  part  of  Madame  O. 
when  he  first  addressed  her,  only  because  her  fortune  was 
humble,  compared  with  his.  He  informed  me,  and  I  must 
not  suppress  the  story,  that  in  the  time  of  blood,  this  amiable 
woman,  who  is  remarkable  for  the  delicacy  of  her  mind, 
and  for  the  beauty  and  majest}^  of  her  person,  displayed 
a  degree  of  coolness  and  courage,  which,  in  the  field  of 
battle,  would  have  covered  tlie  hero  with  laurels.  One 
wening,  a  short  period  before  the  family  left  France,  a 
party  of  those  mmxlerers,  who  were  sent  for  by  Robe- 
spierre, from  the  frontiers  whicli  divide  France  from  Italy, 
and  who  were  by  that  arch-fiend  employed  in  all  the 
butcheries  and  massacres  of  Paris,  entered  the  peaceful  vil- 
lage of  la  Reinc,  in  search  of  Mons.  O.  His  lady  saw  them 
advancing,  and  anticipating  their  errand,  had  just  time  to 
give  her  husband  intelligence  of  their  approach,  who  left 
his  cliatcau  by  a  back  door,  and  secreted  himself  m   the 

E  2  house 


28  AN    INSTANCE    OF    FEMALE    FORTITUDE. 

house  of  a  neighbour.  Madame  O.  with  perfect  compo- 
sure, went  out  to  meet  them,  and  received  them  in  the 
most  gracious  manner.  They  sternly  demanded  Mons.  O, 
She  informed  them  that  he  had  left  the  country ;  and  after 
enoaoinor  them  in  conversation,  she  conducted  them  into 
her  drawino-room,  and  regaled  them  with  her  best  wines, 
and  made  her  servants  attend  upon  them  with  unusual  de- 
ference and  ceremony.  Their  appearance  was  altogether 
horrible  ;  they  wore  leather  aprons,  Avhich  were  sprinkled 
all  over  with  blood,  they  had  large  horse-pistols  in  their 
belts,  and  a  dirk  and  sabre  by  their  sides.  Their  looks  were 
full  of  ferocit}',  and  they  spoke  a  harsh  dissonant,  patois,  or 
country  language.  Over  their  cups  they  talked  about  the 
bloody  business  of  that  day's  occupation  ;  in  the  course  of 
which  they  drew  out  their  dirks,  and  wiped  from  their 
handles  clots  of  blood  and  hair.  Madame  O.  sat  with 
them,  undismayed  by  their  frightful  deportment.  After 
drinking  several  bottles  of  Champaign  and  Burgundy,  these 
savages  began  to  grow  good-humoured,  and  seemed  to 
be  completely  fascinated  by  the  amiable,  unembarrassed, 
and  hospitable  behaviour  of  their  fair  landlady.  After 
carousing  till  midnight,  they  pressed  her  to  retire,  observing, 
that  they  had  been  received  so  handsomely,  that  they  were 
convinced  Mons.  O.  had  been  misrepresented,  and  was  no 
enemy  to  the  good  cause  ;  they  added,  that  they  found  the 
wines  excellent,  and  after  drinking  two  or  three  bottles 
more,  they  would  leave  the  house,  without  causing  her 
any  reason  to  regret  their  admission.  Madame  O.  with  all 
the  appearance  of  perfect  tranquillity  and  confidence  in 
their  promises,  wished  her  unwelcome  visitors  a  good  night ; 
and  after  visiting  her  children  in  their  rooms,  she  threw  her- 
self upon  her  bed,  with  a  loaded  pistol  in  each  hand,  and 
overwhelmed  with  suppressed  agony  and  agitation,  she 
soundly  slept  till  she  was  called  by  her  servants,  two  hours 
after  the  wretches  were  gone. 

SINGULAR 


(      29     ) 

SINGULAR    INSTANCE    OF    INSANITY. 

In  the  village  of  Bedlington,  near  Morpeth,  in  Nor- 
thumberland, a  very  extraordinary  instance  of  insanity, 
well  worth  the  attention  of  the  medical  philosopher, 
has  lately  occurred.  The  father  of  the  young  man  who 
is  insane,  having  some  time  ago  experienced  considerable 
pecuniary  difficulties,  became  at  length  so  reduced  in 
his  circumstances,  that  he  was  obliged  to  work  as  a 
day-labourer.  His  eldest  son  was  so  much  affected  by 
this  alteration  in  his  father's  affairs,  that  he  grew  gradually 
melancholy,  and  at  length  entirely  desisted  from  speaking 
or  moving  his  eyes,  hands,  or  legs.  He  is  put  to  bed 
at  night,  and  fed  like  a  child  during  the  day,  without 
the  least  apparent  feeling  of  pain  or  pleasure.  When  he 
awakes,  he  walks  to  the  centre  of  the  room,  where  he 
stands  all  day  long  immoveable,  directing  his  eyes  con- 
stantly to  the  fire;  and  amidst  all  the  work  and  bustle 
which  may  be  going  forward  in  the  house  around  him,  he 
is  still  the  same.  The  position  he  stands  in,  is  with  his 
hands  linked  in  each  other,  and  with  a  downcast  melancholy 
look  ;  and  if  he  is  forcibly  moved  from  that  position,  he 
resumes  it  the  first  opportunity. 

A    REMARKABLE    THUNDER    STORM, 

Occurred  at  Batheaston,  in  Somersetshire,  on  the  2 1st 
Nov.  1 803  ;  when  the  Rev.  Mr.  Webber  and  his  spouse, 
sitting  in  their  parlour,  a  hail-storm  came  on,  attended  with 
lightning,  and  instantly  burst  open  the  Avindow  shutters. — 
The  window  was  shattered  to  pieces,  and  two  pieces  of 
slate-stone  were  driven  into  the  apartment.  It  appears  iJjat 
the  house  was  struck  in  three  directions,  East,  West,  and 
South.  It  Avas  totally  stripped  of  the  thatch,  some  of 
which,  by  the  violence  of  the  wind,  was  carried  to  a  great 
distance.     Twelve,  out  of  fifteen  windows,  were  literally 

shivered 


30  UNCOMMON    STRENGTH. 

shivered  to  atoms,  and  the  lead  of  one  of  the  chamber  win«* 
dows  melted.  The  roof  of  a  barn,  a  stable,  and  several 
out-houses,  Avere  blown  in  ;  and  the  roof  of  the  church 
slightly  struck.  Many  trees  torn  up  by  the  roots,  and  one 
apple  tree  carried  away  24  feet  ftom  where  it  stood.  The 
lightning  continued  very  vivid,  and  with  very  little  inter- 
mission the  W'hole  niglit.  As  a  circumstance  singularly 
coincident  with  the  above,  on  tlie  27th  of  the  same  month 
of  November,  in  1723,  there  was  a  similar  storm  in  that 
neighbourhood  ;  when  Bishop  Kidder  and  his  lady  were 
killed  in  the  Palace  of  Wells,  by  the  falling  in  of  one  of  the 
chimnies,   which  buried  them  both  in  the  ruins. 


UNCOMMON    STRENGTH. 

C-oUNf  Orlow,  the  Russian  Minister,  so  famous  under 
the  late  Empress  Catherine,  vras  at  Rome  some  years 
since,  when  he  was  much  at  the  house  of  the  Marchioness 
Gentili  Bocca  Padidi;  where  being  one  day  disposed  to 
exhibit  some  of  his  performances  in  this  way,  he  took  up 
several  pieces  of  chrystals,  iron,  and  other  hard  substances, 
which  he  broke  between  his  fingers  with  the  utmost  facility. 
He  afterwards  placed  an  apple  between  two  fingers  only, 
and  compressing  them,  the  apple  bursting  immediately, 
Hew  about  the  apartment  in  all  directions.  Another  time, 
he  made  the  experiment  before  the  Duke  of  Glouces-ter, 
brother  to  his  Majesty  ;  and  though  one  of  the  fragment*) 
Hew  very  forcibly  in  his  Highness's  face,  and  the  com- 
pany, in  general,  testified  their  regret  at  the  circumstance. 
Prince  Orlow,  it  was  remarked,  whose  manners  were 
nearly  as  brutal  as  his  strength,  never  attempted  the  least 
apology  ;  and  the  relator  remarks,  that  the  scoundrel  who 
liad  strangled  his  own  Sovereign,  the  unfortunate  Emperor, 
Peter,  cou'd  not  be  supposed  to  entertain  much  respect 
for  the  brother  of  a  King  ! 

LONGEVITY, 


(     31      ) 

LONGEVITY. 

Perhaps  no  Presbytery  in  the  Church  of  Scothnd,  nor- 
?ny  Society  consisting  pf  only  29  Members,  can  produc<} 
so  many  instances  of  Longevity,  as  are  at  present  to  be 
found  among  the  Members  of  thfc  Presbytery  of  Ayr, — - 
Each  of  the  five  senior  Ministers  of  the  Presbytery,  have 
enjoyed  a  Benefice  within  its  bounds  more  than  half  a  cen- 
tury. The  dates  of  their  respective  ordinations,  as  entered 
on  the  Presbytery  records,  are  the  following  : — Rev.  John 
Steele,  Stair,  14th  Aug.*  1755,  above  68  years  ;  Rev.  Dr, 
William  Dalrymple,  Ayr,  18th  Dec.  1746,  nearly  57  years; 
Rev.  Dr.  David  Shaw,  Coylton,  29th  June,  1749,  above 
54  3^ears*;  Rev.  Dr.  Andrew  Mitchell,  Monkton,  11th 
July,  1751,  above  52  years;  and  the  Rev.  Matthew  Big- 
gar,  Kirkoswald,  5th  October,  1752,  above  51  years: — 
In  all  282  years. 

The  joipt  ages  of  these  gentlemen  amoimt  to  419  years. 
The  advanced  age  to  A\hich  they  have  attained,  affords  a 
striking  proof  how  much  temperance  and  regularity  con- 
tribute to  prolong  the  period  of  human  existence.  Mr, 
Steele  is  the  father  not  only  of  the  Presbytery  of  Ayr,  but 
pf  the  Church  of  Scotland. 


A    SINGULAR    CHARACTER. 

iVlR.  George  Crank,  of  Shrewsbury,  died  there  last 
week,  (Dec.  19,  1803,)  aged  91  years.  He  was  formerly 
a  Clothworker,  and  very  abstemious,  eating  very  little  ani- 
mal food,  and  drinking  nothing  but  water  and  milk  from 
his  earliest  years.  He  had  some  innocent  peculiarities ; 
one  of  which  was,  that  he  never  wore  a  hut,  but  when  he 
■was  going  to  church,  where  he  was  a  regular  and  devout 
attendant,  be  the  weather  how  it  might.  He  was  constantly 
present  in  Court  during  the  Assizes,  and  before  the  Mayor 
and  sitting  Justices  in  the  Exchequer ;  from  whence  the 

public 


32  AN  INSTANCE   OF  TEMERITY  IN   A  CHILD. 

public  entertained  such  an  estimation  of  his  opinion,  that  it 
was  always  received  with  great  attention  and  respect.  He 
was  also  a  constant  attendant  upon  the  new  buildings  in 
Shrewsbiu-v^  erected  during  the  last  half  century.  He  died 
iiniversallj'  respected. 

ASTONISHING  INSTANCE   OF  TEMERITY  IN  A  CHILD, 

A  WELL-DRESSED  little  girl,  about  11  years  of  age,  was 
taken  before  the  Lord  Mayor,  on  Monday,  Dec.  5,  beir^ 
apprehended  on  Saturday  evening,  about  nine  o'clock, 
riding  up  and  down  the  streets  on  horseback,  without  any 
saddle  or  bridle,  only  a  rope  round  the  horse's  head. 

The  constable  said  sbe  would  give  no  account  of  herself, 
nor  who  the  horse  belonged  to  ;  that  they  took  her  to  the 
Poultry  Compter,  and  sent  the  horse  to  the  Green- Yard  ; 
that  she  then  told  them  different  directions  where  her  parents 
Jived,  all  of  which  they  found  to  be  false;  and  she  still  per- 
sisting to  deceive  them,  the  keeper  uf  the  Compter  thought 
the  only  way  to  find  out  who  she  was,  was.  to  let  her  go 
out  the  next  morning,  and  send  a  person  to  follow  her  : 
but  she  having  observed  the  person,  led  him  a  dance  of, 
five  or  six  miles  ;  at  last  she  v'ent  to  her  father's  house  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Grosvenor-square.  At  the  solicitation 
of  lier  mother  she  was  left,  on  promising  to  bring  her  to 
his  Lordship  next  day.  The  mother  of  this  child  appeared 
with  her  ;  she  had  a  brass  collar  round  her  neck,  with  a 
padlock  like  a  dog.  The  mother  told  the  Lord  Mayor,  this 
little  girl  had  run  away  so  often,  and  played  such  tricks, 
that  they  were  under  the  necessity  to  keep  a  collar  round 
her  neck,  with  her  name  and  place  of  abode  ;  that  on  Satur- 
day they  Avere  persuaded  to  take  off  her  collar,  when  she 
ran  away  about  two  o'clock,  and  they  knew  not  where  she 
went ;  that  they  had  tried  to  get  her  into  the  Philanthropic 
Society,  but  could  not. 

The 


JEMMY  TAYLOR;  THE  SOUTHWARK  MISER.  33 

The  Lord  Maj'^or  asked  the  girl  where  she  got  the  horse  ; 
she  said  she  found  it  in  Holborn,  about  five  o'clock,  but  did 
not  know  to  whom  it  belonged.  She  refused  to  answer 
questions,  but  did  not  complain  of  any  bad  usage  in  her 
parents.  She  was  threatened  to  be  sent  to  Bridewell 
and  flogged,  or  kept  in  the  Compter  for  some  days, 
when  she  cried,  but  at  last  the  Lord  Mayor  told  her  he 
would  suffer  her  to  go  home  with  her  mother,  if  she  would 
promise  to  behave  better ;  with  which  she  was  so  well 
pleased  that  she  fell  upon  her  knees,  and  attempted  to  kiss 
his  Lordship  for  gratitude.  The  mother  was  asked  if  she 
thought  this  child  was  not  sometimes  deranged.  This,  she 
said,  she  was  not  sensible  of;  a  doctor  had  examined  her, 
but  he  could  not  find  out  that  slie  Avas  insane. 


JEMMY    TAYLOR;     THE    SOUTHWARK    MISER. 

1  HIS  character,  whose  penurious  peculiarities  attracted 
so  much  notice  till  1793,  when  he  died,  was  a  native  of 
Leicestershire  ;  originally  a  weaver. — He  afterwards  be- 
came a  stock-broker,  in  which  pursuit  he  is  known  to  have 
accumulated  o£'200,000. — He,  however,  fared  worse  than 
the  meanest  mechanic.  His  raiment  was  ragged,  his  food 
indifferent  and  scanty,  and  his  bed  hard  ;  for  he  lay  upon 
nothinc:  but  raG:s  and  straw  on  the  bare  Hoor,  and  in  a 
house  which  was  hardly  habitable.  Gold  was  all  his  de- 
sire. His  constant  prayers  were,  Oh!  Mammon,  grant  me 
more  money  !  Two  bankers  clerks  once  called  upon 
Jemmy,  at  his  earnest  invitation,  to  tzke.  pot-lack  with  him : 
they  found  the  old  boy  boiling  a  solitary  mutton  chop,  in 
an  ocean  of  water,  to  make,  what  he  called,  some  iwiifort- 
ablc  broth,  for  himself,  and  for  his  old  friend,  Mr.  Daniel 
Dancer,  whom  he  hourly  expected.  After  some  compli- 
mentary solicitations,  they  prevailed  upon  him  to  fetch  a 
pot  of  porter  ;  and  while  he  was  gone,  they  threw  three 
halfpenny  candles  and  two  pieces  into  his  cookery ;  which, 
no  doubt,  ameliorated  the  culinary  moss,  and  made  it  more 
Vol.  IL  F  delectable 


34  JEMMY  TAYLOR  ;  THE  SOUTHWARK  MISER. 

delectable  to  these  old  hunks,  who,  from  the  sequel,  de- 
voured it  with  keen  appetites.  But  the  next  time  Jemmy 
Taylor  met  them  upon  the  'Change,  he  accused  them  of 
theft  and  robbery,  in  stealing  his  candles.  But  of  this 
they  cleared  themselves,  by  solemnly  declaring,  they  had 
only  committed  them  to  the  pot,  at  the  bottom  of  which  he 
would  find  the  wicks,  if  his  hunger  had  not  swallowed 
them.  Old  Mapps,  the  itinerant  quill  and  pen  merchant, 
of  Stepney  Green,  shared  also  in  the  friendship  of  these 
saving  wights,  who  were  not  a  little  edified  with  each 
other's  experience  and  refinements  in  the  art  of  living 
cheap.  Jemmy  Taylor  always  appeared  in  the  streets 
with  a  long  stick  and  clouted  shoes,  and  innumerable  darns 
and  patches  in  his  clothes.  He  never  went  to  market  for 
more  than  a  twopenny  steak  at  a  time,  and  this  he  generally 
chose  for  its  savoriness  ;  an  outside  piece,  grown  black  by 
the  wind,  and  mostly  flj'-blown,  was  his  choice  ;  for  he 
thriftily  observed,  "  that  meat  was  nothing,  unless  it  smelt 
as  well  as  tasted."  The  people  at  the  Black  Horse,  in  the 
Borough,  used  often  to  represent  to  liim  his  folly  in  being 
so  parsimonious  and  self-denying ;  and  as  he  was  fast 
growing  old,  observed  to  him  the  propriety  of  indulging 
himself  a  little  in  comfortable  things  :  but  to  all  idea  of  ex- 
pence,  Jemmy  Taylor  was  deaf :  his  reply  used  always  to 
be,  "  that  if  his  successors  had  as  much  pleasure  in  spend- 
in"-  his  property,  as  he  had  in  hoarding  it  up,  they  need 
not  complain  of  their  lot  in  the  world."  By  this  obser- 
vation, verifying  the  old  adage,  that  says,  •'  there  is  a  plea- 
sure in  madness,  which  none  but  madmen  know."  If  parity 
of3-ears  is  the  first  step  to  friendship,  parity  of  pursuits 
may  be  said  to  be  the  second.  Mr.  James  Taylor  knew 
all  the  miserables  of  the  metropolis  ;  among  the  most  con- 
spicuous of  whom,  he  ranked  his  quondam  friends,  the  two 

brothers  F I's,  of  Spital fields.      These  were  likewise 

weavers ;  and  in  their  time  had  accumulated,  by  usury  and 

sj^eculation. 


JEMMY  TAYLOR;   THE  SOUTHWARK  MISER.  35 

speculation,  the  enormous  sum  of  =£300,000,  which  they 
kept  at  interest  in  the  funds,  and  thereby  were  always  able 
to  oblige  z. friend  with  any  sum  at  a  moment's  warning. — 
Tliese  worthies  are  lately  dead.     Previous  to  tlie  tax  upon 
legacies,  they  had  made  wills  ;  but  upon  the  necessity  of 
using   stamps,    they  made  over   their  pro]:)erty  to  their 
nephews  and  nieces,  in  order  to  evade  the  duty,  and  thereby 
saved  from  Government,  into  their  own  pockets,  upwards 
of  ofSOOO.     The  eldest  of  these  saving  ones,  ordered  a  very 
old  shirt  to  be  put  on  him  but  a  day  before  he  departed 
the  world,  in  order  to  disappoint  the  nurse  of  a  good  one  ; 
it  being  customary  to  give  the  things  the  deceased  has  on, 
to  those  who  have  the  care  of  them  in  their  last  moments. 
Had  Jemmy  Taylor  lived  to  have  heard  of  the  deaths  of 
these  friends  of  his,  he,  no  doubt,  would  have  very  much 
approved  of  these  saving  contrivances.     A  short  time  after 
the  conclusion  of  the  American  war,  the  Earl  of  Northum- 
berland having  occasion  for  ofl'ljOOO,  to  make  a  purchase, 
applied  to  his  broker,  and  appointed  a  certain  day  to  do 
the  transfer.     At  the  place  and  time  of  meeting,  which  was 
the  round  room  in  the  Bank,  there  was  posted  in  waiting 
Mr.  Taylor,  whose  appearance  was  exactly  that  of  a  coach- 
man's Avatering-man.     Upon   the  Duke's  appearance,  the 
broker  brought  Jemmy  forward  to  his  Grace  ;  who,  not 
knowing  him,  thought  he  was  a  beggar  that  wanted  alms ; 
but  being  assured  by  Mr.  Consols,  tiiat  he  was  a  xcarm^ 
man,  his  Grace  at  last  shook  hands  with  him,  and  Jemmy 
accommodated  the   Peer  with  the  o£'74,000,  out  of  one 
stock,  in  the  4  per  cents,  where  Jemmy  usually  kept  his 
largest  bulk  of  cash  ;  and  from  Avhence  it  appeared  by  the 
books,  he  could  have  sold  out  as  much  more,  and  yet  have 
had  as  much  left,  as  would  have  made  him   coiiifortable 
all  the  rest  of  his  days.     One  day,  observing  some  ladies, 
near  the  Bank,  buying  some  very  fine  fruit,  he  kept  his 
eyes   so  wishfully  fixed  upon  them,  that  one,  thinking 

F  2  him 


36  JEMMY  TAYLOR;  THE  SOUTHWARK  MISER. 

him  in  gi-eat  want,  sent  him  out  sixpence,  which  he  re- 
ceived with  a  low  bow,  and  immediately  set  off,  and  bought 
a  twopenny  steak,  which  he  brought  past  the  ladies,  to  let 
them  see  he  had  not  misapplied  their  bounty.  This  anec- 
dote need  not  be  doubted,  as  it  appeared  in  the  papers  at 
the  time,  and  all  his  acquaintance  talked  of  the  fact. — 
Jemmy,  though  an  inhabitant  of  a  populous  city,  some- 
times exercised  the  severe  virtue  of  self-denial,  in  circum- 
stances which  might  have  shewn  his  readiness  to  accom- 
modate the  parties  that  called  upon  his  probity  to  pay  his 
assessment  of  the  parish-rates.  When  the  officers  Avaited 
at  the  door  of  his  house  in  King-street,  and  inquired  for 
]\Ir.  Taylor,  they  were  told,  "  there  was  not  a  soul  in  the 
house."  The  collector  perceiving  old  Hunks  peeping  be- 
tv.'een  the  bannisters,  replied  to  the  girl  who  answered, 
**  that  she  was  quite  right,  as  he  could  only  perceive  her 
master,  who  was  notoriously  well  known  to  be  no  soul  at 
all  I"  In  his  last  testament  he  forgot  all  his  London  rela- 
tions :  his  cousin  Taylor,  of  the  Borough,  and  his  nephew, 
of  the  Marlborough,  in  Bishopsgate-street,  were  equallj' 
unremembered  in  his  will.  These  can  say  with  truth, 
*'  he  is  gone  a  long  journey  :  he  has  taken  away  the  bags 
of  money,  and  the  devil  knows  what  has  become  of  them.'* 
Though  Jemmy  had  but  little  religion  in  his  life^  yet  to- 
wards his  latter  end  he'  discovered  some  thoughts  of  an 
hereafter.  Finding  himself  ill,  and  fearing  his  illness  might 
finish  his  days,  he  sent  for  the  parish  officers,  the  parson, 
clerk,  and  curate,  and,  after  intimating  his  intention  of 
rcakino-  a  handsome  bequest,  paid  them  down  ofl200  for 
their  prayers  for  the  rest  of  his  soul ;  but  this  bargain  was 
not  entirely  settled  until  the  gentlemen  had  returned  him 
twelve  months'  interest  by  way  of  discount — his  usual  de- 
mand for  prompt  payment !  It  appears  that  his  enormous 
fortune  devolved  to  tAvo  relatives  in  the  country  ;  whilst 
those  of  his  kindred  in  London,  in  consequence  of  being 

cut 


STONES    FALLING    FROM    THE    CLOUDS.  21 

Cut  off,  have,  no  doubt,  altered  the  tenoi*  of  their  prayers, 
in  one  article  at  least,  by  praying  for  their  deceased  uncle, 
as  the  Papists  pray  for  the  souls  of  Luther  and  Calvin.— ~ 
His  name  now  adorns  the  donation  board  of  the  ancient; 
church  of  St.  Saviour,  in  the  Borouah. 


Another  Imtance  of  S-tot^-Rs  falling  from  the  Clouds, 

On  the  14th  of  Nov.  1803,  about  half  past  10  in  the  morn, 
ing,  about  a  quarter  of  a  league  from  the  city  of  Apt,  ia 
the  department  of  Vaucluse,  in  the  South  of  France,  a 
whistling  noise  being  heard  by  several  persons,  for  the 
space  of  five  or  six  minutes,  which  increased  as  it  ap- 
proached ;  a  -woman  of  the  name  of  Jully,  percei\'ed  a 
black  substance  descending  from  the  air,  and  which  fell  on 
the  ground  in  a  neighbouring  vineyard,  on  the  side  of  tlie 
toad  where  they  then  were,  and  about  thirty  paces  from 
them  ;  the  descent  of  wliich,  she  and  her  husband  distinctly 
heard.  Several  other  persons  also  heard  the  Avhistling  and 
noise  at  the  same  time.  It  Avas  afterwards  discovered,  that 
this  stone,  in  its  fall,  buried  itself  to  the  depth  of  about  10 
inches.  It  was  of  a  black  substance,  extremely  hard, 
"Weighing  about  seven  pounds  six  ounces  : — It  had  a  foetid 
smell  resembling  sour  milk  : — Struck  with  steel,  it  emitted 
very  little  fire.  In  the  neighbouring  Communes,  several 
persons  tiiought  they  heard  a  trembling  of  the  earth  on  the 
same  morning  ;  but  nearly  at  the  instant  in  Avhich  it  fell, 
a  noise  resembling  that  of  a  camion,  Avas  heard,  seemingly 
at  a  quarter  of  a  league  distance.  After  the  full  of  the 
stone,  the  whistling  ceased  entirely.  This  stone  is  now  in 
the  custody  of  the  Prefect  of  Vaucluse,  and  kept  by  liim 
for  the  purpose,  as  it  is  said,  of  making  experiments,  to  find 
Out,  if  possible,  from  whence  this  singular  j)henomenon 
could  originate. 


aVONDERFUi 


(     3S     ) 

WONDERFUL    ESCAPE    OF    LORD    WILLIAM     STEWART. 

The  Crescent  and  Virginia  frigates  were   cruizing  off 
Goree,  on  the  10th  December  1803.     The  former  being 
ordered  into  port,   her  Captain,  Lord  Wiiham  Stewart, 
went   on   board   the    senior    officer  to   receive    instruc- 
tions, AA  hen  a  sudden  gale  of  wind  arising,  he,  at  the  most 
imminent  peril,  endeavoured  to  regain  his  ship,  from  whence 
he  was  not  perceived  to  quit  the  commodore  :  night  com- 
ing on,   he  lost  sight  of  both  ships  ;  the  gale  increasing  to 
a  perfect  hurricane,  after  three  hours  tossing  and  strugghng 
in  a  heavy  sea,  frequently  overwhelmed  by  its  spray,  the 
water  up  to  the  boat*s  tbwart  and  men's  tnees,  wave  after 
Wave    threatening  inevitable  destruction,  worn  out  Avith- 
fatigue,  they  calnil}'^  lay  on  their  oars,  shook  hands  with  each 
other,  took  an  affectionate  farewell,  waiting  that  sea  that 
should  consign  them  to  oblivion ;  when  the  Crescent,  having 
by  mere  accident  totally  altered  her  course,  drove  imme- 
diately upon  the  boat.     So  miraculous  was  then  their  es- 
cape, that  before  they  had  well  discovered  the  ship,  they 
were  under  her  bows,  unable  to  make  themselves  heard  : 
the  foam  of  the  sea,  caused  by  the  ship's  velocity,  totally 
filled  the  boat  ;  o]5portunity  just  offered  for  the  captain  and 
crqw  to  cling  to  the  ship's  side,  Avhen  the  boat  swamped,^ 
and,  fiill  of  watei",  disappeared  in  an  instant. 


ANOTHER    AURORA    BOREALIS, 

vVas  particularly  distinguished  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Norwich,  on  the  night  of  Tuesday,  the  29th  November. 
The  light  was  not  variable,  as  it  usually  is,  and  of  the  dif- 
ferent prismatic  colours,  but  of  a  pale  gold  colour,  fre- 
quently approaching  to  white.  The  form  was  sometimes 
round,  but  generally  resembled  the  tail  of  a  comet.  About 
2  }).  8.  South  of  Lynn,  and  below  it,  a  bright  gold-coloured 
meteor,  resembling  Jupiter,  was  observed  for  eight  or  ten 

seconds  ; 


SUBSTANCES  FOUND  IN  THE  HUMAN  BODY,  39 

seconds;  and  another  occurred  in  an  hour  afterwards. 
These,  and  several  smaller  meteors,  called  shooting  stars, 
and  some  faint  lightning  appeared  southerly,  and  seemed 
to  approach  the  direction  of  the  magnetic  meridian.  Their 
lustre  must  have  been  very  considerable,  as  it  Avas  not 
effaced  by  that  of  the  moon,  which  had  just  passed  the 
full. 

STRANGE  SUBSTANCES  FOUND  IN  THE   HUMAN   BODY, 

On  the  24th  May  1766,  Eleonora  Kay  lock  entered  the 
hospital  at  Gloucester,  to  be  cured  of  a  pain  in  her  side, 
occasioned  by  three  pins,  which  she  had  swallowed  nine 
months  before.  This  pain  was  on  the  right  side.  Three 
montlis  after,  there  gathered  a  tumour  near  the  left  shoulder. 
It  was  suppurated  and  opened,  and  the  three  pins  came 
out  by  this  wound.  The  case  is  given  by  Lysons,  Physician 
to  the  liospital,  in  a  letter  to  Nichols. 

A  citizen  of  Besancon,  named  Conlon,  wrote  to  the 
Abbe  Bignon,  that  a  young  cow,  of  three  years  old,  belong- 
ing to  one  of  his  farmers,  had  had  a  tumour  on  its  right  shoul- 
der. The  farmer,  when  he  judged  it  sufficiently  ripe,  had 
opened  it,  and  freed  it  from  a  quantity  of  pus ;  but  he  had 
been  much  surprised  to  discover  in  it  the  end  of  the  blade 
of  a  little  knife,  which,  by  the  process  of  nature,  gradually 
projected  more  and  more.  He  attempted  to  extract  it ; 
but  after  bringing  forward  the  blade,  he  found  a  resistance 
which  prevented  him  from  obtaining  the  whole  of  the  ex- 
traneous body.  This  resistance  was  occasioned  by  the 
liaft  of  the  knife,  and  he  w^as  obliged  to  leave  the  whole  to 
natm-e.  The  blade  of  the  knife  remained  out  of  the 
wound,  sometimes  more,  and  sometimes  less  ])rojected,  ^ 
and  without  preventing  the  cow  from  bearing  two  calves. — 
Some  time  after,  the  extraneous  body  disappeared  ;  but  it 
was  not  at  first  known,  whether  it  had  entirely  come  out 
and  fallen,   or  whether  it  returned  within  ;  whb;ther  tJic 

cow 


40)  SUBSTANCES  FOUND  IN  THE  HUMAN  BODY* 

COW  had  lain  upon  it,  or  whether  she  had  been  struck  oti 
the  part.  The  incertitude  did  not  continue  long. — The 
cow  was  seen  to  waste;  and,  at  length,  it  died. — The  knife 
was  found  within  its  body ;  but  the  author  does  not  say, 
whether  in  the  shoulder  it  was,  in  the  ann,  or  what  other 
part  of  the  body.  All  that  can  ha  conjectured  as  to  the 
arrival  of  this  accident,  is,  that  a  little  shepherd  boy,  who 
always  carried  salt  in  his  pocket,  of  which  the  cow  was 
rery  fond,  had  put  the  knife  into  her  manger,  and  that  she 
bad  swallowed  it. 

Vanhelmont  giv'es  an  account  of  an  ear  of  barley,  swal- 
lowed before  it  was  ripe,  by  a  child  which  had  put  it  into 
its  mouth  in  play,  and  which  was  some  time  afterwards 
withdrawn  from  a  purulent  tumour  on  the  right  hypochon- 
dre,  where  the  ear  had  acquired  a  yellow  colour.  Fernel 
records  a  fact  nearly  similar. 

Volgnad  assures  us,  on  the  authority  of  the  surgeon  of 
Duke  Frederic  William  of  Altenburg,  that  a  labourer's  child 
having  put  an  ear  of  corn  in  its  mouth,  and  swallowed  one 
of  its  awns,  an  abccss  was  formed  in  the  child's  arm,  whence 
it  was  extracted  by  this  surgeon. 

Dr.  Pierce,  of  Bath,  informs  us,  that  a,  lady  of  twenty- 
eight  years  of  age,  having  died  after  frequent  vomiting 
and  fever,  he  opened  the  body.  Besides  an  abcess  in  the 
pancreas,  he  observes,  which  had  sphacelated  a  part  of  the 
stomach  and  intestines,  and  doubtlessly  been  the  cause  of 
the  vomitings  that  she  had  experienced,  he  found,  in  one  of 
the  reins,  an  extraneous  body,  which,  at  first,  he  had  taken 
for  a  stone  ;  but  having  washed  it,  and  freed  it  from  the 
mucus  with  Avhich  it  was  enveloped,  he  found  that  it  was  a 
little  tubinated  shell,  the  cavity  of  Avhich  was  filled  with  a 
viscous  matter,  little  different  in  consistence  from  the  body 
of  a  snail,  but  of  the  colour  of  blood.  This  little  shell  had 
five  or  six  spiral  volutes.  The  surface  was  checquered, 
and  the  squares  alternately  projecting  and  sunk. 

GREAT 


(     41     ) 
GREAT   EARTHQUAKE    AT    JAMAICA,    IN    1692. 

Jamaica  has  been  always  a  place  i-ernarkable  for  cartli- 
quakes,  and,  indeed,  they  are  so  common,  that  the  inha- 
bitants expect  one  every  year.  Dr.  Sloan  gives  us  the 
history  of  one  in  1687,  and  we  have  accounts,  by  several, 
authors,  of  the  following,  still  more  terrible,  in  1692.  In 
two  minutes  time,  it  shook  down,  and  drowned  nine-tenths 
of  the  town  of  Port-Royal.  The  houses  sunk  outright 
30  or  40  fathoms  deep.  The  earth  opened  and  swallowed 
up  the  people  in  one  street,  and  threw  them  up  in  another  ; 
some  rose  in  the  middle  of  the  harbour,  and  yet  wei*e  saved. 
— While  the  houses  on  one  side  of  a  street  were  swallowed 
up,  on  tJie  other  they  Avefe  thrown  on  heaps  ;  and  the 
sand  in  the  street  rising  like  waves  in  the  sea,  lifted  up 
every  body  that  stood  on  it,  and  then  suddenly  sinking  into 
pits,  and  at  the  same  instant  a  Hood  of  water  break  in  o-  in^ 
rolled  them  oyer  and  over,  some  catching  hold  of  beams 
and  rafters,  or  whatever  came  in  their  way.  Ships  and 
sloops  in  the  harbour  were  overset  and  lost ;  and  the  Swan 
frigate  in  particular,  by  the  motion  of  the  sea  and  sinking 
of  the  wharf,  was  driven  over  the  tops  of  many  house^. 
All  this  was  attended  with  a  Itollow  rumbling  noise,  like 
that  of  thunder.  In  less  than  a  minute,  three  quarters  of 
the  houses,  and  the  ground  they  stood  on,  with  the  inhabi- 
tants, were  all  sunk  under  water  :  and  the  little  part  left 
behind,  was  no  better  than  a  heap  of  rubbish.  The  shock 
Avas  so  violent,  that  it  threw  people  down  on  their  knees  or 
their  faces,  as  they  ran  about  to  seek  a  place  of  safety.  The 
earth  heaved  and  swelled  like  the  rolling  billows,  and  seve- 
ral houses  still  standir^g,  were  shifted  and  moved  some 
yards  out  of  their  places.  A  whole  street  was  now  twice 
as  broad  as  before  ;  and  in  many  places  the  earth  cracked 
(Opened  and  shut,  with  a  motion  quick  and  fast,  and  of  thesi; 
Openings,  two  or  three  hundred  might  be  seen  at  a  time; 

Vol.  II.  <^  in 


42  GREAT  EARTHaUAKE  AT  JAMAICA,  IN  1692. 

in  some  of  these  the  people  were  swallowed  up  ;  in  others 
they  were   caught  by  the  middle,  and  pressed  to  death  ; 
and  in  others  the  heads  only  appeared.  The  larger  of  thes^ 
openings  swallowed  up  houses,  and  out  of  some,  whole 
rivers  of  water  spouted  up  a  prodigious  height  into  the  air,  .. 
threatening  a  deluge  to  that  part  spared  by  the  earthquake. 
And  besides  from  all  the  wells,  from  one  fathom  to  six  or 
seven  deep,  the  water  flew  out  at  the  top  with  a  surprising 
and  irresistible  violence.     The  whole  was  attended  with 
stenches  and  offensive  smells,  and  the  noise  of  falling  moun- 
tains at  a  distance  ;  while  the  sky,  in  a  minute's  time,  was 
turned  dull  and  reddish,  like  a  glowing  oven.     Yet,  as 
great  a  sufferer  as  Port-Royal  was,  more  houses  were  left 
standing  in  it  than  on  the  whole  island  besides.     Scarce  a 
planter's  house,  or  sugar- work,  was  left  standing  in  all  Ja- 
maica.    A  great  part  was  swallowed  up,  houses,  people, 
and  trees,  at  one  gape  :  in  the  room  of  which  there  after- 
wards appeared  great  pools  of  water,  which,  when  dried 
up,  discovered  nothing  but  sand,  without  any  mark,  that 
ever  tree  or  plant  had  been  there ;  2000  people  lost  their  lives ; 
and  had  this  terrible  scene  happened  in  the  night,  it  is 
thought  very  few  would  have  escaped  :  1000  acres  of  land 
were  sunk  :  one  Hopkins  had  his  plantation  removed  iialf  a 
mile  from  its  place.     Yet  the  shocks  were  the  most  violent 
among  the  rocks  and  mountains,  in  whose  caverns  the 
matter  that  produced  the  earthquake  was  supposed  to  lie. 

Not  far  from  Yallhouse,  part  of  a  mountain,  after  it  had 
made  several  leaps  or  removes,  overwhelmed  a  whole 
family,  and  a  great  part  of  a  plantation,  though  a  mile  dis- 
tant ;  and  a  large  high  mountain  near  Port  Morant,  about 
a  day's  journey  over,  was  quite  swallowed  up,  and  in  the 
place  where  it  stood,  nothing  remained  but  a  lake  of  four 
or  five  leagues  oVer,  The  tops  of  high  mountains  swept 
down  with  them  in  their  fall,  trees  and  other  things  in 
their  way ;  and  these  vast  pieces  of  mountains,  with  all 

their 


GREAT  EARTHQUAKE  AT  JAMAICA,  IN  1692.         43 

their  trees  thereon,  falling  together  in  a  confused  manner, 
stopped  up  most  of  the  rivers  for  near  24  hours,  till  swelling 
up,  they  made  themselves  new  channels,  tearing  up  in 
their  passage  every  thing  that  opposed  them,  and  carrying 
with  them  into  the  sea  several  hundred  thousand  tons  of 
timber,  floating  in  such  prodigious  quantities,  that  they 
seemed  like  moving  islands.    In  Liguania,  the  sea  retired 
from  the  land  in  such  a  manner,  that  for  two  or  three  hun- 
dred yards  the  bottom  appeared  dry,  and  the  fish  Avere  left 
behind  ;  but  in  a  minute  or  two's  time  it  returned  again, 
and  overflowed  a  great  part  of  the  shore.     At  Yalihouse, 
the  sea  retired  above  a  mile.     After  the  violence  of  these 
convulsive  throws  /were  over,  those  who  escaped  in  the  city 
of  Port-Royal,   got  on  board  the  ships  in   the  harbour, 
where  many  continued  above  two  months ;  the  shocks  all 
that  time  being  so  violent,   and  coming  so  thick,  some- 
times two  or  three  in  an  hour,   attended   with  a  frightful 
noise,  resembling  a  hollow  rumbling  thunder,  with  brim- 
stone blasts,  that  they  durst  not  come  on  shore.     The  con-* 
sequence  of  this  eartliquake  was  a  general  sickness,   occa- 
sioned by  the  vast  quantity  of  noisome  vtipours  belched 
forth,  which  swept  away  about  tliree  tliousaud  persons. 

It  is  observed  at  Jamaica,  that  in  Avindy  weather  there 
ne*/er  happens  a  shock  ;  but  when  the  air  is  extraordinary 
calm,  it  is  always  expected  :  that  after  rain,  the  shocks 
are  generally  smarter  than  at  other  times,  which  may  be 
caused  by  the  shutting  up  the  pores  of  the  earth,  whereby 
the  force  is  more  pent  in,  and  hath  not  so  free  a  passage  to 
perspire  and  spend  itself.  That  since  this  earthquake,  the 
land-breezes  often  fail,  and  instead  of  it,  tlic  sea-breezes 
blow  all  night;  a  thing  scarfcely  known  before,  but  since 
very  common.  In  Port-Iloyal,  and  in  many  places  all  over 
the  island,  nmch  sulphureous  combustible  matter  hath  been 
found,  winch  would  flame  and  burn  like  a  candle,  upon  the 
Jeast  touch  of  fire. 

(To  be  continued. J 

c  2  A  Rat- 


44  EXTRAORDINARY    STRENGTH    OF 

A  Rat-catcher,  ^vllo  lived  at  Oxford  in  1788,  had  a 
very  famous  dog ;  for  some  time  he  perceived  that  the 
animal  was  very  uneasy,  and  walked  inclining  on  one  side. 
To  relieve  him,  if  possible,  he  had  often  examined  his 
side,  but  never  found  any  thing  that  could  account  for  it  ; 
till  one  day,  when  examining  him,  for  the  same  purpose, 
he  felt  something  slightly  prick  his  hand,  when  getting  a 
pair  of  scissars  to  clip  away  the  hair,  he  accidentally  caught 
hold  of  the  point  of  a  needle,  which  proved  a  large  one, 
used  for  darning  stockings,  and  he  drew  it  out  of  his 
bodv,  with  a  piece  of  worsted  attached  to  it  a  yard  and  a 
lialf  long. — What  was  more  extraordinary,  the  dog  was 
instantaneously  cured  of  the  inconvenience  he  had  laboured 
under,  without  any  further  aj:)plication  whatever. 

Extraordinary  Strength  ofDE  Courcy,  Earl  of  Ulster , 
in  the  Reign  of  King  John;  which  teas  the  Cause  of  the 
Eamih/  Privilege  of  being  covered  bifore  the  King. 

1  HIS  privilege  appears  to  have  been  granted  by  that 
INIonarch,  in  1203  ;  when  John  de  Courcy,  Earl  of  Ulster, 
was  supplanted,  and  lost  the  King's  favour  ;  Hugh  de 
Lacy,  the  younger.  Earl  of  Meath,  who  was  formerly 
joined  with  him  in  the  government  of  Ireland,  alledging  he 
liad  spoken  several  disrespectful  words,  highly  rcHecting 
on  the  King  about  the  murder  of  his  nephew  Arthur, 
Duke  of  Britany  in  France  (whose  right  to  the  crown  was 
before  that  of  King  John)  ;  at  which  the  King  being  sorely 
displeased,  ordered  the  said  Lacy,  who  was  then  Governor 
of  Ireland,  to  seize  the  Earl  of  Ulster,  and  send  him  pri- 
soner to  England.  Lacy,  who  was  the  Earl's  grand  enemy, 
gladly  obeyed  the  command,  and  several  times  attempted 
to  take  him  by  force  ;  but  finding  that  would  not  do,  he 
at  last  hired  some  of  the  Earl's  own  servants  to  betray 
their  master  into  his  hands,  v  hicli  took  effect  on  Good- 
Friday,  1203  ;  for  on  that  day,  the  Earl  (according  to'the 

devotion 


©E    COURCY,    EARL    OF"  ULSTER.     '      '  4j 

devotion  of  the  times)  was  walking  unarmed  and  barefoot, 
round  the  church-yard  of  Downpatrick,  for  penance  ;  Lacy 
and  his  party  came  upon  him  imawarcs,  and  he  having 
nothing  to  defend  himself  but  the  pole  of  a  wooden  croiis 
which  stood  in  the  church-yard,-  was  overpowered  and 
forced  to  yield,  after  he  had  killed  thirteen  of  Lacy's  men. 
This  great  Earl,  after  being  thus  betrayed,  Avas  sent  prisoner 
to  London,  and  after  he  had  been  confined  some  time  in 
the  Tower,  a  dispute  arose  between  King  John,  of  England, 
and  Philip,  august  King  of  France,  about  the  title  to  the 
Dutchy  of  Normandy ;  which,  to  hinder  the  greater  eftusioa 
of  human  blood,  was  referred  to  two  champions  to  decide  : 
the  French  champion  was  ready,  but  none  of  King  John's 
subjects  would  answer  the  challenge  ;  upon  which  the  King 
was  informed,  that  John  de  Courcy,  late  Earl  of  Ulster, 
who  was  then  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower  of  Loudon,  %vas  the 
only  man  in  his  dominions  who  could  do  it,  if  he  would 
undertake  it :  the  King  being  thus  informed,  sent  twice  to 
the  Karl  for  that  purpose,  but  he  refused  it  each  time, 
saying,  *'  Not  for  him,  for  I  esteem  him  unworthy  the  ad- 
venture of  mv  blood,  bv  reason  of  the  uns;ratefLd  returns 
he  made  for  my  services  and  loyalty  to  the  crown,  in 
imprisoning  me  unheard,  at  the  suit  of  my  rival  and  enemy, 
AiHugh  de  Lacy  :"  But  the  King  sending  the  third  time,  to 
^iw-'iow  if  he  would  fight  for  the  honour  of  his  country,  he 
made  this  answer;  "  That  for  the  crown  and  dignity  of  the 
realm,  in  which  many  an  honest  man  livetb,  against  his 
will,  (meaning  the  King,)  I  shall  be  contented  to  hazard  my 
life."  The  day  of  combat  being  appointed,  (in  Normandy,) 
the  Earl's  own  sword  was  sent  ibr  out  of  Ireland  ;  but  when 
the  day  came,  and  every  thing  was  ready  for  the  fight, 
and  the  champions  were  entered  the  lists,  in  the  presence 
of  the  Kings  of  England,  France,  and  Scotland  ;  the 
French  champion,  not  liking  the  strong  proportion  of  the 
Carl's  body,  Jior  the  terrible  weapon  he  bore  in  lii?  hand, 

when 


46         EXTRAORDINARY   STRENGTH   OF   D£   COURCy. 

when  the  trumpet  sounded  the  last  charge,  he  set  spurs 
to  his  horse,  broke  through  the  lists,  and  fled  into  Spain, 
from  -whence  he  never  returned.  The  French  champion 
thus  taking  his  flight,  the  victory  Avas  adjudged  to  the 
Earl  of  Ulster;  but  the  Kings  hearing  of  his  great  strength, 
and  being  willing  to  see  some  trial  of  it,  they  ordered  an 
helmet  of  excellent  proof,  full-faced  with  mail,  to  be  laid 
upon  a  block  of  wood,  which  the  Earl  with  one  blow  cut 
asunder,  and  struck  his  sword  so  deep  into  the  wood,  that 
none  there  present  but  himself  could  draw  it  out  again  ; 
which  sword,  together  with  his  armour,  are  to  this  day  pre- 
served in  the  Tower  of  London.  After  this  noble  per- 
formance, the  King  restored  him  to  his  former  titles  and 
estate,  which  was  valued  at  that  time  at  25,000  marks  ster- 
ling per  annum,  a  vast  income  in  those  days  ;  and  likewise 
bade  him  ask  for  any  thing  else  in  his  gift  he  had  a  mind 
to,  and  it  should  be  granted  ;  upon  which  the  Earl  replied, 
he  had  titles  and  estate  enough,  but  desired  that  he  and  his 
successors,  the  heirs  male  of  his  family  (after  him)  might 
iiave  the  privilege,  after  their  first  obeisance,  to  be  covered 
in  the  royal  presence  of  him  and  his  successors.  Kings  of 
England,  which  the  King  granted,  and  the  said  privilege 
is  preserved  in  the  family  to  this  day.  The  Earl  after- 
Avards  arriving  in  England,  attempted  fifteen  several  times 
to  cross  the  seas  from  thence  into  Ireland,  but  was  every 
time  put  back  by  contrary  v.-inds  ;  Avhereupon  he  altered 
his  course,  and  went  into  France,  Avhere  he  died  in  the  year 
1210,  leaving  issue  by  Africa  his  widow,  daughter  to  God- 
frey, King  of  the.  Isle  of  Man,  and  of  the  Western  Isles  of 
Scotland,  INIyles  his  heir  and  successor. 


A    HORNED     MAN  : 

In  the  year  1598,  was  exhibited  for  a  shew,  at  Paris,  two 
months  successively,  and  from  thence  carried  to  Orleans, 

where 


MISS   GRAHN,    OR    DE    VERDIO>r.  41 

■where  he  died  soon  after, — His  name  was  Francis  Tro- 
villou  ;    of  whom   Fabritius,    in  his  Chirurgical  Obser- 
vations, gives  the  following  description: — "He  was  of  a 
middle  stature,  a  full  body,  bald,  except  in  the  hinder 
part  of  the  head,  which  had  a  few  hairs  upon  it ;  his  tem- 
per was  morose,  and  his  demeanour  altogether  rustic :  he 
was  born  in  a  little  village  called  Mezicres,  and  bred  up  in 
the  woods  amongst  the  charcoal  men.     About  the  seventh 
year  of  his  age,  he  began  to  have  a  swelling  in  his  forehead  ; 
so  that  about  the  seventeenth  year  of  his  age,  he  had  a  horn 
there  as  big  as  a  man's  finger  end,  which  afterwards  did 
admit  of  that  growth  and  increase,  that  when  he  came  to  be 
thirty-five  years  old,  this  horn  had  both  the  bigness  and  re- 
semblance of  a  ram's  horn.     It  grew  upon  the  midst  of  his 
forehead,  and  then  bended  backward  as  far  as  the  coronal 
suture,  where  the  other  end  of  it  did  sometimes  so  stick  in 
the  skin,  that,  to  avoid  much  pain,  lie  Avas  constrained  to  cnt 
off  some  part  of  the  end  of  it ;   whether  this  horn  had  its 
roots  in  the  skin  or  forehead,  I  know  not ;  but  probably 
being  of  that  Aveight  and.  bigness,  it  grew  from  the  skull 
itself:  nor  am  I  certain  whether  this  man  had  anv  of  those 
teeth  which  we  call  grinders.     It  was  during  this  man's 
public  exposure  at  Paris,  (saith  Urstitious)  in  1598,  that  I, 
in  company  with  Dr.  Jacobus  Facschius,  the  public  Pro- 
fessor of  Basil,  and  Mr.  Joannes  Eckenstenius,  did  see  .md 
handle  this  horn." 


An  original  ar^d  circmmtaniial  Accoiird  nf  the  late  celebrated 
Miss  Theodora  Grakn,  ccmmvnlij  called  Theodora 
DE  Verdion,  Exchange  Broke/-,  Amanuensis,  Teacher 
of  Languages y  ike.  bkc. ,  a  Kati-je  of  Bolin: — Wlio,  ever 
since  her  Ilcsidencc  in  England,  appeared  onlij  in  a  Mans 
Habit.^With  her  For  trait. 


[Of 


43      ACCOUNT  OF  THE  LATE  MISS.  THEODORA  GRAHN  ; 

[Of  this  celebrated  Female,  of  whose  real  origin,  all  tlie  accounts  hitherto 
publishfid,  liave  beea  widely  erroneous  ;  we  are  enabled  to  present  the  fol- 
lowing particulars  respecting  her  early  life,  from  some  Memoirs  of  her,  just 
published  at  Berlin,  the  real  place  of  her  hativiiy.] 


1  HIS  person  was  the  only  daughter  of  an  architect,  of  the 
name  of  Grahn,  who  erected  several  edifices  in.  the  city 
of  Berlin,  particularly  the  Church  of  St.  Peter's  ;  and  who 
died  in  1740,  at  Bayreuth.     After  his  decease,  his  daugh- 
ter returned  to  Berlin,  and  resided  with  a  relative.     With 
much  natural  capacity,  she  was  proportionayy  eccentric  in 
her  manners.  She  wrote  an  excellent  hand,  and  had  learned 
tl>e  Mathematics,  the  French,  Italian,  and  English  languages. 
Her  auiit  dying  in  1758,  she  left  her  a  legacy  of  1000  rix- 
dollars  ;  v/hieh  to  improve,   she  immediately  commenced 
the  business  of  an  Exchantje  Broker.     Durinfj   the  seven 
years'  war,  which  was  very  favourable  for  her  occupation, 
she  did  a  great  deal  of  business,  and  was  to  be  seen  every 
day  from  one  counting-house  to  another,  all  through  the 
city.     In  dirty  weather  she  began  to  wear  boots,  and  with 
two  large  bags  on  each  arm,  though  slie  had   not  then 
thrown  by  the  drx?ss  of  a  female,    cut  a  very  remarkable 
figure.     At  the  end  of  the  war,  she  had  more  than  doubled 
her  capital :  .she  then  went  again  to  Bayreuth,  in  Prussia  ; 
but  when  she  returned,  appeared  altogether  in  man's  attire, 
dressed  like  a  huntsman  : — This  was  in   1768. — She  then, 
for  the  first  time,  styled  lierself,  Baron  de  Verdion,  pre- 
tending' slic  ]iaJ  some  estates  to  justify  the  title.     She  was, 
however,  not  taken  much  notice  of,  till  M.  Basedow,  ajt 
the  end  of   \169,  commenced  his  Scholastic  Reforms  in 
Germany.     Bcron  de  Verdion,  with  other  persons  of  in-. 
<rcnuitv,  became  an  entlnisiast  in  his  cause  ,  and  in  fine^ 
engati-cd  with  him  as  his  secretary  and  amanuensis.  Hence, 
being  shut  \\\->  with  liim  in  private,  Avhole  days  together, 
it  oave  occasion  to  the  tongue  of  rumour,  which  knew  De 

Verdiou. 


died  Juli/  JJ. 21^01. 


COMMONLY    CALLED   DR.    DE    VERDION.  49 

Verdion  to  be  a  woman,  to  fabricate  a  number  of  ludicrou.^ 
tales.  Basedow,  however,  after  being  compelled  to  part 
with  De  Verdion,  would  never  admit  she  was  a  woman. — 
The  offence  also,  which  he  gave  her  in  this  removal,  she 
was  equally  as  loth  to  forgive  ;  and  therefore  made  it  her 
business  more  than  ever  to  visit  the  coffee-houses  at  Berlin, 
there  introducing  the  subject  of  the  dispute  between  them, 
upon  every  possible  occasion ,  and  shewing  a  letter  she  had 
received  from  him.  At  length,  some  young  men  belong- 
ing to  a  merchant's  counting-house,  inviting  her  to  an  inn, 
took  advantage  of  her  inebriation,  a  vice  to  which  it  seems 
she  was  attached  in  early  hfe,  and  verified  her  sex  bej'ond 
all  possibility  of  doubt. 

After  this  untoward  exposure,  as  she  could  no  lono-er 
support  the  idea  of  remaining  at  Berlin,  she  embarked  for 
England,  where  she  commenced  Teacher  of  the  German, 
language,  under  the  name  of  Dr.  John  de  Verdion  ;  and 
after  some  time,  it  is  said,  obtained  tlie  notice  of  Madam 
Schwellenberg,  who  came  from  Germany  with  our  present 
Queen  ;  and  who,  it  is  supposed,  was  well  acquainted 
with  her  circumstances  and  her  sex.  From  this  lady,  it  is 
generally  supposed.  Miss  De  Verdion  occasionally  received 
pecuniary  aid,  probably  to  make  up  the  deficiencies  of  her 
litei'ary  exchanges  in  books,  which  it  will  be  made  to  a})pear, 
were  not  so  profitable  to  her  as  those  she  made  at  Berlin, 
before  her  arrival  in  England. 

In  her  exterior  she  was  extremely  grotesque  :  from  her 
large  cocked  hat  and  bagged  hair,  with  her  boots,  cane  and 
umbrella,  which  she  carried  in  all  weathers.  The  latter  of 
which  she  invariably  carried  in  her  liand,  resting  upon  her 
back.  She  was  a  great  deal  at  Kurnival's-inn  coilec-house 
in  Holborn,  dining  there  almost  ever}-  day.  Here  thoufh 
slie  concealed  her  sex,  she  could  not  iielp  cxhibitino-  her 
natural  disposition  as  an  extraordinary  lover  of  o-ood  eatincr 
She  would  have  the  first  of  every  thing  iu  season,  and  was 

Vol.  li.  H  a^ 


50      ACCOUNT  OF  THE  LATE  MISS  THEODORA  GRAHM  ; 

as  strenuous  for  a  large  quantity,  as  she  was  dainty  in  the 
quality  of  v.hat  she  chose  for  her  table.     At  times,  it  is  well 
known,  she  could  dispense  with  three  pounds  of  solid  meat. 
A  friend  being  once  in  her  company,  Avas  absolutely  wit- 
ness to  her  eating  eighteen  eggs,  and  a  proportionate  quan- 
tity of  bacon,  which  were  all  broken  into  the  frying-pan 
at  once ;  as  much  to  the  surprise  as  the  entertainment  of 
her  friend,  and  all  that  were  acquainted  with  the  circiun- 
stancc.     She  was  also  as  much  inclined  to  extravagant 
drinking,  and  once  in  particular,  was  so  completely  intoxi- 
cated at  Furnival's-inn  coffee-house,  that  being  incapable 
of  walking  home,   two  persons  were  compelled  to  assist 
lier :  but  though  she  never  suffered  any  person  whatever 
to  go  into  her  room,  at  this  time  she  was  necessitated 
to  miike  an   exception,  or  rather,  these  persons  in  some 
measure  intruded  tliemselves,  in  order  thatt'iey  might  then 
perform  tNe  friendly  oiiice  of  undressing  her  and  putting 
her  to  bed  :  th  s,  however,   they  did  not  complete,  nor 
whollv  gratify  their  curiosity.     But  in  the  morning,  find- 
ing what  had  been  attempted,  slie  waited  on  the  master  of 
the  coffee-house,  and  earnestly  requested,  whatever  might, 
happen  to  her  in  future,  tl^at  she  might  not  be  again  sent 
lionie  m  such  a  manner ;  dreading,  as  we  imagine,  froui 
what  had  occurred  to  her  at  Berlin,  the  probable  exposure 
of  her  sex.     She  wouk'l  often  drink  two  bonJos  of  wine  at 
a  sitting,  and  she  has  been  frequently  Icit  in   the   coflee- 
house   rolling  upon  the  lloor.     She  was  particularly  well 
known  in  the  Book  trade,  generally  haA'ing  her  pockets  full 
of  books,-  which  she  used  to  procure  for  gentlemen  at  cofiee- 
houses,  and  her  various  friends.     She  also  attencicd  sales, 
and  would  buy  to  a  large  amount,  sometimes   a   coach 
load,  &c.  Here  her  singular  figure  generally  made  her  the 
jest  of  the  company,  and  sometimes  t!ie  object  of  thetf 
waggery.      }Icr  general  purchase  at  these  sales   ■\\as  odd 
volumes  :  and  these  she  used  to  carry  to  other  Booksellers 

and 


COMMONLY    CALLED    DR.    DE    VERDION.  51 

<a:id  endeavour  to  sell,  or  chop  and  cliange  for  other  books. 
She  was  likewise  a  considerable  collector  of  medals  and 
foreign  coins  of  gold  and  silver;  but  none  of  these  were 
found  after  her  decease.  At  home  she  was  literally  her 
own  servant ;  even  cleaning  her  own  room  ;  but  this,  it  is 
to  be  noticed,  she  always  performed  in  a  woman's  cap  and 
bedgown  ;  and  neither  in  Winter  or  Summer  was  slie  ever 
known  to  have  any  fire  in  her  apartments. 

A  little  before  her  death  she  complained  of  the  lowness 
of  her  finances,  when  Mr.  Dcnner,  the  master  of  the  Furni- 
val's-inn  coffee-house,  generously  ollered  to   open  a  sub- 
scription ;  but  she  was  very  much  offended,  saying,  that  if 
she  chose  it,  she  could  apply  to  the  hrst  personages  in  tlie 
kingdom.     But  notwitlistanding  this  appearance  of  a  high 
spirit,  she  had  accepted  of  various  sums  of  money  from  dif- 
ferent gentlemen,  a  short  time  before  her  death,  who  then 
recommended  her  to  use  a  more  frugal  way  of  living  ; — 
upon  which  she  replied,  that  it  was  impossible  for  her  to 
exist  under  three  guineas  per  week.     It  was  her  common 
practice  towards  the  latter  end  of  her  life,  to  intrude  very 
much  upon  her  friends  for  eating  and  drinking,  upon  the 
strength  of  indications  and  indirect  promises  of  making  tlicm 
amends,  and  remembering  them  in  her  will.  Under  a  similar 
pretence,  she  also  obtained  a  valuable  com  from  one  of  her 
acquaintances  in  Stanhope-street,-  Clare-niarket.     She  iiad 
been  a  frequent  attendant  upon  the  dr.iwing-room  at  St. 
James's,  appearing  in  full  dress,  and  with  a  very  elegant 
sword  :  this  could  not  be  found  ut  her  decease, — She   was 
so  remarkably  timid,  that  being  out  after  dark,  she  never 
cared  to  go  home  unattended  ;  for  uliic  i  she  satisfied  her 
attendants,  seldom   with  money,   but  mostly  with  liquor. 
Once  in  particular  a^  she, was  crossing  Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
>vhilc  some  young  men  were  running,  yhe  laiscd  such  a  cry, 
mingled  with  oaths  and  invectives  as  to  bring  a  "rcatnum- 
.bcr  of  people  about  her.     Another  evening  some  young 

H  2  gcntlcmcu 


52  >nsS    CRAHN,    OR    DE    VERDION. 

gentlemen  wlio  knew  her  foibJes,  followed  her  from  tlid 
coffee-house,  surrounded  and  jostled  her,  insisting  upon  it 
that  she  had  picked  one  of  their  pockets.  To  get  rid  of 
this  charge  she  referred  tliem  to  the  master  of  the  coffee- 
house, who,  of  course,  spoke  in  her  favour,  and  with  Avhich 
pretending  to  be  satisfied  they  went  away,  highly  delighted 
with  their  frolic  ;  as  it  had  no  object  but  to  frighten  her, 
they  having  very  strong  suspicion  that  she  was  a  woman. 

At  another  time,  several  gentlemen  using  the  coffee- 
house, expressed  their  positive  assurance  that  she  Avas  a 
disguised  female,  and  their  intention  to  leave  the  house 
luiless  she  was  excluded  from  the  room  ;  being  called  to 
the  bar,  and  acquainted  with  this  circumstance,  she  made 
no  reply  but  by  an  oath,  that  these  gentlemen  were ' '  Rogues,^ 
and  took  no  further  notice  of  the  matter. 

The  disorder  of  a  cancer,  which  terminated  the  existence 
of  this  extraordinary  character,  was  brought  on  by  an  ac- 
cidental full  down  stairs,  by  which  her  breast  was  hurt. 
This  circumstance  she  was  at  length  compelled  to  commu- 
nicate to  a  friend,  a  German  physician,  who  lived  in  the 
same  house,  who  prescribed  for  her,  when  the  disorder 
turned  to  a  dropsy,  and  defied  all  cure. 

By  her  will,  dated  June  8,  she  bequeathed  all  her  property 
to  Mr.  Denner,  the  master  of  Furnival's-inn  coffee-house  ; 
but  upon  his  taking  possession,  it  proved  inadequate  to 
discharge  her  bill,  merely  for  eating  and  drinking,  as  very 
little  remained  besides  her  wardrobe. — She  was  so  much 
tferrified  with  the  idea  of  being  buried  alive,  that  she  made 
it  a  part  of  her  will,  to  be  kept  above  ground  eight  da3'S 
after  her  decease  ;  but  this  was  dispensed  with,  owing  to 
the  state  of  her  complaint.  Till  the  last  she  had  no  ex- 
pectation of  her  speedy  dissolution,  as  she  ordered  the 
making  of  some  new  articles  of  dress,  saving  she  was  going 
cut,  and  which  came  home  the  day  preceding  her  death. 

It  was  her  desire  that  her  funeral  should  be  as  little  ex- 
pensive 


^-REAT   EARTHQUAKE  AT   JAMAICA,    IN  1692,       5^3 

pensive  as  possible ;  and  as  her  will  was  signed  John  dc 
Verdion,  the  same  was  at  first  engraved  on  the  coffin-plate, 
but  afterwards  altered  to  Miss  De  Verdion. 

Her  remains  were  deposited  in  the  burying-ground  of 
St.  Andrew's,  Holborn,  in  Gray's-inn-lane,  at  the  age 
of  60. — She  died  at  her  lodgings  in  Upper  Charles-street, 
Hatton-Garden,  July  15,   1802. 


GREAT  EARTHQUAKE  AT  JAMAICA,  IN  1C92. 

( Continued froin  Page  AS. J 

The  following  Letters  from  the  Minister  of  Port-Royal  in  Jamaica,  serve  to 
convey  an  idea  of  the  manner  in  which  the  minds  of  the  people  oi'  Jamaica 
were  affected  under  this  terrible  stroke  of  Providence. 

*'  DEAR   FRIEND,  JllTie  22,   1692. 

"  I  DOUBT  not  but  you  have  heard  of  the  dieadl'ul  cala- 
mity that  hath  befallen  this  island,  by  a  terrible  earthquake 
on  the  7th  instant,  which  hath  thrown  down  almost  all  the; 
houses,  churches,  sugar-works,  mills  and  bridges  Jn  tije 
island. 

"  On  Wednesday  the  7th,  I  had  been  at  prayers,  which 
1  did  every  day  since  I  was  Rector  of  Port-Royal,  to  keep 
lip  some  shew  of  rehgion  amongst  a  most  ungodly  >and  de- 
bauched people  ;  and  was  gone  to  a  place  near  the  church, 
where  the  merchants  used  to  meet,  and  where  the  President 
of  the  Council  then  was. 

"  To  this  gentleman's  friendsliip,  under  the  direction 
of  the  gracious  and  over-ruling  will  of  Providence,  I 
ascribe  my  own  happy,  and  I  may  add,  miraculous  escape^ 
for  b}'  his  pressing  instances,  I  was  prevailed  upon  to  de- 
cline an  invitation,  which  I  had  before  accepted,  to  xline 
T\-ith  Capt,  Rudend,  Avliose  house  upon  the  first  concussioa 
sunk  into  the  sea,  and  with  it  his  wife,  Jiis  children,  himself 
and  all  that  were  with  him,  who  every  soul  perished  in  tliis 
Heneral ,  this  dreadful  devastation.  Had  I  been  of  the  Jium- 
Jber  of  his  guests,  m}'^  fate  had  been  involved  in  theirs. — • 
JBut,  to  return,  wc  had  scarce  dined  at  the  President's, 

i)cfore 


54"  GREAT  EARTHQUAKE  AT  JAMAICA,  IN  1692v 

before  I  t'cit  tlie  eurtli  begin  to  heave  and  roll  under  me-^ 
Said  I,  '  Lord,  Sir,  what's  this  r '  He  replied,  very  com- 
posedly, '  It  is  an  earthquake,  be  not  afraid,  it  will  soon 
he  over.'  But  it  increased,  and  we  heard  the  church  and 
tower  fall ;  upon  a\  hich  we  ran  to  save  ourselves.  I  quickly 
lost  him,  and  made  towards  Morgan's  Fort,  which  being 
a  wide  open  place,  I  thought  to  be  there  secure  from  the 
falling  houses :  but  as  I  made  towards  it,  I  saw  the  earth 
open  and  swallow  up  a  multitude  of  people,  and  the  sea 
mounting  in  upon  us  over  the  fortifications. 

*'  I  then  laid  aside  all  thoughts  of  escaping,  and  resolved 
to  make  towards  my  own  lodging,  there  to  meet  death  in 
as  good  a  posture  as  I  could.  From  the  place  where  I  was, 
1  was  forced  to  cross  and  run  througli  fwo  or  three  very 
narrow  streets.-  The  houses  and  walls  fell  on  each  side  of 
me :  some  bricks  came  rolling  over  m}-  shoes,  but  none 
hurt  me.  When  I  came  tc  mv  loclii:inii,  I  found  all  thinos 
in  the  order  I  h;id  left  them.  I  then  went  to  my  balcony 
to  view  the  street  in  which  our  house  stood,  and  saw  never  a 
house  down  there,  nor  the  ground  so  much  as  cracked. 
The  people  seeing  me,  cryed  out  to  come  and  pray  A^  ith 
them.  When  I  came  into  the  street,  ever}^  one  laid  hold 
on  my  cloaths,  and  embraced  mc  ;  so  that  I  was  almost 
stifled  with  their  kindness.  I  persupdcd  them  at  last  to  kneel 
down  and  make  a  large  ring,  .which  they  did  ;  I  prayed 
with  them  near  an  hour,  when  I  was  almost  spent  with  the 
beat  of  the  sun  and  the  exercise.  The}'  then  brought  me  a 
chair,  the  earth  working  all  the  while  with  new  motions 
and  tremblings,  like  the  rollings  of  the  sea  ;  insomuch,  that; 
sometimes  when  I  was  at  prayers,  I  could  hardly  keep  upon 
jny  knees. 

''  By  that  time  I  had  been  half  an  hour  longer  with  them, 
in  setting  before  them  their  sins  and  heinous  provocations, 
and  seriousl}-  exhorting  them  to  repentance,  there  came 
some  merchants  of  the  })lacej  w  ho  desired  me  to  go  aboaixi 

some 


GREAT  EARTHQUAKE  AT  JAMAICA,  IN   169  2.  55> 

some  ship  ia  the  harbour,  and  refresh  myself,  telhng  me 
that  they  had  a  boat  to  carry  me  off.  I  found  the  sea  had 
swallowed  up  the  wharf,  with  all  the  goodly  brick  houses 
upon  it,  most  of  them  as  fine  as  those  in  Cheapside,  and 
two  entire  streets  beyond  that.  From  the  tops  of  some 
houses  which  lay  level  with  the  water,  I  got  first  into  a 
canoe,  and  then  into  a  long  boat,  which  put  me  aboard  a 
ship  called  the  Siam-Mcrchant.  There  I  found  the  Presi- 
dent safe,  who  was  overjoyed  to  see  me  ;  I  continued  in  it 
that  night,  but  could  not  sleep  for  the  returns  of  the  earth- 
quake almost  every  hour,  which  made  all  the  guns  in  the 
ship  to  jar  and  rattle. 

"  The  next  day  I  went  from  ship  to  ship  to  visit  those 
who  were  bruised  and  dying  ;  likewise  to  do  the  last  office 
at  the  sinking  of  several  corps  which  came  floating  from 
the  point.  This,  indeed,',  has  been  my  sorrowful  employ- 
ment ever  since  T  came  aboard  this  ship  :  we  having  hud 
nothing  but  shakings  of  the  earth,  with  thunder  and  liglit- 
ning  ever  since.  Besides  t!ie  people  being  so  desperatelv" 
wicked,  it  makes  me  afraid  to  stay  in  the  place  :  for  every 
day  this  terrible  earthquake  happened,  as  soon  as  niglit 
came  on,  a  company  of  lewd  rogues,  whom  they  CviU  pri- 
vateers, fell  to  breaking  open  warehouses,  and  houses  dc^ 
serted,  to  rob  and  rille  their  neighbours,  while  the  earth 
trembled  under  them,  and  the  houses  fell  on  some  of  them 
in  the  act ;  and  those  audacious  whores,  who  remain  still 
U})on  the  place,  are  as  impudent  and  drunken  as  ever. 

"  I  have  been  twice  on  shore  to  pray  with  bruised  and 
dying  people,  where  I  met  too  many  drunk  and  swearing.  1 
did  not  spare  them,  nor  the  magistrates  neither,  who  have 
suffered  wickedness  to  grow  to  such  a  height.  I  have,  T  bless 
God,  to  the  best  of  my  skill  and  power,  discharged  my  duty 
in  this  place.  In  the  last  sermon  I  di\livered  in  the:  churcli, 
I  set  before  them  what  would  Irc  the  issue  of  their  impeni- 
tence and  wickedness  .so  clearly,  that  they  liavc  since  ac- 

knowledtred 


55  GR.EAT  EARTHCIUAKF  AT  JAMAICA,    IN   1692, 

knowiedged  it  more  like  a  prophecy  than  a  sermon.  I  had, 
I  confess,  an  impulse  on  me  to  do  it;  and  many  times  I 
bare  preached  in  this  pulpit  things,  which  I  never  preme- 
ditated at  home,  and  could  not,  methought,  do  otherwise. 
"  The  day  when  all  this  betel  us  was  veiy  clear,  and 
afforded  not  the  suspicion  of  the  least  evil ;  but  in  the  space 
of  three  minutes,  about  half  an  hour  after  eleven  in  the 
morning,  Port-Royal,  the  fairest  toAvn  of  all  the  English 
plantations,  the  best  emporium  and  mart  of  this  part  of  the 
world,  rich,  plentiful  of  all  good  things,  was  shaken  and 
shattered  to  pieces,  sunk  into,  and  covered  for  the  greater 
part  of  the  sea  ;  few  of  the  houses  are  left  whole,  and  every 
day  we  hear  them  fall. 

"  I  came  on  board  this  ship  in  order  to  return  home  ;  but 
.  the  people  are  so  importunate  with  me  to  stay,  that  I  know 
not  what  to  say  to  them.  I  must  undergo  great  hardships 
if  I  continue  here,  the  country  being  broke  all  to  pieces  and 
dissettled  ;  but  it  looks  verj'  imnatural  to  leave  them  in  their 
distress  ;  and,  therefore,  whatever  I  suffer,  I  Avould  not  have 
such  a  blame  lie  at  my  door  ;  so  that  I  am  resolved  to  stay  a 

year  longer.'* 

SECOND  LETTER. 

June  28,  169x'. 

^'  Ever  since  that  fatal  day,  the  most  terrible  that  ever  I  had 
in  my  life,  I  have  lived  on  board  a  ship  ;  for  the  shaking  of 
the  earth  returns  every  now  and  then.  Yesterday  we  had 
a  very  great  one  ;  but  if  seems  less  terrible  on  ship  board 
than  on  shore  ;  3'et  I  have  ventured  to  Port-Royal  no  less 
than  three  times  among  the  shattered  houses,  to  bury  the 
dead,  pray  with  the  sick,  and  christen  the  children.  Sun- 
day labt  I  preached  among  them  in  a  tent,  the  houses  which 
remain  being  so  shattered,  that  I  durst  not  venture  in  them. 
The  people  are  overjoyed  to  see  me  among  them,  and  wept 
bitteriv  as  I  preaclied.  I  ho^^e,  by  this  terrible  judgment, 
God  Will  n:al^c  them  rcfornr  their  lives  ;  for  there  was  not 

i-Kiore  ungipdlv  people  on  the  face  of  the  eartli. 

It 


EXTRAORDINARY  ACCOUNT  OF  A  SHEEP.  57 

**  It  is  a  sad  siirht  to  see  this  harbour,  one  of  the  fau-cst 
1  ever  saw,  covered  with  the  dead  bodies  of  people  of  all 
conditions,  floating  up  and  down  without  burial ;  for  our 
burying  place  was  destroyed  by  the  earthquake  ;  which 
dasJied  to  pieces  the  tombs,  the  sea  washed  the  carcasses 
of  t!iose  who  had  been  buried,  out  of  their  graves.  We 
have  had  accounts  from  several  parts  ef  this  island,  but 
none  suffered  like  Port-Royal,  where  whole  streets,  with 
their  inhabitants,  were  swallowed  up  by  t!ie  opening  of  the 
earth,  which  when  shut  in  upon  them,  squeezed  the  peo- 
ple to  death.  And  in  that  manner  several  are  left  with 
their  heads  above  ground  ;  only  some  heads  the  doi^s  have 
eaten ;  others  ar(2  covered  with  dust  and  earth  by  the 
"people  who  yet  remain  in  the  place,  to  avoid  the  stench. 

*'  Thus  I  have  told  you  a  long  story  ;  and  God  knows 
what  worse  may  happen  yet.  I  am  afraid  to  stay,  and 
yet  know  not  how,  in  point  of  conscience,  at  such  a  junc- 
ture, to  quit  my  station.  I  am,  Sir,  Yours,  &c." 


TO  THE   EDITOR. 

•'  Sir, — Finding  my  last  and  former  requests  compiled  witli,  to  my  satis- 
faction, it  has  encouraged  me  now  to  offer  you  other  miscellaneous  articles 
for  your  acceptance  and  leave,  to  be  inserted  in  your  next  Magazine'"  and  I 
flatter  myself,  these  will  add  to  the  numerous  and  astonishing  Accounts  with 
■which  your  excellent  Publication  abounds  3  and  you  will  confer  an  obli'^ation 
on  your  occasional.Carrcspondcnt, 

Kottingliam,  Jan.Ci,  1804.  D.  B.  L." 

EXTRAORDINARY  ACCOUNT  OF  A  SHEEP. 

i  HE  following  curious  aqd  extraordinary  circumstance 
occurred  during  the  month  of  January  179G  : — A  ewe 
sheep,  big  with  lamb,  the  property  of  Mr.  Mulling,  of 
Hcnstridge,  in  the  county  of  Somerset,  was  found  dead  in 
the  field,  occasioned  by  her  falling  into  a  trench  or  fur- 
row. On  opening  her,  she  Avas  found  to  contain  six: 
lambs,  all  perfectly  formed,  but  materially  differing  in 
Vol.  II.  I  si2e 


58  IKSTAKCES  OF  ATTACHMEx\T — Fl^CUNDlTY. 

size  and  maturity;  one  of  the  couple  was  as  large  as 
lambs  usually  are  at  the  time  of  yeaning,  and  covered 
with  wool ;  the  second  couple  smaller,  and  were  without 
wool ;  and  the  third  appeared  about  half-grown  ;  from 
whence  it  is  probable,  the}-  were  the  effect  of  three  sepa- 
rate and  distinct  conceptions. 


SINGULAR   INSTANCE    OF    UNWEARIED    ATTACHMENT, 

In  the  beginning  of  the  month  of  November  1803,  was 
married,  I\Ir.  Thomas  Dufty,  a  respectable  farmer  of  Ep- 
perstone,  near  Mansfield,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham,  to 
Miss  Grame,  a  lady  of  fortune,  in  the  county  of  Westmore- 
land. The  annals  of  matrimony  scarce  afford  a  more  sin- 
gular instance  of  unwearied  attachment  than  tlie  follo^ving  : 
The  parties  were  known  to  each  other  in  their  youth,  and 
became  mutually  enamoured  ;  but  the  unrelenting  oppo- 
sition of  parents  broke  off  the  match.  Mr,  D.  found  ano- 
ther connection,  he  married  and  was  the  father  of  several 
children,  and  became  a  -widower.  His  first  love  was  again 
by  correspondence  renewed,  again  frustrated.  By  the 
same  means  he  sought  consolation  in  the  arms  of  a  second 
wife,  his  family  again  increased,  and  he  a  second  time  be- 
came a  widower.  His  first  flame  still  unextinguished, 
once  more  renewed,  and  former  obstacles  being  extinct, 
After  a  lapse  of  25  years,  without  ever  seeing  each  other 
in  the  interval,  this  couple  have  at  length  united. 

TVrO  REMARKABLE  INSTANCES  OF  FECUNDITY. 

On  the  31st  of  August  1803,  Mary,  the  wife  of  Thoniai 
Cooke,  an  industrious  cottager,  of  Haggon-field,  near 
Worksop,  was  safely  delivered  of  one  boy  and  two  girls^ 
all  fine  children.  The  parents  are  each  in  their  46th  year, 
have  had  ten  children  prior  to  this  treble  birth,  at  one  time 
twins.   Their  eldest  daughter  is  married,  and  has  had  three 

children  : 


A  FLOATING  ISLAND — AGRICULTURAL  EXPERIMENT.  59 

children  ;  a  grandmother  is  therefore  the  mother  of  the 
three  new-born  infants. 

To  keep  pace,  however,  with  the  prohfic  family  above 
described,  a  few  days  after,  Mrs.  White,  of  Thrumpton, 
near  Retford,  Nottinghamshire,  was  safely  delivered  of 
three  children,  two  giris  and  one  boy,  all  now  living. 


A  remarkable  Floating  Island  in  this  Country. 
Adjoining  Easthwaite-Mater,  near  Hawkshead,  Lanca* 
shire,  there  is  a  tarn  (or  small  lake)  called  Priestpot,  upon 
which  is  an  island,  containing  about  a  rood  of  land,  mostly 
covered  with  wdllow' s  ;  some  of  them  1 8  or  20  feet  high. — 
This  island  is  distinguished  by  the  name  of  The  Car.  At 
the  breaking  up  of  the  severe  frost  in  the  year  1795,  a  boy 
ran  into  the  house  of  the  proprietor  of  this  island,  who  lived 
■within  view  of  it,  and  told  him  that  "  his  Car  was  coming 
up  the  Tarn."  The  proprietor  and  his  family  soon  proved 
the  truth  of  the  boy's  report,  and  b^ield  with  astonishment, 
not  "  Bernavi-wood  removed  to  Dunsinane  P'  but  the  woody 
island  approaching  them  with  slow  and  majestic  motion. — 
It  rested,  however,  before  it  reached  the  edge  of  the  Tarn, 
and  afterwards  frequently  changed  its  position  as  the  wind 
directed  :  being  sometimes  seen  at  one  side  of  the  lake, 
■which  is  about  200  yards  across,  and  sometimes  in  the  cen- 
ter. It  is  conjectured  to  have  been  long  separated  from 
the  bed  of  the  lake,  and  only  fastened  by  some  of  the  roots 
of  the  trees,  w-hich  were  probably  broken  by  the  extraot- 
(linary  rise  of  the  water  on  the  melting  of  the  ice. 


AGRICULTURAL  EXPERIMENT, 

X  HE  following  Agricultural  experiment  was  made  by 
Mr.  Alsagar^^of  Acton  Bcauchamp,  in  Herefordshire. — In 
August  1795,  he  set  a  single  grain  of  wheat  j  as  soon  as  it 
iis.d  properly  taken  root,  he  took  it  up  aiid  divided  it  into 

I  Z  several 


60  SUDDEN    AND    VIOLENT    INUNDATION. 

several  parts,  and  transplanted  them. — In  August  1796,  it 
Av as  reaped,  when  it  produced  137  ears;  the  average  of 
Avhich  was  80  grains  in  each  ear  ;  the  total  produce  10,960 
grains  of  wheat,  besides  the  straW' ,  most  of  which  was  seven 
feet  high.  This  clearly  shews,  what  a  prodigious  saving 
there  is  even  in  the  common  mode  of  setting,  or  what  is 
termed  dibbling,  in  comparison  with  the  general  practice 
of  sowing  the  seed  corn. 


SUDDEN    AND    VIOLENT    INUNDATION, 

In  the  beginning  of  April  1792,  the  inhabitants  of  Broms- 
grove,  were  alarmed  and  distressed  beyond  description,  by 
one  of  tlie  most  violent  and  sudden  inundations  ever  known. 
Between  three  and  four  o'clock,  during  a  storm,  accom- 
panied with  loud  and  continued  claps  of  thunder,  and  the 
most  vivid  lightning,  a  water-spout  fell  upon  tiiat  part  of 
the  Lickey  which  is  nearest  the  town.  The  pouring  down 
of  the  cataract  was  heard  to  a  considerable  distance,  and 
the  body  of  water  taking  a  direction  towards  Bromsgrove, 
soon  swept  away  every  thing  before  it,  laid  down  the 
hedges,  washed  quantities  of  grain  from  barns  and  rhalt- 
houses,  destroyed  tan-yards  ;  and  so  strong  was  the  current, 
that  it  floated  tlirough  the  to\^  n  a  waggon  loaded  with 
skins.  The  inhabitants  of  the  place  had  no  time  to  take 
the  necessary  precautions  ;  idmost  in  an  instant,  tlie  cellars 
and  under-kitchens  wei"e  filled  to  the  top,  and  every  thing 
in  them  overturned.  In  a  few  minutes  the  water  entered 
at  the  parlour  sv indows,  covered  the  counters  of  shops,  and 
in  the  principal  street  it  rose  and  continu*.:d  upwards  of  live 
feet  perpendicular  from  the  pavement.  The  horses  in 
some  of  the  inn-stables,  stood  up  to  tljcir  tails  in  water. — 
Pigs  washed  from  their  styes,  were  sv/imming  through  the 
passages  of  the  houses  situated  between  the  brook  and  the 
principal  street ;  down  which  quantities  of  furniture,  brew- 
ing utensils,  cloathing,  shop  articles,   grain,  garden-pails, 

wheoi- 


ANTlaUITIES   FOUND  IN  LEADENH ALL-STREET.       Oi 

'wheelbarrows,  pigs,  dogs,  timber,  &c.  wore  carried  in  one 
mass  by  the  iinpotuous  torrent.  Many  of  the  inhabitants, 
vho  happened  to  be  at  the  neighbours,  could  not  that 
evening  return  home.  A  house  on  the  borders  of  the 
Lickey  was  thrown  down  by  the  force  of  the  water,  thiongli 
"we  do  not  hear  any  were  destroyed  in  Brom?grove  ;  but  tiie 
damage  sustained  by  the  shopkeepers,  (and  particular!  r 
hucksters,)  was  very  great.  The  hedges  and  other  fenced 
to  fields  and  gardens  on  the  side  of  the  town,  were  enurelr 
demolished,  numbers  of  sljcep  and  pigs  were  drov.ncd  ; 
and,  in  addition  to  tlje  calamity,  we  have  to  add,  tliatsomu 
young  ciiildren  also  lost  their  lives. 


Curious  Antiquities  in  Leadenhall-Street. 

J.  HE  curiosities  found  since  New- Year's  dav,  in  di<roii))T 
opposite  the  East  India  House  in  Leadenhfjl -street,  proved 
to  be  exceedingly  valuable.  About  ten  feet  below  the  sur- 
face of  the  street,  the  workmen  finding  something  hard,  it 
was  immediatel}^  inspected  by  that  respectable  antiquarian 
IVIr.  Wilkins,'  by  whose  directions  and  assiduity  a  perfect 
urn  Avas  soon  brought  out.  It  contained  a  quantity  of 
bones,  among  which  a  finger  and  jaw-bone  were  plainlv 
discernable.  A  beautiful  Roman  tesselated  pavement  was 
also  discovered  ;  and  by  the  nice  attention  of  the  same 
gentleman,  on,e  piece  of  about  four  feet  by  two,  was  raised 
uninjured.  The  entire  pavement  seems  to  have  been  a 
square  of  nine  feet,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  an  elegantly 
adorned  circle  of  four  feet,  containing  a  Bacchus  holdinn- 
a  Mand,  and  riding  on  a  Tiger  ;  the  figure  is  in  a  purple 
robe,  and  the  attitude  of  the  beast  is  very  grand  ;  liis  head 
looking  at  the  figure  o:i  liis  back,  on(!  of  liis  fore-feet  raided, 
stepping  well  forward,  and  the  tail  extended.  Under  tlie 
able  direction  of  the  librarian,  there  is  no  doubt  of  the  whole 
being  rendered  well  worthy  the  attention  of  the  antiquarian. 

A  WOKD^Pv- 


(     62     ) 

A    WONDERFUL    PRESERVATION. 

The  ship  Actaeon,  Capt.  Groat,  being  taken  into  the  Dock 
at  Hull,  to  repair  the  damage  she  received,  in  consequence 
of  having  been  1 4  daj's  upon  a  rocky  strand  on  the  Island 
of  Gothland,  during  her  vo3-age  from  Narva  to  Hull,  a 
large  piece  of  rock,  ^reighing  lODlbs.  was  discovered  fixed 
in  a  plank  on  the  larboard-side,  nearly  in  the  midships, 
and  close  to  the  keel,  which  dropped  out  immediately  oa 
the  sheathing  being  removed,  leaving  a  large  opening  intO: 
the  hold.  Had  it  fallen  out  during  her  passage,  she  musfe 
inevitably  have  been  lost. — A  singular  circumstance  i^ 
pientianed  in  Cook's  Voyages. 


Longevity. — Seven  persons  have  died  in  the  course  of 
a  few  weeks,  whose  united  ages  amount  to  sir  hundred  and- 
seventif-scven  years,  namely, — Mr.  William  Shipley,  Pro- 
jector of  the  Society  for  the  Encouragement  of  Arts,  &c. 
89  years — Mr.  G.  Pudney,  Parish  Clerk  of  Kelvedon, 
Essex,  90 — Mrs.  Fisher,  Roydon,  Norfolk,  90 — Mrs.  Oli- 
ver, Vine-street,  Piccadilly,  95 — Mr.  John  Page,  Gardener 
to  the  Asyluni,  101 — Mr.  John  Pusell,  at  Lanvlhangel,  102 
A  female  Pauper  in  Manchester  Workhouse,  110 — In  all 
677  years. 

ACCOUNT    OF   JOHN    OF    KENT. 

CJf  the  atchievements  of  this  subject  of  antiquity,  the 
tongue  of  rumour,  in  the  town  of  Grosmont,  in  Mon- 
mouthshire, is  never  at  rest. — Old  and  3'oung  Avomen, 
men  and  boys  unite  in  relating,  Avith  extreme  volubility, 
and  without  any  material  disagreement,  a  series  of  extraor- 
dinary tales  concerning  this  wonderful  personage  ;  and 
whom  they  generally  believe,  had  certainly  made  a  com- 
pact with  the  devil. 

John 


ACCOUNT    OF    JOHN    OF   KEXT.  €?, 

John  of  Kent,  Gwent,  or  Went,  though  a  scholar  and 
a  Franciscan,  following  their  most  celebrated  schools  at 
Oxford,  was  originally  bred  at  Chepstow,  in  Monmouth- 
shire ;  and  being  once  employed  by  a  farmer,  and  wantuig 
to  go  to  Grosmont  Fair,  it  is  related  that  he  confined  a 
number  of  crows  in  an  old  barn  without  a  roof,  to  Iceep 
them  from  the  corn  ;  and  sure  enough,  says  the  Tradition, 
when  Jack  came  back,  they  were  all  there ;  for  though 
thfey  made  a  terrible  clatter,  they  would  not  fly  away  till 
Jack  came  himself  and  broke  the  spell  that  confined  them. 
Kentchurch  House,  the  neisJ-hbourino-  seat  of  the  Scudamorc 
family,  by  whom  some  accounts  say,  Jack  was  hired  as  a 
servant,  became  afterwards  the  scene  of  his  more  marvel- 
Jous  exploits. — But  after  he  came  to  maturity,  as  he  built 
the  bridge  over  the  river  Monnow,  leading  to  Kentchurch, 
and  which  is  still  called  John  of  Kent's  Bridge,  it  is  said 
to  have  been  done  in  one  niglit,  by  the  help  of  familiar 
spirits. 

At  Kentchurch  House,  a  cellar  was  shewn  so  late  as 
1801,  as  the  stable  Avhere  John  kept  horses,  on  wliich  lie 
traversed  the  air  with  the  speed  of  Lapland  Witches  -^  an3 
his  portrait  on  wood,  painted  in  oil,  is  likewise  preserved 
there. 

An  old  tomb-stone  in  the  church-yard  of  Grosmont, 
close  to  the  East  wall  of  the  chancel,  is  said  to  cover  liis 
body  ;  and  the  legend  reports,  that  he  was  buried  thereto 
evade  the  compact  which  he  made  with  Satan,  which  was, 
tliat  if  he  was  buried  either  within  or  without  the  thurcli^ 
he  should  become  his  property. 

'J'he  famil}'^  of  the  Kentchurches,  who  liavc  been  lately 
applied  to  for  the  true  character  of  this  reputed  isorcerer 
could  afford  no  specific  or  positive  information.  Accord- 
ing to  general  tradition,  he  was  a  learned  Monk,  educated 
at  one  of  the  Universities,  and  remarkable  for  his  acquire- 
ments, which  made  the  vulgar,  in  an  ignorant  age,  sup- 

^cs& 


61-  A  MAN  BOHN  WITHC'JT  LEGS  0?.  KNEES, 

pose  him  anotlicr  Friar  Bacon.  As  a  proof  of  bis  industry sf 
it  is  Icnown,  that  a  Latin  Translation  of  the  Bible,  on  vel- 
Lim,  cither  made,  or  copied  Vj}-  him,  Avas  once  in  the  Kent- 
church  family  ;  but  has  been  mislaid  or  destroyed  a  long 
feimc  since. 

His  other  known  uorks  ivcre,  Commentaries  on  the 
jVIastcr  of  the  Sentences — Sermons  to  the  People — and 
Disputed  Questions.  He  died  iji  1348,  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  V.  ;  and  the  Catalogue  of  the  Provincial  Ministers, 
says  of  him — "  Brother  John  Went,  Doctor  of  Oxford, 
•who  Avrought  miracles  in  his  lifetime,  lies  at  Hereford."' — 
According  to  others,  he  was  a  Bard>of  Owen  Glendower, 
who,  on  the  defeat  of  tliis  chieftain,  became  domesticated 
in  the  family  of  the  Scudamores  ;  one  of  whom  married 
the  daughter  of  the  celebrated  Owen. 


A    MAN    BORN    AVITHOUT    LEGS    OR    KNEES. 

1.  HERE  is  now  living  in  the  parish  of  Ednam,  the  birtli- 
pluce  of  the  immortal  poet  Thomson,  a  young  man  IS  years 
oC  age,  "vvho  was  born  without  legs  or  knees,  and  his  tliighs 
defective.  His  father  was  a  day-labourer,  but  has  been' 
dead  some  years  : — he  sits  upon  a  table  in  the  cottage 
through  the  day,  and  when  the  weather  is  fair,  his  mother 
carries  him  into  a  field,  where  he  reads  and  enjoys  the  air. 
He  h:us  taught  himself  to  read,  to  write  a  legible  hand,  to 
play  on  tlic  flute,  to  draw.Avith  a  pencil,  although  one  of 
})is  arms  he  cannot  raise  to  his  breast ;  aiid  he  attempts 
poclrv.  He  is,  notwithstanding  the  want  of  exercise,  very 
}ie;ilthv,  alwavs  cheerful  and  contented,  though  his  support 
entirely  depends  on  the  wages  of  his  younger  brother,  who 
is  servant  to  a  respectable  farmer  at  Ednam.  He  is  very 
rrrateful  to  any  person  v/ho  lends  him  books,  drawings  to 
coDV,  or  pajs  the  least  attention  to  him.  His  diet  is  ex- 
ceedingly sparing.     The  lameness  of  one  of  his  legs  pre- 

*  vents 


THE   HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS.  G5 

Vents  him  from  learning  any  business  to  earn  his  Hving.— 
He  converses  with  great  propriety  upon  every  subject, 
althousfh  his  articulation  is  also  clefectiv-e, 

o 

A  case  similar  with  the  above,  occurred  some  years  ago 
in  the  South  of  France  ;  where  the  unfortunate  subject  hav- 
ing neither  legs  nor  thighs,  was  kept  in  a  kind  of  case,  and 
occasionally  lifted  about.  What  made  the  situation  of  this 
person  tlie  more  lamentable,  was  his  being  endowed  with 
an  uncommon  share  of  sensibility*,  which  rendered  him 
so  much  the  more  susceptible  of  the  peculiarity  of  his 
situation.  From  the  smallness  of  his  size,  it  should  be  ob- 
served, he  was  deemed  a  dwarf. 

Dec.  14,  1803.  Yours,  &c.         J— s.  R— n. 


THE.  HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS. 
Being  an  authentic  and -particular  Account  of  that  mysterious  and  complicatei 
Affair^  ichich  has  excited  so  much  Curiosity  and  Conversation  ;  the  Characters 
and  Appearances  of  the  supposed  Spectre,  the  Circumstances  that  led  to  the 
Death  o/'Thomas  Millwood  ;  the  Trial  of  his  Murderer,  §c,  S^c. 

JtIammersmith,  it  appears,  has  been  disturbed  for  some 
months  past,  by  more  than  one  supposed  spectre,  to  the 
great  annoyance  of  the  male  and  female  inljabitants. — In 
the  church-yard,  and  several  of  the  avenues  about  tlie 
place,  it  seems  that  various  persons  had  been  very  mucli 
alarmed,  by  what  they  understood  to  have  been  super- 
natural beinos,  whicli  had  of  course  filled  the  minds  of 
numbers  with  a  variety  of'  apprehensions  ;  and  these  ap- 
pearances latterly  became  particularly  troublesome  in  tlie 
lower  part  of  the  town,  near  Dorvell's-row.  Sev^eral  of  the 
inhabitants,  aware  of  the  imposture,  during  this  time,  had 
given  themselves  much  trouble  to  detect  it,  but  without 
success. — But  on  the  night  of  Tuesday,  January  3,  Francis 
Smith,  an  exciseman,  M'ho  lodged  at  Mr.  Oakley's  ad- 

*  The  poor  youth  of  Ednivm,  having  a  portion  of  this  gift,  has  published 
some  very  pretty  verse?,  and  in  comnjiscration  of  his  case,  some  well-disposed 
persons  have  lately  opened  a  siibscriptionfor  his  benefit. 

Vol.  II.  X  joining 


6*  THE   HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS. 

joining  the  White  Hart,  in  Hammersmith  ;  bchig  at  that 
liouse  on  the  same  evening,  and  we  may  suppose,  Avarm 
over  his  hquor,  vrought  liimself  up  to  the  resolution  of 
going  in  quest  of  the  ghost. — Unhappil}-  supposing  some- 
thing more  substantial  than  a  mere  airy  form,  he  loaded  a 
gun,  and  sallied  out  with  William  Girdler,  the  watchman 
of  tliat  part  of  Haunnersmith,  who  had  previously  agreed 
upon  a  ])ass-.word,  wheriby  they  might  distinguish  each 
other,  which  was — "  Who  comes  there  ?"  *'  A  friend.'* 
**  Advance,  friend."  Girdler  then  continued  upon  his  re- 
gular beat,  while  Smith,  that  evening,  went  down  Black 
Lion-lane.  The  circumstances  that  immediately  followed, 
we  cannot  exhibit  in  a  clearer  point  of  view,  than  that  of 
the  ensuing  evidence  given  before  the  Coroner,  and  upon 
the  trial.  It  appeared  before  the  Coroner,  that  Smith 
took  his  station  in  Black  Lion-lane,  one  of  the  places  where 
the  ghost  used  to  make  his  escape  when  hard  pressed  by 
his  pursuers.  He  had  not  long  been  in  waiting  before  he 
fancied  he  saw  the  wished-for  object.  A  figure  dressed  in 
M'hitc  (tliat  is,  Thomas  Millwood,  the  plaisterer,  in  a  white 
jacket  and  trousers)  approaching,  Smith  fired,  and  the 
mistaken  object  fell  to  the  ground.  Millwood  was  then  on 
his  way  to  ,a  house  in  the  neighbourhood,  where  his  wife 
was  at  work,  to  fetch  her  home,  which  his  sister  also  re^ 
lates  upon  the  trial : — She  said  her  brother  was  about  23 
years  of  age,  and  was  a  plaisterer  by  trade.  On  the  even- 
ing of  Tuesday  last,  he  was  at  the  house  of  his  father,  in 
Black  Lion-lane,  with  whom  the  Avitness  resides.  He  left 
the  house  between  ten  and  eleven  o'clock,  and  the  witness 
l.ieing  almost  immediately  struck  with  a  presentiment  that 
some  accident  would  befal  him,  she  accordingly  went  to 
the  door,  and  stood  on  some  bricks,  in  order  to  look  out 
for  him.  She  then  heard  a  voice  say,  "  D — n  you,  who 
are  you  ? — Stand,  else  I'll  shoot  you  !"  and  the  report  of 
a  gun  immediately  succeeded.  Her  brother  was  perfectly 
•  sober. 


THE   HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS.  C7 

sober.  The  neighbourhood  had  for  about  two  months  been 
disturbed  with  the  report  of  a  ghost ;  but  she  did  not  be- 
lieve, nor  had  ever  heard,  that  her  brother  had  assumed 
such  an  appearance. 

INIr.  John  Lock,  wine  merchant,  in  Black  Lion-lane,  Ham- 
mersmith, said,  that  as  he  was  returning  home  from  the  Plouo-h 
and  Harrow,  on  the  evening  of  Tuesday  last,  about  half  past 
10  o'clock,  in  company  with  Mr.  Geo.  Stow,  he  was  accosted 
by  Francis  Smith,  one  of  his  Majesty's  officers  of  excise, 
■who  asked  to  speak  with  him.  Upon  going  aside.  Smith 
informed  him  that  he  had  shot  a  man,  who  he  believed  to 
be  the  ghost.  The  witness  informed  Mr.  Stow  of  the  cir- 
cumstance, and  they  accompanied  Smith  to  the  place. 
They  found  the  deceased  lying  in  a  cross  lane  leading  from 
Beaver-lane  to  Black  Lion-lane,  upon  his  back,  apparently 
dead.  The  wound  was  under  his  left  under  jaw,  and  tlie 
skin  of  his  face  was  exceedingly  black.  Smith  did  not  ap- 
pear sensible  that  he  had  done  any  thing  wrono-,  till  the 
witness  warned  him  of  the  consequences  of  such  a  stew.  He 
then  seemed  much  affected,  and  said,  that  he  had  spoken 
twice,  but  had  received  ne  answer,  and  that  the  ni'o-ht  Avas 
very  dark. 

William  Girdler,  a  watchman,  said,  that  he  had  a  slio-lit 
acquaintance  with  the  deceased.  That  the  neighbourhood 
had  been  much  alarmed  for  two  months  past,  with  the  ru- 
mour of  a  ghost  walking  through  Black  Lion-lane.  That 
he  went  his  rounds  as  usual  on  Tuesday  evening  last.  That 
he  had  appointed  to  meet  with  Francis  Smith,  in  order  to  o-o 
in  search  of  the  ghost.  They  had  exchanged  a  watcli- 
word,  which  they  were  to  use. — ^^Vhen  the  witness  came 
near  Mr.  Stow's  house  he  heard  the  report  of  a  o-un,  and  a 
few  minutes  afterwards,  as  he  was  going  to  the  White  Hart 
public-house,  he  met  a  young  woman,  who  told  him  that 
he  was  wanted.  Having  gone  on  a  little  way,  he  met 
^raitb,  and  asked  him  what  intelligence  ?   Smith  answered, 

K  2  very 


6$  THE   HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS. 

very  bad.  They  then  met  Mr.  Stow,  and  went  to  the  place 
where  the  deceased  lay.  Smith  said  that  he  would  deliver 
himself  up  ;  that  he  had  spoken  to  the  deceased  twice  be- 
fore he  tired,  but  he  would  give  him  no  answer. 

The  Coroner  summed  up  the  evidence  with  great  abiUty 
and  humanity  ,  Avhen  the  Jury,  after  some  deliberation, 
returned  a  verdict  of  Wilful  Murder.  A  warrant  was  then 
made  out,  and  Smith  committed  to  Newgate. 

On  Friday,  Jan.  13,  he  took  his  trial  at  the  Old  Bailey, 
being  charged  with  "Wilful  INIurder. 

The  first  witness  called,  was  Mr.  John  Lock,  who  added 
very  little  to  what  he  had  said  before  the  Coroner,  excepting 
that  he  consulted  Mr.  Stow,  who  was  with  him,  going  to  a 
cross  lane,  called  Lime-Kiln-lane,  what  was  best  to  be  done 
with  the  body.  They  sent  for  the  high  constable  of  the 
parish,  and  it  was  agreed  to  remove  the  body  to  the  Black 
Lion  public-house.  It  was  evident,  upon  examining  the  de- 
ceased, that  the  head  was  shot  just  below  the  lower  jaw  on 
the  left  side. — The  prisoner,  tlien  he  said,  wished  to  surren- 
der himself  into  the  hands  of  justice  ;  but  the  witness  ad- 
vised him  to  go  home  to  his  lodgings. 

Mr.  Lock,  on  his  cross-examination  by  Mr.  Const,  Counsel 
for  the  prisoner,  said,  that  the  neighbourhood  of  Hammer- 
smith had  been  much  alarmed  for  upwards  of  five  weeks 
previous  to  the  deatii  of  Mdlwood,  by  means  of  a  supposed 
"■host.  He  iiad,  however,  never  seen  any  such  appearance, 
but  believeil  parties  went  out  for  the  purpose  of  appre- 
liendin?"  the  person  who  was  assuming  the  character. — 
The  night  was  extremely  dark,  and  the  lane  in  which  tiie 
imfortunate  afi'air  occurred,  so  nmch  so,  that  a  person  could 
not  be  perceived  on  the  opposite  side  of  it.  The  witness 
said  that  he  had  known  the  prisoner  some  time  ;  his  dispo- 
sition was  exceedingly  mild  and  generous,  and  he  was 
very  much  liked  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Wilham  Girdler,  the  watchman,  corroborated  the  account 

<ri\H.-a 


THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS.  69 

given  by  l\Ir.  Lock,  as  to  the  manner  in  whicli  tlie  de- 
ceased was  found,  and  stated  tliat  the  prisoner  and  himself 
parted  about  half  past  ten  o'clock.  Just  after  they  parted, 
he  heard  the  report  of  a  gun,  but  did  not  attend  to  it,  having 
been  in  the  habit  of  hearing  guns  frequentl}'-  fired  in  the 
night.  After  he  had  gone  his  rounds,  he  went  to  Mr. 
Horner's,  the  White  Hart  public-iiouse,  where  the  servant 
girl  came  out  tc  him,  and  said  that  Smith  wanted  him,  who 
told  him  that  he  had  hurt  a  man  ;  the  witness  said  he 
hoped  not  much.  Smith  replied,  that  he  was  afraid  he  had 
hurt  him  very  bad. 

On  his  cross-cxamination  by  ]Mr.  Gurney,  Counsel  for 
the  prisoner,  he  said,  he  heard  of  the  rumour  of  a  ghost, 
and  had  seen  it  himself  on  the  Thursday  preceding  the  ac- 
cident. It  was  standnig  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road  near 
to  Bcaver-lanc,  and  was  covered  either  w-ith  a  large  sheet 
or  tablecloth.  He  pursued  it,  and  the  figure  pulled  off  the 
covering  and  I'an  away.  The  prisoner  he  described  as  a  good- 
tempered  young  man,  certainly  not  of  a  cruel  disposition. 

Ann  Millwood,  a  very  genteel  young  woman,  sister  of 
the  deceased,  stated,  that  her  brother  was  at  her  father's 
house  about  eleven  o'clock  on  Tuesday  evening,  the  3d  of 
January.  His  wife  was  absent  from  home,  having  gone  to 
Mr.  Smith,  the  out  rider  ;  her  mothei  and  the  family  were 
going  to  bed,  and  she  requested  that  he  would  go  and  fetch 
home  his  Avife.  He  was  going  to  bed  himself,  but  at  their 
intreaties  got  up  and  left  the  house  for  that  purpose.  She 
then  repeated  the  same  circumstances  which  were  detailed 
before  the  Coroner. 

Mr.  Flower,  surgeon,  stated,  that  he  examined  the  body 
of  the  deceased,  by  order  of  the  Coroner,  on  the  Gth  of 
January.  He  found  a  gun-shot  wound  on  the  left  side  of 
the  face,  just  below  the  under  jaw.  There  were  some 
small  shot  lodged  in  his  neck,  the  size  appeared  about 
No.  4,  the  shot  penetrated  the  vertebrce  of  the  neck  and 

injurv-d 


TO  THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS. 

injured  the  spinal  marrow.  This,  no  doubt,  in  his  mind, 
Iiad  occasioned  his  death.  The  deceased's  face  was  ex- 
ceedingly black,  and  was  so  in  consequence  of  the  powder 
which  had  lodged  in  it.  This  gentleman  also  gave  Smith 
a  good  character,  and  said  his  disposition  was  far  from 
being  vindictive. 

William  Brooks,  the  constable,  stated  his  apprehension 
of  Smith  at  his  lodgings,  who  had  voluntarily  come  down 
when  he  knocked  at  the  door,  and  surrendered  himself. — • 
He  also  bore  testimony  to  liis  good  character  j  and  here  the 
evidence  for  the  prosecution  closed. 

The  Lord  Chief  Baron  then  informed  die  prisoner,  that 
he  might  cfier  any  thing  he  had  in  his  defence  to  the 
charge. 

The  prisoner  saying  he  left  his  defence  to  his  Counsel; 

The  Lord  Ciiicf  Baron  informed  him,  that  his  Counsel 
could  only  examine  the  witnesses,  and  that  if  he  wished  to 
say  any  thing,  he  must  address  the  Court  himself.  . 

The  prisoner  then,  in  extreme  agitation,  said,  that  when 
he  went  out  from  Jiome,  it  was  with  a  very  good  intention  ; 
an  intention  of  iinding  out  the  person  who  had  alarmed  the 
niiighbourhood,  by  assuming  a  supernatural  appearance ; 
that  meeting  with  the  deceased,  and  having  called  to  him 
twice,  and  not  receiving  an  answer,  he  was  very  much 
frightened,  and  knew  not  what  he  did.  He  must  most 
solemnly  declare  liis  innocence  with  respect  to  any  inten- 
tion of  taking  away  the  life  of  the  unfortunate  man,  or  any 
man  whatsoever. 

His  Counsel  then  proceeded  to  call  the  witnesses  on  liis 
behalf;  the  first, 

Mrs.  Fullbrook,  a  relation  of  the  deceased,  stated,  she 
resided  in  the  same  house  with  him  ;  and  on  Saturday  pre- 
ceding his  death,  being  at  home  together,  he  informed  her, 
that  two  ladies  and  a  gentleman,  on  account  of  the  dress 
he  wore,  had  been  frightened  at  him  on  the  Ten-ace. — 

One 


THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS.  11 

One  of  them  cried  as  be  came  near,  *'  There  goes  the 
ghost !"  To  which  he  repHed,  using  a  bad  oath,  "  I  am 
no  more  a  ghost  than  yourself ;  do  you  want  a  punch  o'  the 
head  ?"  On  this  account  she  had  advised  him  to  put  on  a 
great  coat  to  screen  himself  from  danger  ;  but  he  "would 
not  attend  to  the  suggestions  of  the  witness,  observing  there 
was  no  danger. 

Thomas  Groom,  servant  to  Mr.  Burgess,  a  brewer  at 
Hammersmith,  stated,  that  he  heard  a  great  talk  about  the 
ghost ;  that  one  night  he  was  passing  through,  the  church- 
yard, when  some  pcrsca  caught  h'nn  fast  by  the  throat, 
and  on  his  calling  out  for  assistance  to  his  fellow  servant, 
w  ho  was  a  short  distance  from  him,  the  latter  turned  back, 
but  the}'  could  not  see  any  tiling. 

Mr.  George  Stow,  Mr.  Hill,  Mr.  Rult,  !\Ir.  BoswcU, 
]\Ir.  Dowding,  and  several  other  very  respectable  persons, 
were  called  ;  they  all  concurred  in  giving  him  the  best  of 
characters. 

Mr.  Millwood,  cousin  to  the  deceased,  spoke  in  the  same 
terms  of  the  prisoner,  and  said  that  they  had  no  quarrel 
with  each  otlier  as  far  as  he  knew. 

The  Lord  Chief  Baron  then  charged  the  Jury.  The 
prisoner,  he  observed,  stood  indicted  for  the  murder  of 
Thomas  Millwood,  by  shooting  him  with  a  gun,  so  as  to 
bruise  his  head,  injure  the  spinal  marrow  of  his  back,  and 
produce  instant  death.  It  would  be  necessary  for  him  to 
state,  that  although  to  constitute  the  crime  of  murder,  it 
was  generally  requisite  that  malice  propcnsc  sliould  be 
proved,  yet  it  was  not  absolutely  so  in  all  cases.  1'he  law 
did  not  of  necessity  imply,  that  where  a  person  met  with  iiis 
death  from  the  hands  of  another,  that  malice,  or  what  was 
called  in  vulgar  speaking,  spite,  should  be  proved.  Thd  dis- 
position of  a  pcrsoii's  viind  to  kill  xcas  sn(jii:iL'nt ,  in  the  eye  of 
the  law  to  adjudge  him  guilty  of  murder.  For  instance,  if 
one  person  should  have  taken  it  into  his  liead  to  fire  into 

the 


72  THE    HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS. 

the  very  hall  in  which  the  Court  was  sitting,  and  kill  any 
one  in  tlic  Conrt,  then  he  wonld  be  guilty  oi  murder.  So, 
in  another  case,  if  a  person  should  shoot  at  one  man  and  kill 
another,  he  would  be  equally  guilty.  The  law  would  con- 
sider his  disposition  of  mind,  which  was  evidently  to  kill, 
without  having  legal  authoritj-,  just  provocation,  in  self- 
defence,  or  in  the  absence  of  his  reasoning  facult}'.  There 
were  oronnds  of  miti";ation  Avhich  would  serve  to  lessen  the 
crime.  His  Lordship  professed;  that  he  could  not,  in  the 
case  now  before  the  Court  for  its  consideration,  distinguish 
any  one  of  these  features  of  alleviation  or  mitigation  ; 
therefore,  if  the  prisoner  at  the  bar,  had  taken  aw  ay  the 
life  of  another,  without  authority,  permission,  or  in  de- 
fence of  his  own  life,  then  his  ofience  Avent  to  murder. — 
If  it  was  not  so,  no  one  person  could  be  safe.  It  would  be 
in  the  power  of  any  one  to  say,  such  and  such  a  one  has 
committed  some  oflerice  which  I  think  deserves  death,  and 
I  will  go  and  dispatch  him.  It  would,  indeed,  be  grievous 
if  such  proceedings  were  to  be  tolerated — -because  some 
"wicked  and  malicious  person,  taking  advantage  of  tl)e  cre- 
dulity which  belonged  to  a  great  portion  of  mankind,  had 
committed  a  misdemeanour,  in  going  about  in  an  impious 
manner,  assuming  the  appearance  of  a  supernatural  agent, 
was  another  person  to  sav,  "  I  will  go  and  deliberately 
shoot  that  man  w  ho  frightens  the  peaceable  neighbour- 
liood."  Certainl}^  not.  All  that  he  could  be  authorised  to 
do,  would  be  to  apprehend  him  for  that  misdemeanour. — 
Even  if  the  very  person  appearing  in  this  manner  as  a 
ghost  had  been  killed,  such  killing  was  mui'der.  But  here 
a  man  thought  he  had  a  right  to  go  and  kill  any  person  lie 
saw  in  a  light  coloured  coat.  This  was  actually  the  case 
with  the  prisoner  at  the  bar.  He  went  out  Avith  a  loaded 
gun,  intending  to  kill,  contrary  to  law,  and  killed  a  man 
who  was  perfectly  innocent.  "  Gentlemen,"  continued 
his  Lordship,  '*  I  should  be  betraying  my  duty  as  a  Judge, 

and 


THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS.  73 

and  acting  contrarv  to  the  opinion  of  my  Brother  Judges 
near  me,  if  I  did  not  toll  you  that  this  act  of  the  prisoner's, 
provided  you  believe  the  facts  given  in  evidence,  amounts 
to  notliing  less  than  murder.  In  this  case  there  was  no  ac- 
cident ;  there  was  no  sudden  or  violent  provocation  ;  nor 
"was  there  any  attempt  made  on  the  part  of  the  prisoner  to 
apprehend  the  supposed  ghost. — He  went  and  thought 
himself  entitled  to  kill  that  person  ;  and  with  a  degree  of 
rashness,  which  the  law  would  never  allow,  he  killed  another 
person.  The  crime  w^oidd  admit  of  alleviation  or  excuse, 
and  might  be  denominated  manslaughter,  if  some  of  these 
cases  which  he  had  before  enumerated  had  occurred,  nameh', 
such  as  authority  from  the  law%  or  self-defence.  With 
what  view  the  prisoner  fired  he  knew  not,  but  certainly  it 
"was  with  a  great  deal  of  rashness.  In  his  defence  he  had  im- 
puted his  conduct  to  apprehension  and  fear,  but  what  had 
been  the  consequence,  the  death  of  an  innocent  and  un- 
offending person.  All  the  Jur}^  had  to  consider  in  the  case, 
was  the  veracity  of  the  witnesses,  if  they  believed  them,  they 
would  find  tlie  prisoner  guilty.  Whatever  else  might  be 
drawn  from  the  case  was  fit  for  a  higher  tribunal.  His 
Lordship  then  recapitulated  the  evidence  for  the  prosecution 
and  the  prisoner,  and  observed,  that  the  character  Avhich 
had  been  given  of  him  Avould  be  of  no  avail  here,  however 
painful,  the}'  must  do  their  duty,  and  in  conformity  to  the 
sacred  oath  which  thev  had  taken,  o-ive  a  verdict  according 
to  the  facts  laid  before  them,  under  sanction  of  the  law." 

The  Jury  retired  for  upwards  of  one  hour,  and  on  their  . 
return  delivered  a  Verdict  of — Guillij  of  Manslaughter. 

The  Lord  Chief  Baron  informed  them,  tliat  the  Court 
could  not  receive  sucli  a  verdict,  and  they  were  bound  by 
the  solemn  obligation  which  they  had  taken,  to  decide  ac- 
cording to  the  facts.  If  they  believed  t!ie  evidence,  their 
verdict  must  be  guillij ;  or  il  the}'  discredited  the  witnesses, 
they  would  acquit  the  prisoner.     Tlie  law  he  had  clearly 

Vol.  II.  L  laid 


74  THE  HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS. 

laid  down,  and  by  that  they  must  abide.  It  -was  not  foi* 
them  to  assume  the  King's  prerogative,  and  mitigate  the 
punishment. 

Mr.  Justice  Rooke  was  of  the  same  opinion  ;  and 

]\Ir.  Justice  Lawrence  enlarged  upon  tlie  arguments  of 
the  Chief  Baron,  saying  the  prisoner  could  have  no  right 
to  destroy  Millwood.  It  was  in  evidence  that  the  sister  of 
the  deceased  heard  the  prisoner  call  out  to  her  brother  to 
stop,  or  he  would  shoot  him,  and  immediately  the  gun  was 
discharired.  The  law  laid  down,  that  in  cases  of  felon v, 
where  a  person  stands  charged  as  a  felon,  and  proper  per- 
sons are  sent  to  apprehend  him,  and  he  escapes,  after 
bein"'  in  custody,  and  runs  away,  and  the  party  from 
whom  he  escapes  shoots  and  kills  him,  that  person  is 
deemed,  in  the  eye  of  the  law,  guilty  of  murder.  Mr. 
Justice  Forster  has  laid  it  down,  that  if  a  person  trips 
another's  heels,  and  he  thereby  meets  his  death,  then  such 
person  is  guilty  of  manslaughter  ;  but  if  he  uses  a  deadly 
w^eapon,  then  he  is  guilty  of  murder.  In  this  case  it  was 
evident  that  the  gun  was  discharged  so  near  that  the  gun- 
powder blackened  the  unfortunate  man's  face.  The  Jury 
were  to  recollect  the  oaths  they  had  taken,  and  administer 
that  justice  which  the  safety  of  society  demanded. 

The  Recorder  perfectly  agreed  in  the  doctrines  laid 
down  by  the  other  Learned  Judges,  and  desired  the  Jury 
to  reconsider  their  verdict,  who,  turning  round  in  their 
box,  almost  instantly  pronounced  the  prisoner  Guilti/  of 
Murder. 

The  Lord  Chief  Baron  told  the  Jury,  that  he  should  re- 
port the  case  immediately  to  his  Majesty. 

The  Recorder  thought  the  Jur}^  had  very  properly  found 
him  guilty.  The  law  of  God,  which  ought  to  be  written 
in  the  hearts  of  all  men,  had  declared,  "  That  whosoever 
sheddeth  human  blood,  by  man  shall  his  blood  be  shed." — ■ 
Iff  tlifn  passed  the  usual  sentence. 

The 


THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS.  75 

The  prisoner  stated  his  age  to  be  29.     He  was  dressed 
in  black,  and  conducted  himself  throughout  the  trial  witli 
decent  firmness.     During  the  time  he  remained  at  the  bar, 
his  countenance  did  not  appear  to  express  much  agitation, 
until  the  Jury  left  the  box.     Upon  the  return  of  the  Jur}', 
he  appeared  still  more  agitated  ;  and  particularly  so,  when 
he  was  pronounced  guilty  of  murder.     While  the  awful 
sentence  was  passing  upon  him  by  the  Recorder,  he  sup- 
ported himself  with  difficulty,  and  was  led  out  of  the  Dock 
by  Mr.  Kirby's  assistant,  overwhelmed  with  the  horrors  of 
his  situation.     I\Ir.  Dignum,  of  Drury  Lane  Theatre,  sat 
by  him,  and  was  extremely  affected  ;  he  wept,  clasped  his 
hands  together,  and  suffered  the  greatest  agitation.     Seve- 
ral of  his  relations  were  also  present,  and  apparently  in 
great  distress.     The  Sessions  House  was  croM-ded  in  every 
jiart  by  nine  o'clock,  and  the  Yard  was  filled  Avith  an 
anxious  multitude,  all  making  inquiry,  and  interested  in 
the  fate  of  the  prisoner, — He  was  as  usual  taken  back  to 
Newgate ;  but  at  seven  in  the  evening,  a  respite  arrived 
for  him,  till  his  ]VIajest)''s  pleasure  should  be  known. 

"W^'ith  respect  to  the  fate  of  this  unfortunate  man,  though 
we  do  not  pretend  to  state  our  opinion  against  that  of  the 
Jury,  the  sentiments  of  the  majority  of  the  people,  unre- 
servedly ascribe  the  respite  of  Smith,  to  the  possible  pre- 
sumption in  the  breast  of  the  Judge,  that  the  Jury,. after 
liaving  returned  a  verdict  of  manslaughter  against  the  pri- 
soner, should  have  declared  him  not  guilty  of  murder, 
when  they  reconsidered  the  verdict. — And  if  the  Jury  were 
out  an  hour  and  twenty  minutes  in  the  first  instance,  when 
the}'  returned  the  verdict  of  manslaughter,  the  few  minutes 
they  occupied  the  second  time,  when  they  brought  in  that 
of  wilful  murder,  must,  to  common  apprehensions,  appear 
rather  too  short.  However,  having  given  in  our  preced- 
ing pages,  a  faithful  detail  of  this  important  trial  and  sin- 
gular verdicts,  we  now  proceed  to  a  retrospective  history 

L  2  ©f 


1G.  THE    HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS. 

of  the  circumstances  some  months  preceding  this  cata- 
strophe, containing  the  particulars  of  the  persons  engaged 
in  the  imposition,  and  an  impartial  description  of  these  dis- 
tnrbers  of  the  public  peace. 

So  far  back  as  October  last,  it  is  well  known,  that  the 
first  rumours  of  a  ghost  were  in  circulation  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, near  tlie  church;  which  is  thus  accounted  for  : 
It  was  then  reported,  that  a  mad  woman'  Avas  in  the 
habit  of  disturbing  the  neighbours,  by  perambulating  the 
church-yard  and  other  walks,  in  strange  and  uncouth 
dresses,  Avhich,  after  a  little  time,  was  discovered  by  Mr. 
Mood\-,  of  the  Six  Bells,,  who  well  knew  his  face,  to  be 
nothing  more  tiian  a  youth  belonging  to  Mr.  Kilberton,  a 
neighbouring  butcher,  avIio,  by  way  of  frolic,  and  to  plague 
the  maid  his  felloAv-servant,  liad  dressed  himself  in  her 
clothes,  in  which  he  frequently  appeared  in  the  church- 
yard and  other  places.  Being  reprimanded  by  INIr.  Moody 
^nd  others,  and  the  ill  consequences  which  might  attend  it, 
pointed  out,  he  desisted  froin  the  practice  altogether. — 
Notwithstan(Ung,  another  supposed  phantom  soon  sprung 
up,  and  was  seen  all  hi  u-hite,  at  various  places.  This 
ghost  also  Avas  so  clever  and  nimble  in  its  retreats,  that 
they  could  never  be  traced,  till  one  evening,  when  one 
Brazier,  a  chimney  SAveeper,  going  through  the  lower 
part  of  Church-lane,  and  the  night  being  verj'  dark,  he 
was  in  his  turn  alarmed  at  the  appearance  of  this  siqDposed 
spectre  ;  and  as  he  related  the  story  the  next  morning,  it 
seems  he  stood  still  some  moments  before  he  diu'st  proceed. 
However,  having  a  stick  in  his  hand,  he  extended  it  at 
arm's  length,  and  advancing  towards  a  tree,  against  which 
he  saw  the  object,  he  was  induced  to  exclaim — Ghost !  or 
Avhatever  you  may  be,  pray  be  civil. — But  as  he  still  con- 
tinued advancing  with  a  sIoav  pace,  instead  of  penetrating 
a  body  of  thin  air,  he  found  his  stick  in  contact  with  the 

clothes  of  a  female,  who  i)roved  to  be  a  Miss  G ,  a 

Younc: 


THE   HAMMERSMITH    GHOSTS.  11 

young  lady  of  Hammersmith,  with  her  companion.  After 
this  second  discovery,  nothing  of  the  kind  ^v as  seen  or 
heard  of  in  this  quarter,  excepting  what  has  been  re- 
lated by  Thomas  Groom,  a  servant  to  Messrs.  Burgess 
and  Winter,  brewers. — He,  a  stout  able  man,  asserted  for 
a  truth,  M'hat  he  related  upon  the  trial,  of  being  nearly 
choaked  by  the  rude  caresses  of  one  of  tlie  phantoms 
which  lie  met  in  the  church-yard. — He  did  not  keep  his 
bed,  as  it  is  reported  in  the  newspapers,  but  he  was  seve- 
ral days  before  he  got  the  better  of  the  fright. 

An  old  proverb  says,  "  The  third  time  generally  pays 
for  all :"  Accordingly,  the  next  disturber  of  the  peace, 
made  its  appearance  not  in  the  churcli-yard,  but  lower 
down,  towards  Eeavcr,  Black  Lion,  and  Plough  and  Har- 
row Lanes,  Avhich  served  it  as  a  retreat  when  pui-sued,  from 
the  hijrh  road.  A  drummer  belonQ-inac  to  the  Chiswick 
Volunteers,  an  inhabitant  of  Hammersmith,  and  a  rat- 
catcher by  his  profession,  was  one  of  the  first  that  was 
panic-struck  by  this  new  spectre. — The  next  was  a  clerk 
to  Mr.  Cromwell  the  brewer,  who  thought  he  saw  a  super-t 
natural  appearance  about  five  o'clock  one  morning  in 
Plough  and  Harrow-lane,  and  was  considerably  alarmed. 
The  pretended  spectre,  on  Thursday  the  29th  of  Decem- 
ber, made  a  more  public  appearance  ;  for  as  Girdler,  the 
watchiuan,  came  out  of  the  house  of  Mrs.  Samuel,  No.  2, 
Queen's- place,  adjoining  Beaver-lane,  an  apprentice  boy 
belonging  to  Graham  the  shoemaker,  ran  across  the  road 
towards  him,  dreadfully  frightened,  at  what  he  supposed  to 
be  a  gliost  I  In  consequence  of  this,  the  watchman  looking 
towards  the  opposite  side  of  the  road,  on  the  left  hand  of 
the  pump,  was  witness  to  an  object  all  in  white.  Ap- 
proaching the  spot  wjjere  it  stood,  he  observed  some  per- 
son divest  himself  of  a  sheet  or  tablecloth,  he  could  not  dis- 
tinguish wliich,  wrap  it  up  under  his  coat,  and  run  away. 

Bejnff 


75  THE   HAMMERSMITH  GHOSTS, 

Being-  dark,  this  person  was  soon  out  of  sight. — Girdkr 
followed,  but  saw  nothing. — He  therefore  went  to  the 
White  Hart,  and  inquired  if  any  strange  person  was  just 
come  in  there. — While  Girdler  was  going  by,  the  pre- 
tended ghost,  it  is  supposed,  hid  himself  behind  INIr.  Hill's 
house  ;  but  leaving  the  spot  in  Girdler's  absence,  he  was 
seen  by  some  of  Mr.  Hill's  family,  Avho  observed  a  corner 
of  the  cloth  hanging  below  his  coat. 

While  he  stood  near  the  pump,  he  Avas  also  seen  by  a 
Mrs.  Steward,  and  her  servant,  at  No,  4,  Teresa  Terrace, 
who  were  much  alarmed,  till  it  was  generally  known,  next 
day,  that  the  pretended  ghost  was  an  impostor.  This  last 
appearance  caused  much  discussion  ;  and  as  it  Avas  a 
species  of  imposition  that  had  then  been  put  in  practice 
three  times  successively,  with  very  short  intervals,  it  may 
be  admitted,  as  a  very  powerful  incentive  to  that  provoca- 
tion, which  Smith,  as  well  as  others,  may  be  supposed  to 
have  felt  on  the  occasion ;  and  which,  no  doubt,  prompted 
him  to  the  commission  of  that  rash  act,  which  terminated 
in  the  death  of  an  inoffensive  man,  totally  unconnected 
with  any  impostor  whatever. 

A  day  or  two  after  Smith  was  committed  to  prison,  one 
John  Graham,  a  shoemaker,  who  resides  in  Dorvell's-row,  to 
liis  shame,  confessed  that  he  was  the  person,  who,  in  the 
last  instance,  on  the  29th  of  December,  had  dressed  him- 
self in  a  sheet,  as  he  said,  to  terrify  his  apprentice,  who 
had  been  in  tlie  habit  of  scratching  the  walls  of  the  house, 
and  otherwise  teazing  his  master's  children  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  ghosts  and  apparitions. 

A  young  woman,  named  Sarah  Francis,  servant  to  INIrs. 
Brookes,  of  Wester  of t-place,  being  at  Graham's  house, 
he  judged  it  to  be  a  good  opportunity  to  put  his  plan  in 
execution.  Sending  the  boy  home  with  her,  with  an  in- 
tent to  meet  biin  as  he  came  back,  in  his  supernatural 

capacity  ; 


THE    HAMMERSMITH   GHOSTS.  79 

capacity ;  he  dressed  himself  in  the  meanwhile  for  that 
purpose,  and  waited  for  the  apprentice,  in  the  manner  re- 
presented by  our  Engraving. — But  this  opportunity  would 
not  have  occurred  to  him,  had  not  the  one  armed  postman, 
who  lodged  in  Graham's  house,  been  than  in  bed ;  as  he 
generally  had  the  office  of  seeing  this  young  woman  home 
when  she  happened  to  come  that  M'^g.y. — But  though  Gra- 
ham has  acknowledged  this  to  be  his  first  ofience,  liis 
mind  must,  upon  reflection,  be  considerably  hurt,  at  what 
lias  lately  occurred. 

This  Mr.  Graham,  it  is  to  be  noticed,  was  known  as  a 
serious  person,  a  constant  attendant,  and  one  of  the  first 
singers  in  Trinity  Chapel,  and  always  boj-e  an  excellent 
character  before. — We  have  since  heard  a  rumour  that  he 
means  to  leave  his  house  ;  and  some  circumstances  having 
transpired,  have  increased  the  dislike  the  foregoing  affair 
has  naturally  occasioned. 

Among  others,  we  are  told,  that  a  few  days  after  the  ex- 
hibition at  the  pump,  Graham  meeting  Girdler,  he  said  in 
a  jeering  tone,  **  Were  not  you  very  much  frightened  the 
other  night'?"  To  which  tlie  other  replied,  "No — he  was 
not — but  whoever  the  ghost  was,  be  will  go  to  hell,  die 
when  be  will ;"  and  immediately  left  Graliam  to  enjoy 
bis  own  feelings. — But  possibly,  Mr,  Graham  might  think 
the  pains  he  took,  and  his  singing  at  the  funeral  of  poor 
Millwood,  would  be  some  reparation  for  the  folly  in  which 
he  had  been  so  deeply  implicated.  The  report  that  a  lady 
of  Brooke  Green,  had  also  died  in  consequence  of  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  spectre,  we  are  happy  to  find  is  totally  un- 
founded ;  she  having  received  her  fright  from  a  person  in 
a  state  of  intoxication.  And  the  report  of  a  figure  diesscd 
in  a  skin  with  horns,  together  with  that  of  cutting  the  traces 
of  the  Hammersmith  coachman's  horses,  have  uo  foundation 
in  fact  J  but  owe  their  rise  to  newspaper  iabrication. 

^ONDER- 


C     80     ) 

WONDERFUL    ESCAPE. 

A.  PRIVATE  information  having  been  received  by  Mr. 
Bond,  that  Sylvester  Godlia,  one  of  the  persons  concerned 
in  the  late  forgery  on  the  Bank  of  Portugal,  and  who  was 
sent  thither  a  few  months  ago  with  Gillington  and  Farrell, 
against  whom  he  was  a  principal  witness,  had  escaped  out 
of  the  prison  at  Lisbon,  and  had  been  seen  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Bethnal-green,  two  of  the  officers  were  yes- 
terday morning  sent  in  search  of  him,  and  who  apprehend- 
ed and  brought  him  before  Mr.  Bond  and  Sir  Wm.  Par- 
sons, at  Bow-street,  when  he  made  a  sad  confession  of  the 
means  used  foe  his  escape  out  of  the  prison  at  Lisbon, 
which  he  effected  by  an  old  nail  he  found  in  his  cell,  and  a 
chain  with  which  he  forced  up  a  plank  in  the  floor,  and 
made  his  way  through  it  to  another  dungeon,  where  he 
found  a  cutlass,  which  enabled  him  to  open  a  door,  and 
having  engaged  the  sentinel  placed  near  the  door,  in  his 
favour,  tliey  both  went  off  together  ;  that  he  was  seven 
weeks  in  making  the  aperture  in  the  floor,  and  he  was  forced 
to  act  with  the  greatest  caution  to  elude  the  observation  of 
the  guard  that  brought  him  his  victuals,  when  putting  his 
cloak  over  the  spot,  and  sweeping  the  dungeon  himself,  he 
contrived  the  piece  of  plank  cut  out,  to  fix  in  at  that  time ; 
he  concealed  himself  at  an  English  Avoman's  house,  at  a 
place  called  Bonisiras,  and  then  went  on  board  the  Lord 
Nelson  privateer,  and  after  cruising  about  ten  days,  was 
cast  away  at  Vigo,  in  Spain,  and  remained  eight  hours  in 
the  sea  ;  that  the  cramp  taking  him,  he  clung  to  a  piece  of 
wood,  and  in  that  situation,  almost  senseless,  was  taken  up 
by  a  Portuguese  vessel,  Avhich  also  saved  the  rest  of  the 
crew  of  the  privateer,  except  four  who  Avere  drowned,  and 
who  landed  them  at  Vigo  ;  that  undergoing  many  hardships 
by  land,  he  got  to  Bilboa,  and  from  thence  to  England  by 
a  Spanish  vessel  bound  to  Cork  ;  but  which,  on  account  of 

the 


CURIOUS  DISPLAY  OF  THE  GALVANIC  TROUGH.        SI 

Uie  damao-e  she  had  sustained  at  sea,  put  in  at  IliVacombe, 
in  Devonshire.  He  was  committed  to  Tothill-fields  Bride- 
well. Godlia  is  a  remarkable  good  swimmer,  and  fiimous 
for  remaining  under  water  a  long  time  ;  he  Avas  tfie  person 
employed  to  dive  for  a  quantity  of  the  forged  Portuguese 
notes  that  had  been  sunk  in  the  Thames,  near  Lambeth, 
and  -who  succeeded  in  recovering  them.  He  is  a  Maltese 
by  birth.  Gillington,  Fan-eil,  and  Joseph  De  Ban  on,  were 
confined  in  the  same  prison  with  him  at  Lisbon,  but  had 
not  been  tried  when  he  cume  away. 


Cmioits  Display/  of  the  Galvanic  Trough. 

VV^iTH  respect  to  the  property  of  metals,  Mr.  Wilkinson 
is  amply  convinced,  that  gold  and  zinc,  form  the  most 
powerful  Galvanic  combination.  He  has  lately  illustrated 
these  principles  •  giving  the  preference  ♦^o  the  trough,  and 
proceeding,  by  experiments,  to  evince  its  Avonderful 
powers.  Four  troughs,  hung  on  swivels,  each  containing 
fifty  plates,  and  eiglit  inches  in  diameter,  the  weight  of 
each  trough  being  between  two  and  three  cwt.  were  charged 
with  a  mixture,  consisting  of  one  gallon  of  nitrous  acid,  to 
nineteen  gallons  of  water.  These  are  so  arranged,  as  to 
communicate  with  two  brass  rods  under  the  leciurer's 
table,  Avhicli  communicate  witii  brass  pillars  upon  the  top 
of  the  table.  A  piece  of  harpsichord  wire,  four  feet  in 
length,  being  rested  upon  the  two  pillars,  was  in  an  in- 
stant red-hot,  fused,  and  fell  upon  the  table  in  the  form  of 
red-hot  balls,  which  retained  their  heat  for  a  surprising 
length  of  time.  Wires  of  silver,  brass,  an  J  copper,  wete 
placed  in  the  same  manner,  and  with  si:nilar  rcauits.  But, 
when  five  or  six  feet  of  steel  wire  was  so  placed,  it  did  not 
fuse,  although  its  whole  extent  was  rendered  rcd-not,  and 
remained  so  long  as  the  contact  was  preserved.  Platma, 
a  metal  known  to  be  indestructible  in  the  most  pov.criul 
Vol.  II.  Ai  fiunace. 


82  CURIOUS   ANTIQUITIES   IN   AFRICA. 

furnace,  when  exposed  to  this  astonishing  principle,  was 
rapidly  ignited,  and  fused  into  a  spherical  form.  A  dia- 
mond, placed  in  a  piece  of  charcoal,  was  instantaneously 
consumed.  But  tlie  following  experiment  exhibited  the 
most  beautiful  phenomenon  we  ever  witnessed : — Two 
pieces  of  charcoal,  in  the  form  of  pencils,  were  placed  in 
the  circuit,  and  instantly  a  rapid  inflammation  foUoAved, 
forming  the  most  brilliant  light  ever  yet  artificially  pro- 
duced. The  shadows  of  all  surrounding  objects  were 
strongly  defined,  as  if  a  sun  was  formed  between  the  two 
charcoal  points.  The  hght  approached  the  nearest  to  in- 
tense solar  light  of  any  wc  ever  saw.  When  an  Argand's 
lamp  was  placed  near  it,  the  light  of  the  lamp  appeared 
small  and  obscure,  as  a  distant  rush-hght.  Those  who 
have  seen  brilliant  deflagrations  in  oxygen  gas,  may  form 
some  idea  of  it,  jet  but  faintly,  so  extremely  beautiful  is 
its  appearance. 

There  Avere  various  other  pleasing  phenomena,  produced 
by  the  Galvanic  principle  ;  after  which,  Mr.  Wilkinson 
announced  his  intention  of  giving  Cin  the  second  lecture)  a 
.series  of  cxj)eriments,  to  shew  its  power  as  a  chemical 
agent,  as  well  as  its  influence  on  animals  ;  an  account  of 
which  we  shall,  on  a  future  day,  communicate  to  our 
readers. 

CURIOUS    ANTIQUITIES    IN    AFRICA. 

At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Antiquarian  Society,  Mas 
read  a  letter  of  Mr.  Jackson,  on  the  dntient  Utica,  which 
was  next  in  extent  and  magnitude  to  Carthage^  and  in  the 
same  gulph.  Here  Mr.  J.  visited  the  subterraneous  vaults, 
in  which  the  cielings  were  covered  with  bats  of  enormous 
size,  called  by  Virgil  h&rpieSj  which  being  disturbed,  left 
their  places,  and  nearly  extinguished  the  flambeaux,  and 
but  for  a  lunthorn,  the  curious  visitors  might  have  been  lost 

in 


STRIKING    INSTANCE  OF    SAGACITY    IN    A    DOG.       8j 

in  the  dark.  In  the  same  place,  Mr.  J.  found  foxes,  biir- 
rowing  in  the  under-ground  ruins.  The  air  in  these  caverns 
^vas  pppressive,  but  by  firing  pistols  was  much  cleared,  and 
became  more  respiruble. 

^  recent  and  striking  Instance  of  Sagacity  in  a  Dog, 
nearly  approaching  to  Iimnanf 

London,  Junuari/  23,  1804. 

On  Saturday,  January  21,  Thomas  Tweed,  apprehended 
in  Old-street-road,  charged  with  stealing  a  box  from  a 
person  named  Scott ;  being  examined  at  the  Public- 
Office  in  Worship-street,  it  appeared  that  Tweed  was 
drinking  in  the  Pitt's  Head  public-house,  Old-street,  when 
a  small  terrier  dog  entered,  and  seeing  tlie  prisoner,  in- 
stantly flew  at  him.  The  circumstance  was  so  marked,  as 
to  excite  the  observation  and  suspicion  of  the  landlord, 
who  knowing  the  dog  to  belong  to  Scott,  he  sent  for  him  ; 
and  Scott,  on  his  arrival,  recognized  the  coat  which  Tweed 
wore,  to  be  one  of  the  articles  which  had  been  stolen  from 
him.  He  was  taken  into  custody,  and  the  pawnbroker's 
tickets  which  were  found  in  his  possession,  led  to  tlic 
discovery  of  several  of  the  other  articles. 

On  Monday,  Jan.  24,  Thomas  Tiveed  underwent  a  final 
examination,  charged  upon  the  oath  of  Thomas  Scott, 
with  breaking  open  his  box  ;  the  property  being  sworn  to, 
the  prisoner  was  committed  for  trial. 

Since  this  occurrence  took  place,  several  persons  have 
made  considerable  offers  for  the  dog.  The  owner,  how» 
ever,  has  not  thought  proper  to  accept  of  any  which  have 
been  made  him,  at  least  till  the  trial  has  taken  place. — 
That  the  dog  should  not  be  stolen  in  the  interval,  it  has 
been  found  necessary  to  keep  him  tied  up.  Tlie  master 
of  the  dog,  it  seems,  was  in  the  habit  of  using  the  pubhc- 
house  ;  and  though  the  dog  had  frequently  been  in  the 
house  before,  the  manner  in  which  he  singled  out  the  rob- 

M  2  ber. 


84  THE  BOILING  VVATER-SFOUTS  OF  ICELAND. 

ber,  had  something  in  it  uncommon  ;  for  holding  his  nose 
close  to  the  skirt  of  his  coat,  and  growling  all  the  while,  he 
would  not  move  from  the  spot,  which  exciting  the  admi- 
ration of  all  present,  led  to  the  iiiunediate  discovery  of  th? 
offender. 


THE    BOILING   WATER-SPOUTS    OF    ICELAND  ; 

Commonly  called  the  Geysers. 

X  HE  principal  of  these  is  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Scalholt,  the  capital  of  the  place ;  and  it  was  very  lately 
visited  by  Mr.  Olafeen,  a  native  of  that  country,  and  Mem^ 
ber  of  tlie  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Copenlmgen.  Taking 
4  friend  with  him,  he  says,—"  tlie  moment  we  arrived  at 
Geyser,  the  water  filled  the  bason,  and  overflowed  on  all 
^ides.  Soon  after  a  subterraneous  noise  was  heard,  the 
usual  signal  for  the  gushing  of  the  water.  It  tlien  began  tQ 
ppout  in  an  instant ;  but  did  not  rise  above  60  feet  in 
height.  This  spouting  ceased  suddenly,  but  was  frequently 
renewed  after  a  few  miniitc-s  iiUcrval ;  its  violence  diminish- 
ing also,  till  the  bason  was  quite  empty.  In  this  state  it 
<;ontinued  for  a  moment,  but  as  t'le  water  is  hot,  its  vapouj- 
and  heat  j^-evented  us  from  seeing  the  bottom .  By  means 
of  a  plummet,  we  however  contrived  to  measure  the  depth 
of  the  bason,  and  found  it  12  feet  j  its  diameter  at  the 
orifice,  or  opening,  57  ;  and  at  or  near  the  bottom  only 
18,  ^o  that  it  seemed  to  terminate  like  a  funnel.  i\gaiu 
throwing  our  plummet,  in  hopes  of  sounding  some  of  the 
holes  that  afforded  a  passage  to  the  water,  the  lead  had  no 
sooner  reached  the  bottom,  than  a  body  of  boiling  Avater 
spouted  up  from  the  rock  ;  but  happily  did  us  no  harm. — 
This  encourag»?d  us  to  throw  it  in  again,  but  another  spout 
of  water  obliged  us  to  retreat  in  haste  ;  while  our  guide  was 
terribly  alarmed,  because  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Iceland- 
ers, that  any  man  visiting  these  mysterious  places,  will 
incur  the  displeasure  of  the  powerful  spirits  that  rei^icic  in 

then). 


THE  BOILING  WATER-SPOUTS  OF  ICELAND.  S:^ 

them.  The  ah"  being  agitated  ever  so  little  in  the  small 
ppenjngs  at  the  bottom,  it  deranges  the  ordinary  course  of 
the  water,  and  causes  it  to  rise  immediately  with  violence. 
To  fathom  the  small  openings  at  the  bottom,  we  repeatedly 
tfied  in  vain  ;  nor  could  \ve  divine  the  cause  of  our  mis- 
carriage. 

After  these  spoutings,  the  great  Geyser  remaixied  quiet 
the  whole  night;  the  water  in  the  meanwhile  rose  gradually, 
and  the  bason  was  filled  about  four  in  the  morning.  To  try 
the  force  of  the  spout,  we  continued  near  the  place,  and 
threw  several  flaojs  and  other  stones  into  the  bason.  At  lenstli 
the  spoutings  were  announced  by  a  hollow  noise  under- 
peath  us,  like  the  distant  reports  of  a  cannon.  Five  re- 
ports followed^  each  louder  than  the  other.  At  the  same 
time  we  felt  tiie  earth  shaking  and  heaving,  as  if  it  would 
burst. 

In  each  successive  spouting  also,  the  water  w^is  thrown 
to  a  greater  height  than  the  time  preceding,  while  the  flags 
jmd  stones  which  we  threw  into  the  bason,  were  darted  up, 
broken  in  a  thousand  pieces,  and  were  carried  higher  than 
the  pillars  of  water,  which  always  terminated  in  a  point.<T— 
From  a  motive  of  caution,  wc  stood  to  windward  of  the 
smoke  ;  at  every  spouting,  th.e  water  in  the  bason  ^vas 
yaised,  and  though  it  overflowed  every  side  of  the  crater 
or  bason,  on  the  north  side,  it  fell  into  a  little  valley,  and 
formed  a  rivulet ;  wliich,  though  at  a  good  distance  from 
the  fountain-head,  v/ould  severely  b\u'n  tlip  feet  of  anv 
aninuil  tiiat  passed  it. 

There  is  a  mountain  called  Langfell,  near  the  Geyser, 
about  70  fathoms  in  height.  The  general  height  of  the 
spouts  is  60  ;  but  tiie  inhabitants  said,  whan  a  storm,  or 
rainy  weather  is  exj^ected,  they  will  rise  to  the  full  height 
of  the  Lang fcl.  The  spoutings  in  all,  l^isted  about  tea 
minutes  ;  and  tliere  was  an  interval  of  three  seconds  be- 
tween cvt:ry  subterraneous  report  that  anapunceci  them  j 

so. 


BS  TftE  BOrttNG  XS-ATER-SPOtrXS  or  ICELAND. 

SO  tliat  the  total  number  at  this  time  was  about  two  hun* 
drcd.  The  water  of  the  Geyser,  is  supposed  to  come  front 
the  ileighbouring  mountains.  .  There  is  a  tradition,  that 
before  the  present  spring  existed,  there  were  other  spouts 
in  tlie  neighbourhood,  which,  from  their  singular  violence, 
were  also  called  Gey.^i'r  ,  but  that  an  earthquake  destroyed 
these,  and  at  the  same  time  produced  the  water-spout  now 
known  by  that  name. 

The  hot  water  of  the  Gejser  converts  the  stalks  of 
plants  and  little  ])ieccs  of  wood  into  a  hard  and  pale- 
coloured  stone.  Even  in  the  rock  itself,  from  which  the 
spring  issues,  petrified  stalks  of  plants  maybe  found,  with 
bones  of  sheep,  horse-dung,  all  transmuted  ;  gnd  in  a 
petrifaction  of  the  small  leaves  of  the  birch-tree,  the  fibres 
were  distinctly  visible.  Among  the  inferior  water-spouts 
near  the  great  spring,  some  of  them  have  remarkable  qua-. 
Jities.  One  of  them  named  Styder,  is  called  a  dry  spring', 
because  its  turvnel  contains  no  water,  but  emits  a  thick 
smoke  ;  its  heat  is  so  intense,  that  the  neighbours  employ 
it  to  dress  their  victuals,  whicli  they  say  is  done  with  ease 
and  dispatch  ;  and  that  the  food  while  doing,  contracts  hq 
strange  or  smoky  taste.  There  is  two  hot-wells  in  the 
neighbourhood,  called  Akrahver  ;  in  throwing  the  sound- 
ing lead  into  one  of  them,  the  water  instantly  sunk  a  foot 
and  a  quarter,  while  trying  the  same  experiment  upon  thq 
other,  it  overflowed  on  all  sides.  Several  of  the  natives 
affirmed  that  they  had  seen  birds  swimming  in  these  hot- 
wells,  made  like  a  mallard  ;  the  body  of  a  brown  colour ; 
the  eye  encircled  with  a  white  ring,  very  visible.  In  fact, 
they  even  go  so  far  as  to  say,  that  these  birds  have  been 
seen  to  dive  in  the  hot  water  I  In  swimming,  the  legs  and 
bills  of  these  birds,  armed  with  a  callous  skin,  might  en- 
dure the  heat ;  but  in  diving,  it  would  be  impossible.  It  is 
well  known,  that  owing  to  the  property  of  the  blood,^  sea- 
birds  cannot  dive  j  so  that  these  birds,  if  they  really  pos- 


"DISCOVERIES  UPON  THE  PEAK  OF  TEN£3lIFF£.        Bl 

sess  that  faculty,  must  be  of  an  amphibious  class ;  and 
hence  the  discovery  of  tliem,  would  be  a  very  great  deside- 
ratum in  Natural  History.  As  yet  their  existence  may  be 
very  fairly  questioned.  In  all  these  hot-springs,  the  de- 
gree of  heat  is  generally  the  same.  In  the  ^vater,  Fahren- 
heit's thermometer  rose  to  182  degrees  ;  out  of  it  the  smoke 
or  vapour  near  the  surface,  stood  at  90.  Severul  springs 
are  so  much  agitated,  that  the  thermometer  cannot  be  in- 
troduced. The  water  in  this  quarter,  however,  is  some- 
what hotter  than  that  of  any  other  -springs  in  Iceland." 


Pardon  of  Francis  Smith, /or  killing  T.  Millwood  3 

See  Page  65  of  the  present  Number. 
Much  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  people  at  hirge,  he  received  a  pardon  oa 
Wednesday  the  25th  instant,  upon  condition  of  remaining  in  prison  one 
twelvemonth ;  and  thus  it  appears,  that  the  intent  of  the  Jury'a  first  ver- 
dict, has  been  very  properly  acted  upon. 


New  and  accurate  Discoveries  upon   the  Peak  (^ 
Teneriffe. 

]V1»  CoRDiER,  in  May  last,  1803,  ascended  to  the  sum- 
mit of  this  mountain,  on  a  scientific  survey.  He  found 
the  height  of  the  Peak  to  he  1901  toises  above  the  level 
of  the  sea.  The  crater,  which  is  of  an  elliptic  form,  is 
about  1200  feet  in  circumference,  and  \\0  in  depth;  its 
edges  are  perfectly  steep  in  the  inside,  and  consists  of  a 
snow-white  earth,  the  result  of  the  decomposition  of  the 
blackest  and  hardest  vitreous  and  porplmitis  lava — crystals 
of  sulphur  covered  all  tlie  surrounding  rocks.  M.  Cordier 
slid  to  the  bottom  of  the  crater,  from  whence  issued  a  warm 
sulphureous  vapour,  proceeding  tlirough  innumerable  cre- 
vices, from,  he  supposes,  the  depth  of  several  leagues,  and 
retaining  a  great  intensity  of  heat.  Thi^  thermometer,  ex- 
posed in  a  crevice,  speedily  rose  to  SO  degrees,  and  would 
have  risen  higher  had  the  length  of  the  tube  atlmitted  ;  the 
:.   •  \'apour 


88-    MAO  FOXES  ON  THE  BORDERS  OF  SWITZERtATJfi". 

vapoar  consisted  solely  of  sulphur  and  vater,  pei'fectly  in-* 
sipid,  without  containing,  as  was  supposed,  sulphureous 
acid,  soda,  or  hydrogen  gas, 

^I.  Cordier  contradicts,  in  the  most  decided  terms,  the 
current  opinion  as  to  the  intensity  of  the  cold,  the  weak- 
ness of  spirituous  liquors,  and  the  difficult}''  of  respiration 
on  the  Peak— he  did  not  experience  tlie  least  incon- 
venience from  the  cold  vapours,  or  rarit}'  of  the  air  ;  and 
iifi  ridicules  the  report  respecting  the  appearance  of  the 
sun's  disk  being  seen  from  this  elevated  spot. 

j\I.  Cordier  was  three  hours  on  the  summit  of  the  Peak ; 
tlie  snow  in  the  channels  cut  in  the  mountain  by  the  lava, 
which  on  his  ascent  was  hard,  had  become  thawed  on  his 
descent,  so  far,  that  iu  moving  over  it,  he  repeatedly  sunk 
a  foot  or  two  ;  the  guide  clambered  up  and  Aown  therocks^ 
and  was  horrored  at  the  temerity  of  his  companion,  in  ven- 
turing on  the  snow,  Avhich  probably  covered  abysses  of  im- 
measurable depth. 

MAD  FOXES  ON  THE  BORDERS  OF  SWITZERLAND. 

Accounts  from  hence,  dated  Dec.  21,  1803,  say — ''The 
number  of  this  species  is  lately  said  to  have  become  so  nu- 
merous in  the  Valais  country,  that  the  natives  have  given 
them  the  name  of  Rcnards  enrages;  they  approach  the 
houses  of  the  inliabitants  in  broad  day,  and  attack  both 
man  and  beast :  only  one  man,  however,  has  yet  been  bit- 
ten. The  Officers  of  Health  have  already  dissected  somci 
of  these  animals,  and  have  found  all  the  symptoms  of  mad- 
ness in  the  process.  To  ascertain  the  fact  beyond  dispute, 
they  lately  confined  some  dogs  and  a  pig,  which  beintr 
wounded  by  these  furious  animals,  the  symptoms  that  fol- 
lowed, have  been  closely  observed  ;  but  whether  they  ex- 
actly resemble  tho5.e  of  the  hydrophobia,  does  not  yet 
appear. 

Since 


ECCENTRIC   OBITUARY.  89 

^iftce  the  abovementioned  alarm  has  gone  forth,  the 
Swiss  Government,  who  seem  to  have  no  doubt  of  the  fact, 
have  issued  a  monition,  stating,  that  in  the  districts  of 
Morsey  and  Gossan}^,  where  these  animals  have  been  most 
frequently  seen,  as  there  is  a  probability  that  the  hares 
also  may  have  been  affected,  it  will  be  advisable  not  to  eat 
any  of  the  latter  for  tlie  present  ;  and  in  the  interim, 
inn-keepers  and  others,  are  strictly  forbidden  to  bring  any 
hares  to  their  tables. 


ECCENTRIC    OBITUARY. 

A  Mr.  Edwards,  a  respectable  Dyer,  of  Sherrard-strcet, 
Goiden-square,  was  interred  on  Tuesday,  Jan.  17,  at 
Lambeth  Church.  By  his  Avill,  he  dh-ected  that  his  fune- 
ral procession  should  stop  at  the  Magpies,  in  Bridge-street, 
Westminster,  and  the  mourners  be  regaled  with  a  gallon  of 
porter,  which  they  were  to  drink  at  the  door  of  the  house ; 
they  were  then  to  proceed  on  a  long  trot  along  the  bridge 
to  the  Jolly  Sawj-ers  in  Lambeth  \Valk,  there  to  have  an- 
other gallon  of  beer  ;  from  thence  to  the  grave,  Avhere, 
after  his  interment,  a  pint  of  gin  was  to  be  drank  by  them 
over  his  grave,  wishing  him  a  pleasant  journei/ !  The  re- 
quest was  literally  complied  with. 

Mr.  John  Barker,  formerly  a  Farmer,  near  Bawiry, 
in  Yorkshire,  died  lately. — Though  possessed  of  consider- 
able landed  property,  some  time  before  his  death  he  was 
constantly  complauiing  of  poverty  ;  and  a  very  sliort  time 
ago,  actually  borrowed  six  guineas  to  relieve  his  exigen- 
cies. Immediately  after  his  death,  1000  guineas  were 
found  in  the  seat  of  his  armed-chair,  and  two  bags  con- 
.taining  500  each,  upon  which  was  written  tiie  word  soundj 
meaning  good  weight,  with  several  other  sums,  besides 
.£500  m  Bank  notes,  and  a  considtjrable  quantity  of  silver 
in  his  bureau. 

Vol.  IL         '  N  Jromkr- 


(     90     ) 

Wonderful  Discovny  o/" a  Murder,  after  the  Body  had  been 
buried  thirty  Days, 

\Communicated  by  Carolus.] 

The  most  extraordinary  Discovery  of  a  Murder  committed  upon  the  Body  of 
Mrs.  Joan  Norkett,  as  it  appeared  on  Evidence,  at  a  Trial  at  Hertford 
Assizes,  before  Lord  Chief  Justice  Hyde,  the  4th  Year  of  King  Charles 
tlie  First. — Attested  by  Serjeant  Maynard. 

1  HE  case,  or  rather  the  history  of  a  case  that  occurred 
in  Hertfordshire,  I  thought  good  to  report  here,  (though 
it  happened  the  4th  year  of  King  Charles  the  First,)  that 
the  memory  of  it  may  not  be  lost,  by  miscarriage  of  my 
papers,  or  otherwise,  I  wrote  the  evidence  that  was  given, 
which  I  and  many  others  also  did  hear ;  and  I  wrote  ex- 
actly to  what  was  deposed  at  this  trial  at  the  Bar,  in  the 
King's  Bench ;  viz. 

Joan  Norkett,  wife  of  Arthur  Norkett,  being  murdered, 
the  question  was,  how  she  came  by  her  death  >  The  Coro- 
ner's inquest,  on  view  of  the  body,  and  depositions  of 
Mary  Norkett,  John  Oakham,  and  Agnes  his  wife,  in- 
clined to  find  Joan  Norkett,  Felo  de  sc ;  for  they  informed 
the  Coroner  and  the  Jury,  that  she  was  found  dead  in  her 
bed,  and  her  throat  cut,  and  the  knife  sticking  in  the 
floor  of  the  room  :  That  the  night  before  she  was  so  found, 
she  went  to  bed  with  her  child,  now  Plaintiff  in  this  Ap- 
peal, her  husband  being  absent,  and  that  no  other  person 
(after  such  time  as  she  was  gone  to  bed,)  came  into  the 
house,  the  examinants  lying  in  the  outer  room,  and  they 
must  needs  have  seen  or  known  if  any  stranger  had  come 
ia.  Whereupon  the  Jury  gave  up  to  the  Coroner  their 
verdict,  '*  that  she  was  Felo  de  se.'* 

But  afterwards,  upon  rumour  among  the  neighbours, 
and  their  observation,  divers  circumstances,  which  mani- 
fested that  she  did  not,  (nor  according  to  those  circum- 
stances)  could  possibly  murder  lierself ;    thereupon  the 

Jury 


WONDERFUL  DISCOVERY  OF  A  MURDER.  91 

Jury  (whose  verdict  was  not  drawn  into  form  by  the  Coro- 
ner,) desired  the  Coroner,  that  the  body  which  was  buried, 
might  be  taken  up  out  of  the  grave,  which  the  Coroner  as- 
sented to  :  and  thirt}'  days  after  her  death,  she  Avas  taken 
up,  in  the  presence  of  the  Jury,  and  a  great  number  of 
people  ;"  whereupon  the  Jury  changed  their  verdict. 

The  persons  that  Mere  tried  at  Hertford  Assizes,  were 
acquitted  ;  but  so  mucli  against  tlic  evidence,  that  the 
Judge  let  fall  his  opinion,  "  That  it  Avas  better  that  an 
Appeal  were  brought,  than  so  foul  a  murder  slionld  escape 
unpunished."  And  Pasch.  4  Car.  they  Avere  tried  on  die 
Appeal,  Avhich  was  brouglit  by  the  young  child  against  the 
father,  grandmother,  and  aunt,  and  her  husband  Oakham. 
— And  because  the  evidence  Avas  so  strange,  I  took  parti- 
cular notice  of  it,  and  it  v,ns as  folloAveth  : — After  the  mat- 
ters abovementioned  Avere  related,  an  ancient  and  grave 
person,  Minister  to  the  parish,  Avhere  the  fact  Avas  com-  - 
mitted,  being  sworn  to  giA-e  evidence  according  to  the 
custom,  deposed,  That  the  body  being  taken  up  out  of 
the  graA^e  thirty  days  after  the  party's  death,  and  lying  on 
the  grass,  and  the  four  Defendants  present,  they  AA^ere  re- 
quired each  of  them  to  touch  the  dead  bod}-.  Oakham's 
wife  fell  on  her  knees,  and  prayed  to  God,  to  shcAv  tokens 
of  her  innocence,  or  to  some  such  purpose  (as  her  very 
Avords  I  forgot).  The  parties  did  touch  the  dead  body, 
Avhereupori  the  brow  of  the  dead,  Avhich  Avas  before  of  a 
livid  t^nd  carrion  colour,  (that  Avas  the  verbal  expression, 
in  terminisy  of  the  Avitntss,)  began  to  have  a  dcAv,  or  gentle 
sweat,  arise  upon  it,  Avhich  increased  by  degrees,  till  the 
sweat  ran  down  in  drops  on  the  face,  and  the  broAv  turned 
and  changed  to  a  lively  and  fresh  colour,  and  the  dead 
person  opened  one  of  her  eyes,  and  shut  it  agcdn;  and  this 
opening  of  the  eyes  Avas  done  three  several  times.  She 
likewise  thrust  out  the  ring,  or  marriagp  finger,  three 
times,  and  pulled  it  in  again  and  the  finger,  and  dropped 

N  2  blooci, 


92  WONDERFUL  DISCOVERY  OF  A  MURDER. 

blood  from  it  on  the  grass.  Hyde  (Nicholas),  Chief  Jiis^ 
tice,  seeming  to  doubt  the  evidence,  asked  the  witness, 
'^  Who  saw  this  besides  you  ?" — 1st  Witness — ''  I  cannot 
swear  what  others  saw,  but,  my  Lord,  I  believe  the  whole 
company  saw  it ;  and  if  it  had  been  thought  dpubtful, 
proof  would  have  been  made  of  it,  and  many  would  have 
contested  with  me."  Then  the  witness  observing  some 
admiration  in  the  auditors,  spoke  thus  ;— '^  My  Lord,  I  am 
Minister  of  the  parish,  long  knew  all  the  parties,  but  never 
had  any  occasion  of  displeasure  against  any  of  them,  nor 
had  to  do  with  th(rn,  nor  they  with  me;  but  as  I  was  Mi- 
nister, the  thing  was  wonderful  to  me  ;  but  I  have  no' in- 
terest in  the  matter,  but  as  called  upon  to  testify  the  truth, 
Tvhich  I  have  done," 

The  witness  was  a  reverend  person,  as  I  guess  about  70 
3'ears  of  age ;  bis  testimony  was  "delivered  gravely  and 
ternfierately,  but  to  the  great  admiration  ot  the  auditory. 
Whereupon  applying  bimscli  to  the  Chief  Justice,  lie  said, 
*'  My  Lord,  my  brother  here,  is  Minister  of  the  next 
parish  adjacent ;  and  I  am  sure  saw  all  done  that  I  have 
affirmed. "  \Vhereupon  ttiat  person  -.vas  sworn  to  give 
evidence,  and  did  depo>c  in  cverv  point;  viz.  the  sweat- 
ing of  the  In  ow,  the  changing  of  the  colour,  opening  of 
the  eyes,  and  the  thrice  motions  of  the  hnger,  and  drawing 
it  in  again  ;  only  the  first  witnu-ss  added,  that  be  dipped 
his  finger  in  the  blood  that  canie  from  the  dead  bod}^,  and 
SAvore,  he  believed  it  was  really  bJood.  I  conferred  after- 
wi.rds  with  Sir  Vowell,  Bdrri^ler  at  Law,  ana  others,  who 
all  concurred  in  this  observation  ;  and  for  myself,  ifl  were 
upon  oatli,  can  depose,  that  these  depositions  (especially 
the  first  witness)  are  truly  reported  in  substance. 

Tiie  other  evidence  was  given  against  tlic  prisoner,  viz, 
asainstthe  Q,randuiother  of  the  PlaintiiF,  and  against  Oak- 
ham  and  his  wife,  that  they  confessed  they  lay  in  the  next 
room  to  the  dead  pcrton  that  night,  and  that  none  came  into 

the 


WONDERFUL  DISCOVERY  OF  A  MURDER.  93 

the  house,  till  they  found  her  dead  next  morning ;  there-r 
fore,  if  she  did  not  murder  herself,  they  must  be  the  mur^ 
derers  ;  and  to  that  end  further  proof  was  made. — First, 
that  she  lay  in  a  composed  manner  in  her  bed,  the  bed^ 
clothes  nothing  at  all  disturbed,  and  her  child  by  her  in  the 
bed. — Secondly,  that  her  throat  was  cut  from  ear  to  ear, 
and  her  neck  broken  ;  and  if  she  first  cut  her  throat,  she 
could  not  break  her  neck  in  the  bed,  nor  e  contra. — 
Thirdly,  there  was  no  blood  in  the  bed,  saving,  there  was 
a  tincture  of  blood  on  the  bolster  whereon  her  head  lay  ; 
but  no  other  substance  of  blood  at  all. — Fourthly,  from  the 
bed's  head  there  was  a  stream  of  blood  on  the  floor,  which 
run  along  on  the  floor,  till  it  ponded  on  the  bending  of  the 
floor,  to  a  very  great  quantity,  and  there  was  also  another 
stream  of  blood  on  the  floor  at  tlie  bed's  feet,  which  ponded 
also  oh  the  floor,  to  another  great  quantity  ;  but  no  conti- 
nuance or  continuation  of  blood  of  either  of  tliose  two 
places,  from  one  to  the  other,  neither  upon  the  bed,  so  that 
she  bled  in  two  places  severally  :  And  it  was  deposed,  turn- 
ing up  the  mat  of  the  bed,  there  were  clots  of  congealed 
blood  in  the  straw  of  the  mat  underneath. — Fifthl}'-,  the 
]jloody  knife,  in  the  morning,  was  found  sticking  in  the 
floor,  a  good  distance  from  the  bed  ;  but  the  point  of  the 
Jinife,  as  it  stuck  in  the  floor,  was  towards  the  bed,  and 
\he.  haft  from  the  bed. — Lastly,  there  was  a  print  of  a 
thumb  and  four  fingers  of  a  left-hand  on  the  dead  person's 
left  hand. 

Hyde,  Chief  Justice,  to  tlie  Witness — "  How  can  yoa 
know  the  print  of  a  left-hand  from  the  print  of  a  right- 
liand  in  this  case  ?" 

Witness. — "  iVIy  Lord,  it  is  liard  to  describe  ;  but  if  it 
please  that  Honourable  Judge  to  put  his  left-hand  on  your 
left-hand,  ijou  cannot  possibh/  place  your  right-hand  in  the 
faine  posture ;   which  being  done,  and  appearing  so,  the 

Defendants 


S4  A    PROGRESSIVE    WATER-SPOUT, 

Defendants  had  time  to  make  their  defence  ;  but  gave  no 
evidence  to  any  purpose. 

The  Jury  departed  from  the  box,  and  returning,  ac- 
quitted Oakham,  (tlie  aunt's  husband,)  and  foi\nd  the 
other  three  guilty  ;  "who  being  severally  demanded  what 
they  could  say  why  judgment  should  not  be  pronounced  ? 
— Eacii  of  them  said  nothing  ;  but  I  did  not  do  it — I  did 
not  do  it.  Judgment  was  then  given,  and  the  grand- 
mother and  husband  were  executed  ;  but  the  aunt  had  the 
privilege  to  be  spared  from  execution,  being  with  child. 
^^^^^^^^    '  CAROLUS. 

A    PROGRESSIVE    WATER-SPOUT, 

On  the  5th  of  May,  1752,  about  seven  in  the  evening, 
a  water-spout  fell  from  the  clouds  on  Deeping  Fen,  in  the 
county  of  Lincoln,  and  took  its  progress  in  a  very  indirect 
manner,  to  the  county  bank  or  dike,  whence  it  carried  every 
thing  that  lay  loose  thereon,  such  as  straw,  hay,  and  stub- 
ble, violently  before  it.  When  it  came  into  the  middle  of 
Flowbit  Wash,  where  it  was  first  seen,  it  was  a  dreadful 
sight  to  behold  this  moving  meteor  there  fixed  for  several 
minutes,  spouting  out  water  to  a  considerable  height,  per- 
haps two  }■  ards  ;  so  that  it  seemed  as  if  the  law  of  nature 
was  inverted,  to  see  water  ascending,  and  all  the  time  at- 
tended with  a  terrible  noise. — Upon  the  second  rout,  it 
made  to  the  river ;  on  its  arrival  there,  it  discovered  its 
length  with  some  certainty,  for  it  reached  from  side  to 
side,  the  river  being  about  three  yards  over;  in  its  march- 
ing along  it  drove  the  water  before  it  in  a  rapid  torrent, 
tearing  in  its  passage  a  fishing-net :  Avhen  it  arrived  at  the 
church,  it  there  stopped  again,  but  not  above  a  minute, 
Avhence  it  arose,  and  made  its  passage  through  the  space 
that  is  between  the  church  and  the  parsonage-house,  with- 
out doins:  hurt  to  either  ;  so  that  however  natural  the  cause 
may  be,  yet  surely  its  progression  could  not  be  without 

the 


ACCOUNT  OF  TWO  DWARFS  AND  A  NEGRO.  i)5 

the  direction  of  him  who  rides  in  the  whirlwind,  and  directs 
the  storm.  On  its  departing  hence,  the  straw,  hay,  and 
stubble  fell  down  upon  the  land  in  showers.  This  strange 
phenomenon  ascended  not  far  before  it  fell  down  again 
upon  the  land ;  in  passing  through  a  small  tract  of  seed 
turnips,  it  broke  in  its  way  the  stems  from  the  roots.  A 
gate  it  forced  from  off  its  hinges,  and  a  stone  it  broke  to 
pieces,  and  when  at  a  distance  it  looked  like  a  pillar  of 
smoke  ;  Avhen  it  passed  a  little  beyond  Molton  Chapel,  it 
evaporated  into  a  cloud,  and  was  succeeded  by  a  violent 
storm  of  hail,  and  after  that  of  rain. 


.^cW2(w/ o/'Two  Dwarfs  and  a  surprising 'Negro,  exhibited 
in  this  City^  in  December  1151  ; 

A  Dwarf  from  Glamorganshire,  in  his  15th  year,  two 
foot  six  inches  high,  weighing  only  12lb.  ;  yet  very  pro- 
portionable. 

John  Coan,  a  Norfolk  dwarf,  aged  23,  weighed  last 
year,  with  all  his  clothes,  but  34lb.  ;  and  his  height  with 
his  hat,  shoes  and  wig  on,  was  but  38  inches  ;  his  body  is 
perfectly  strait,  he  is  of  a  good  complexion,  and  sprightly 
temper,  sings  tolerably,  and  mimicks  a  cock's  crowing 
very  exactly.  A  child  3  years  8  months  old,  of  an  ordi- 
nary size  with  his  clothes  on,  weighed  36lb. ;  and  his 
height  without  anything  on  bis  head  was  37  inches  7-lOths, 
which,  on  comparison,  gives  an  idea  of  the  smallness  of 
this  dwarf. 

A  Negro,  who,  by  a  most  exti'aordinary  and  singular  di- 
latation and  contraction  of  the  deltoid  and  biceps  muscles 
of  the  arm,  those  of  the  back,  ccc.  clasps  his  hands  full  to- 
gether, throAvs  them  over  his  licad  and  back,  and  brings 
them  in  that  position  under  his  feet :  tliis  he  repeats  back-' 
wards  or  forwards  as  often  as  the  spectators  desire,  and 
with  the  greatest  facility. 


THE 


(     96     ) 

THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  REAL  ROBINSON  CRUSOE, 
A^  thefabdousHistovy  of  Robinson  Crusoe,  ■written  by  Daniel  De  Foe'y 
has  afforded  so  muc'tv  entertainment  to  the  public,  for  so  many  years  past, 
and  has  proved  uncomilionly  amusing,  the  true  Account  of  the  real  Origin 
of  that  Story,  with  the  sufferings  of  the  adventurous  person  who  gave  rise 
to  it,  will,  no  doubt,  add  to  the  pleasing  effect  of  your  very  interesting 
Miscellany.  Yours,  cic.  .Curiosa. 

il//-.  Alexander  Selkirk,  u'ho  icas  origrinallj  Master  of  a  BTerchanfman, 
in  the  Reign  of  King  fViltlum  the  Third,  having  had  a  Dream,  that  the  Ship  he 
teas  on  board  of' icon  Id  be  lost,  he  desired  to  be  leji  on  a  desolate  Island,  in  the 
South  Seas,  uhere  he  lived  Four  Years  and  Four  3Tonths,  without  seeing  tl^e  Face 
of  Man,  the  Ship  being  aj'teitcards  cast  away,  cs  he  drear>ied.  He  teas  aftencards 
miraculousbj  preserved  and  redeemed  from  that  fatal  Place,  by  two  Bristol  Priva- 
teers, called  The  Duke  and  Duchess  ;  that  took  the  rich  Aquapulco  Ship,  worth 
100  Ton  of  Gold,  and  brought  it  to  England.— Attested  by  ttiost  of  the  eminent 
Merchants  upon  the  Royal  Exchange. 

In  the  voyage  of  the  Duke  and  Duchess  privateers  belong- 
ing to  Bristol,  -who  took  the  rich  Aquapulco  ship,  they 
came  to  an  island  called  Juan  Fernandez  ;  where  sending 
their  pinnace  on  shore,  she  returned,  after  some  time, 
bringing  with  her  a  man  clothed  in  goat-skins,  who  seemed 
as  wild  as  the  goats  themselves. 

Being  brought  on  board  the  Duke,  he  said,  he  had  been 
on  the  island  four  years  and  four  months,  liaving  been  left 
there  by  Captain  Stradling,  in  a  ship  called  the  Cinque- 
Ports,  about  the  year  1705,  of  which  ship  he  was  master  ; 
and  Captain  Dampier,  who  was  then  with  him,  and  now  on 
board  the  Duke,  told  Captain  Rogers,  he  was  the  best  man 
then  on  board  the  Cinque-Ports,  who  immediately  agreed 
with  him  to  be  a  mate  on  board  the  Duke.  His  name 
was  Alexander  Selkirk,  a  Scotchman  ;  and  the  manner  of 
his  being  found  there,  w-as  by  his  making  a  fire  the  night 
before,  when  he  saw  the  two  privateers  aforesaid,  judging 
them  to  be  English,  b\'  which,  judging  it  to  be  an  habit- 
able island,  they  had  sent  their  boat  to  see  ;  and  so  he 
came  miraculously  to  be  redeemed  from  that  solitary  and 

tedious 


ORIGINAL  ROBtNSON  CRUSOE.  9/ 

tedious  confinement,  who  otherwise,-  in  all  probahility, 
must  have  miserably  ended  his  life  there.  He  said,  that 
during  his  stay  there,  he  iiad  seen  several  ships  pass  by> 
hut  only  two  of  them  came  in  to  anchor,  which  he  judg- 
ed to  be  Spaniards,  and  retired  from  them,  upon  which 
they  fired  at  him  ;  had  they  been  French,  he  said  he 
would  have  submitted  himself;  but  chose  rather  to  ha- 
zard dvins:  on  the  island,  than  to  fall  into  the  hands 
of  the  Spaniards  in  those  parts,  because  he  believed  they 
would  either  murder  him,  or  make  him  a  slave  in  their 
mines.  The  Spaniards  landed  so  near  him,  before  he 
knew  where  they  were,  that  he  had  much  ado  to  escape  ; 
for  they  not  only  shot  at  him,  but  pursi^.ed  him  into  the 
woods,  where  he  climbed  up  to  the  top  of  a  tree,  at 
the  foot  of  which  they  made  water,  and  killed  several 
goats  just  by,  but  went  off  without  diseovering  him. — 
He  told  them,  that  he  was  born  at  Largo,  in  the  county 
of  Fife  in  Scotland,  and  was  bred  a  sailor  from  his  youth. 
The  reason  of  his  being  left  on  this  melancholy  island, 
was  a  difference  |)etwi.\t  him  and  his  captain,  whieh,  to- 
gether with  the  ship  being  leaky,  made  him  willing 
rather  to  stay  there  than  go  along  with  him  at  first,  and 
when  he  was  at  last  willing  to  go,  the  captain  would  not 
receive  him.  He  had  been,  he  said,  on  the  island  to 
w^ood  and  water,  when  two  of  the  ship's  company  were 
left  upon  it  for  six  months,  till  the  hhip  returned,  being 
chaccd  there  by  two  FrtMieh  South-sea  ships.  He  had 
with  him  his  clothes  and  bedding,  with  a  lirelock,  some 
powder,  bullets,  and  tobacco,  a  hatchet,  a  knife,  a  kettle, 
a  bible,  some  practical  pieces,  and  his  mathematical 
instruments  and  books.  He  diverted  and  provided  for 
himself  as  well  as  he  could  ;  but  for  the  first  eight  months 
he  had  much  ado  to  bear  up  against  melancholy,  and  the 
terror  of  being  left  alone  in  such  a  desolate  place.  He 
built  two  huts  with  Piemento  trees,  covered  them  with 
Vol.  H.  O  Ion? 


93  ORIGINAL  ROBINSON   CRL-SOK. 

long  gr<i^s,  nnd  lined  them  with  the  ^kiiis  of  goats, 
which  he  killed  with  his  gun  as  he  wanted^  so  long  as 
liis  powder  l;isledj  which  was  htit  a  pound  ;  and  that  be- 
ing near  spent,  he  got  fire  hy  rubbing  two  sticks  of  Pie- 
mento  w  ood  together  upon  his  knee.  In  the  lesser  hut, 
at  some  distance  from  the  other,  he  dressed  hw  victuals, 
and  in  tlie  larger  he  slept,  and  employed  himself  in 
reading,  singing  psalms,  and  praying;  so  that  he  said  he 
was  a  better  Christian  while  in  this  solitude,  or  than, 
he  was  afraid,  he  should  ever  be  again.  A\  first  he 
never  eat  any  thing  till  hunger  constrained  him,  partly 
for  grief  and  partly  for  want  of  food  and  salt;  nor  did  he 
go  to-bed  till  he  could  watch  no  longer;  the  Pieinento 
wood,  which  burned  very  clear,  served  him  both  lor 
firing  and  candle,  and  refreshed  him  with  its  fragrant 
smell,  fie  might  have  had  fish  enough,  but  could  not 
eat  them  for  want  of  salt,  because  they  occasioned  a 
looseness,  except  craw  fish,  which  are  there  as  large  as 
cur  lobsters,  and  very  good  :  these  he  sometimes  boiled, 
and  at  other  times  broiled,  as  he  did  his  goat's  flesh,  of 
which  he  made  very  good  broth,  for  they  are  not  so  rank 
as  ours  :  he  kcj)t  an  account  of  live  hundred  that  he 
killed  while  there,  and  caught  as  manv  more,  which  he 
marked  on  the  car  and  let  go.  A\'lien  his  powder  fail- 
ed, he  took  them  by  speed  of  foot ;  for  his  way  of  living, 
and  continual  exercise  of  walking  and  running,  cleared 
liim  of  all  gross  humours,  so  than  he  ran  with  wonder- 
ful swiftness  through  the  woods,  and  up  the  rocks  and 
hills,  as  we  perceived  when  we  employed  him  to  catch 
gou's  for  us.  We  had  a  bull-dog,  which  we  sent  with 
•several  of  our  nimblest  runners,  to  help  him  in  catching 
goats  ;  but  he  distanced  and  tired  both  tiie  dog  and  the 
men,  eatched  the  goats  and  brought  tliem  to  us  on  his 
back.  He  told  us,  that  his  agility  in  pursuing  a  goat  had 
ouec  like  to  havL-  cost  him  his  life ;  he  pursued  it  with 


i 


ORIGINAL  110BIN80N  CRUSOE.  §9 

SO  much  eagerness,  that  he  catched  hold  of  it  at  tlie 
brink'  of  a  precipice,  of  which  lie  was  not  aware,  the 
bushes  having  hid  it  from  him  ;  so  that  he  fell  Avith  the 
goat  down  the  precipice  a  great  height,  and  was  so 
gtunned  and  brui.sed  with  the  fall,  that  he  narrowly  es- 
caped with  his  hfe  ;  and,  when  he  came  to  his  senses, 
found  the  goat  dead  under  him.  He  lay  there  about 
twenty-four  hours,  and  was  scarcely  able  to  crawl  to  his 
hut,  which  was  about  a  mile  distant,  or  to  stir  abroad 
asraiu  in  ten  davs.  He  came  at  last  to  relish  his  meat 
well  enough  without  salt  or  bread,  and,  in  the  season,  had 
plenty  of  good  turneps,  which  had  been  sowed  there  by 
Captain  Dampier^s  men,  and  have  now  overspread  some 
acres  of  a;round.  He  had  enoaii;h  of  i^ood  cabbacres  from 
the  cabbage  trees,  and  seasoned  the  meat  with  the  bark, 
of  the  Piemento  trees,  which  is  the  same  as  the  Jamai<JV 
pepper,  and  smells  deliciously.  He  found  there  also  a 
black  pepper,  called  Malagita,  which  was  very  good  to 
€xpel  wind,  and  against  griping  of  the  guts.  He  soon 
wore  out  all  his  shoes  and  cloaths  by  running  through 
the  woods  ;  and,  at  last,  being  forced  to  shift  without 
them,  his  feet  became  so  hard,  that  he  ran  every  where 
without  annoyance ;  and  it  was  some  time  before  he 
could  wear  shoes  after  we  found  him  ;  for,  not  being  used 
to  any  so  long,  his  feet  swelled,  when  he  came  first  to 
"wear  them  again.  After  he  had  conquered  his  melan- 
chol}",  he  diverted  himself  sometimes  by  cutting  his 
name  on  the  tress,  and  the  time  of  his  being  left  and  con- 
tinuance there.  He  v/as  at  first  pestered  with  cats  and 
rats,  that  had  bred  in  great  numbers  from  some  of  each 
species  which  had  got  a-shore  from  the  ships  that  put  in 
there  to  wood  and  water.  The  rats  gnawed  his  feet  and 
cloaths,  while  asleep,  which  obliged  him  to  cherish  the 
cats  with  hi*  goats  flesh  ;  by  which  many  of  them  be- 
came so  tame,  that  they  wpuid  lie  about  him  in  hundreds, 

O  2  and 


100  ORIGINAL    ROBINSON    CTtUSOE. 

and  soon  delivered  him  from  the  rats.  He  likewise  tamed 
some  kids^  and,  to  divert  himself,  would  now.  and  then 
sing  and  dance  with  his  cats;  so  that  by  the  care  of  Pro- 
vidence, and  vigour  of  hi-s  youth,  being  now  but  about 
thirty  years  old,  he  came  at  last  to  conquer  all  the  in-» 
conveniences  of  his  solitude,  and  to  be  very  easy.  When 
his  cloaths  wore  out,  he  made  himself  a  coat  and  cap  of 
goats-skins,  which  he  stitched  together  with  little  thongs 
of  the  same,  that  he  cut  with  his  knife.  He  had  no  other 
uecdle  but  a  nail,  and,  when  his  knife  was  wore  to  the 
back,  he  made  others,  as  Avell  as  he  could,  of  some  iron 
hoops  that  were  left  ashore,  which  he  b«at  thin  an4 
ground  upon  stones.  Having  some  iinnen  cloth  by  him, 
he  sewed  himself  shirts  with  a  nail,  and  stitched  them 
with  the  worsted  of  his  old  stockings,  which  he  pulled 
put  on  purpose.  He  had  his  last  shirt  on  when  we  found 
him  in  the  island.  At  his  first  coming  on  board  us,  he 
had  so  much  forgot  his  language  for  want  of  use,  that 
we  could  scarce  understand  him,  for  he  seemed  to  speak 
his  words  by  halves.  We  offered  him  a  dram,  but  he 
,would  not  touch  it,  having  drank  nothing  but  water 
since  his  being  there,  and  it  was  some  time  before  he 
could  relish  our  victuals.  He  could  give  us  account  of 
no  other  product  of  the  island  than  what  we  have  men- 
tioned, except  small  black  plums,  which  are  veiy  good, 
hut  hard  to  come  at,  the  trees  which  bear  them  growing 
on  high  mountains  and  rocks.  Piemento  trees  are  plenty 
here,  and  we  saw  one  sixty  feet  high,  and  about  two 
yards  thick  ;  and  cotton  trees  higher,  and  near  four  fa- 
thom round  in  the  stock.  The  climate  is  so  good,  that 
the  trees  and  grass  are  verdant  allthe  year.  The  winter 
Ja^ts  no  longer  than  June  or  July,  and  is  not  then  se- 
vere, there  being  only  a  small  frost  and  a  little  hail,  but 
^omejimes  great  rains.  The  heat  of  the  summer  is  equal-? 
iy  moderate,,  and  there  is  not  much  thundcf  or  tempestu-? 


OHIGINAL    ROBINSON    CRTSOE.  101 

ous  weather  of  any  sort.  He  saw  no  venomous  or  savage 
creature  on  the  ishiiid,  nor  any  olhtr  sort  of  beast  but 
§oats,  &c.  as  above-mentioned  ;  the  first  of  which  had 
been  put  a-shorc  here  on  purpose  for  a  breed  b}'  John 
Fernando,  a  (Spaniard,  wlio  settled  there  with  some  fami- 
lies for  a  time,  till  the  continent  of  Chili  be^ran  to  submit 
to  the  Spaniards;  which,  being  more  profitable,  tempted 
them  to  quit  this  island,  which  is  capable  of  maintaining 
a  good  number  of  people,  and  of  being  made  so  strong 
that  they  could  not  be  easily  dislodged.  Ringrose,  iu 
liis  account  of  Ciiptain  Sharp's  voyage  and  other  Bucca- 
neers, mentions  one,  who  had  escaped  ashore  here,  out 
of  a  ship  which  was  cast  away  with  all  the  rest  of  the 
company,  and  spys,  he  lived  five  years  alone,  before  he 
luid  the  opportunity  of  another  ship  to  carry  him  off. 
Capt.  Dampicr  talks  of  a  Moskito  Indian,  that  belonged 
to  Capt.  Watiin  ;  who,  being  hunting  in  the  woods, 
when  the  Captain  left  the  island,  lived  there  three  years 
?ilone,  nnd  shifted  much  in  the  same  manner  as  Mr.  Sel- 
kirk did,  till  Capt.  Dampier  came  hither,  in  l0"84,  and 
carried  him  off.  The  first,  that  went  ashore,  was  one  of 
his  countrymen,  and  ihey  saluted  one  another,  first  by 
prostrating  themselves  by  turns  on  the  ground,  and  then 
by  embracino-.  But,  whatever  there  is  in  these  stories, 
this  of  Mr.  Selkirk  I  know  to  be  true;  and  hi.^  behaviour 
afterwards  gives  mc  reason  to  believe  the  account,  he. 
gave  me,  how  he  spent  his  time,  and  bore  up  under  such 
an  affliction,  in  which  nothing  but  the  Divine  Proxndence 
could  have  supported  any  man.  By  this  one  may  sec, 
that  solitude,  and  retirement  from  the  world,  is  not  an 
unsuf^'orable  state  of  lile,  as  most  men  imagine,  especi- 
ally when  people  are  fairly  thrown  into  it  linavoidabh", 
as  this  man  was;  who,  in  all  probobility,  must  otherwise 
have  perished  in  the  seas,  the  ship,  w^hich  left  him,  be- 
ing cast  away  not  long  after,  and  few  of  the  company 

escaped. 


50^  ANCIEIST    MODE    OF    BUlLDINt,    HOUSES. 

esca})ed.  We  ma}^  perceive,  by  tliis  story,  the  truth  of 
the  Maxim,  That  necessity  is  the  mother  of  invtntion  '; 
since  he  found  means  to  supply  his  wants  in  a  very  natu- 
ral manner,  so  as  to  maintain  his  hfe  ;  though  not  so 
conveniently,  yet  as  effectually,  as  we  are  able  to  do 
with  the  help  of  all  our  arts  and  society.  It  may  likewise 
instruct  us,  how  much  a  plain  and  temperate  way  of 
Jivino;  conduces  to  the  health  of  the  bodv,  and  the  vigour 
of  the  mind  ;  both  which  we  are  apt  to  destroy  by  excess 
and  plenty,  especially  of  strong  liquor,  and  the  variety, 
as  well  as  the  nature,  of  our  meat  and  drink ;  for  this 
man,  when  he  came  to  our  ordinary  method  of  diet  and 
life,  though  he  was  sober  enough,  lost  much  of  lus  strength 
and  agility. 


Upon  the  ANCIENT  mode,  and  progress  of  building 

DWELLING   HOUSES  in  ENGLAND. 

J\S  one  of  the  plates  of  our  present  number  contains  a 
view  of  the  Cross  in  Cheapside  and  some  of  the  antique 
houses  of  the  Citizens,  undoubtedly^  looked  upon  as  per- 
fect models  in  their  time,  some  account  of  the  progress  of 
iashion  in  that  art  may  not  be  disagreeable  to  the  reader, 
whose  time  or  avocations  may  not  admit  of  researches 
among  the  cumbrous  volumes  of  antiquity. 

Though  the  extent  or  convenience  of  houses  is  a  ge- 
neral indication  of  the  condition  of  the  inhabitants  with- 
in, it  is  an  undoubted  fact,  that  notwithstanding  the 
inferiority  of  the  domestic  buildings  in  England  to  those 
of  the  continent,  was  evident  even  down  to  the  reign 
of  Queen  Elizabeth,  no  nation  upon  earth  fed  or  fared 
better  than  the  Englii,h.  On  the  contrary,  it  was  said  of 
the  common  people  among  the  French  by  Sir  John  Eor- 
tescue,  in  his  treatise  de  Laudibus  Legitm  Jngli(c;  ''  that 
they,  theFrench  drink  water — they  eat  apples  with  bread 

right 


AXCIENT    MODE    OF    BUILDING    HOUSES.  iO.l 

rtgbt  browii^  made  of  rye.  They  cat  no  flesh  but  seldom  ; 
a  httle  laid,  or  the  entrails  or  heads  ofbeasts,  slain  for 
the  nobles  and  merchants  of  the  land*.  And  they  be  com- 
pelled so  to  watch,  labour  and  grub  in  the  ground  for 
their  sustenance  that  their  nature  is  much  wasted — they 
grow  crooked,  are  feeble  and  not  able  to  fight." 

But  to  return  to  our  ancient  mode  of  building:  in  old 
time  says  Harrison,  in  his  description  of  England,  pre- 
fixed to  Hollinshed,  the  houses  of  the  Britons  were  slight- 
ly set  up  with  a  few  posts,  several  hurdles,  with  a  stable 
and  all  ofliccs  under  one  roof,  the  like  is  to  be  seen  in 
the  fenny  countries  and  northern  parts  unto  this  day, 
wJiere,  for  lack  of  wood  they  are  enforced  to  continue 
this  ancient  manner  of  building. — For  want  of  stuff  they 
can  use  no  studs  v.t  all  but  only  frank  posts,  with  here 
and  there  a  girding,  to  which  they  fasten  their  splints, 
or  saddles  and  then  cast  it  all  over  with  thick  clay  to 
keep  out  the  wind.  Certainly  this  rude  kind  of  building 
made  the  Spaniards  in  Queen  Mary's  days,  express  their 
surprize,  but  chiefly  when  they  saw  what  rare  diet  was 
used  in  many  of  these  homely  cottages,  and  which  caused 
one  of  note  among  them  to  say  *' These  English,  have 
their  houses  made  of  sticks  and  dirt,  but  generally  fare 
as  well  as  the  king." 

It  was  not  till  the  reign  of  Ilcnry  VIH.  that  glazed 
windows  came  into  general  use  among  the  wealthier  sort. 
Somewhat  later  than  that  period  both  yeomen  and  ftir- 
mers  were  content  with  windows  of  lattice  or  network- — 
lioonis  also,  that  were  provided  with  chimnies  are  men- 
tioned as  a  luxury  by  the  author  of  Pierce  Plowman,  and 
liarrison  treats  them   as  such  b_y  his  remarks  as  follows, 

''  Now 

*  Here  it  is  to  be  jioted  that  the  practice  of  eating  of  offal,  so  necessary 
for  Uie  lower  orders  of  people  when  meat  is  at  a  verj'  high  price,  was  first 
introduced  iato  this  country  by  the  Freucii  emigrant  Weavers  that  came 
overhere,  as  persecuted  Protestants  in  the  reign  of  William  and  Mary. 


lOi  A^'C1ENT    MODE    OF    BUILDING    HOUSfiS, 

*"'  Now  liavc  we  many  cbimnics  and  yet  our  tenderliilg.x 
complain  of  rheums,  catarrhs,  and  colds  in  the  liead. 
]u)rmer]y  we  had  none  but  rcre  dorses  a  kind  of  iron 
back,  or  brick  coating  against  a  wall  made  to  resist  fire. 
Then  our  heads  did  not  ache ;  for  as  the  smoke  was  sup- 
posed to  be  a  sufficient  hardening  for  the  timbers  of  the 
bouse,  so  it  was  thought  a  better  medicine  to  keep  the 
good  man  and  his  family  from  the  ague,  a  disorder  at 
tiiat  time,  but  little  known." 

In  houses  partly  made  of  rafters  and  clay  as  abovesaid, 
it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the  furniture  was  very  costly. 
Our  fathers,  says  the  above  author,  yea  and  we  our- 
selves have  oiten  lain  upon  straw  pallets,  or  rough  mats, 
covered  only  with  a  sheet,  and  coverlets  made  of  dag 
i<zcain  or  Imp  harlots,  and  a  good  round  log  under  their 
heads  instead  of  a  bolster  or  pillow.  And  if  a  man  seven 
vears  after  his  marriage,  purchased  a  mattrass  or  a  flock 
bed  adding  thereto  a  sack  of  chaff  to  rest  his  bones  upon, 
he  thought  himself  as  well  lodged  as  a  lord  of  the  town, 
who  perchance  lay  seldom  on  a  bed  of  down  or  whole 
feathers.  Servants  were  content  with  an  upper  sheet 
only,  having  none  underneath  to  save  thcrn  from  the 
pricking  straws  that  often  ran  through  the  canvas  of  the 
pallet. 

In  the  external  part  of  the  building,  the  progress  of 
improvement  was  from  clay  to  lath  and  plaister,  such  a^> 
distinguish  the  ancient  houses  in  Cheapside,  represented 
m  our  plate,  and  such  as  are  still  to  be  seen  in  Holywell 
StreeJ,  the  Strand,  Sec.  At  first  rude  rafters  only  formed 
the  cielings;  those  of  mortar  and  lime  were  a  later  cus- 
tom. Country  houses  were  generally  covered  with  shin- 
gles or  thin  boards,  but  slates  and  tiles  were  soon  found 
necessary  in  towns  and  cities  to  prevent  damages  by  fire. 
These  latter  buildings  were  very  solid  and  consisted  of 
many  stories  projecting  over  each  othe*"  s«o  far  that  in 

narrow 


07/(i  .)/()/<■   //n    (  /■(> If //  jro /It    //if  .Aif/'ct  o/J o//f/u/i 

Tab.  Oil  R..S.Kubi/LcnM.on  Mcure  ra,di.-f.S<uiU.  ^4- .  Stranti  tll!'l./Se4. 


COLONEL    BLOOD.  lOo 

narrow  lanes,  &c.  the  windows  on  cacli  side  ncaily  met. 
The  walls  in  wealthy  houses  were  decorated  cither  with 
tapestry,  arras,  or  painted  cloths,  exhibiting  divers  his- 
tories, or  herbs,  beasts,  &c.  Till  pewter  was  introduced, 
both  yeoman  and  peasants  put  up  with  wooden  trenchers 
and  platters.  Silver  plate,  china,  and  delft  have  suc- 
ceeded :  and,  generally  speaking,  the  convcniencics  with- 
in, have  kept  pace  with  the  improvements  without. 

To  render  this  sketch  complete,  it  may  be  proper  to 
observe,  that  the  cumbrous  brick  building  with  casement 
windoM's,  succeeded  those  of  lath  and  plaister,  while  the 
more  modern  mode  at  once  unites  elegance  arid  capa- 
ciousness. 


Aucient  and  Modem  History  funiisli  accounts  of  desperate  undertakings  by' 
individuals;  but  none  exhibits  so  resolnte  and  deterniiiicd  an  adventurer  as 
Colonel  Blood  ;  wlio,  it' his  pursuits  had  Ijeen  directed  to  a  laudable  purpose, 
would  have  intituled  his  memory  to  have  ranked  with  the  greatest  nameSj 
,  both  as  to  courage  and  plans  of  operation.  Cromwell  himself  was  not  pos- 
eesscd  of  greater  requisites  to  obtain  a  great  name  ;  and  did  not  coiue  so  near 
the  crown,  as  this  desperate  of  all  rogues. 

COLONEL    THOMAS    IJLOOD. 

X  HIS  daring  ruliian  was  notorious  for  seizing  the  person 
of  the  Duke  of  Ormond*,  with  an  intention  to  hang  him 

at 

*  On  the  6th  of  December,  1670,  an  assault  was  nnide  in  the  open  streets 
upon  tb.e  Duke  of  Orniond,  of  a  very  singular  nature,  whether  we  consider  the 
boldness  of  the  attempt,  or  the  villany  and  barbarity  of  the  design.  The  chief 
contriver  and  manager  of  this  monstrous  enterprise,  was  one  Thomas  IMood,  a 
blacksmith's  son  in  Ireland  ;  a  fellow  of  a  fearless  courage,  but  of  lli.it  worst 
sort,  which  is  equally  undamited  at  dangers  or  at  crimes. 

He  had  signalized  himself  once  before  by  a  bold  attem])t  in  which  he  rescued 
one  of  his  wicked  comrades  in  Yorkshire  from  the  sheriff's  men,  as  they  were 
leading  him  to  the  gallows.  After  this  he  laid  a  design  in  Ireland  to  surprise 
the  Castle  of  Dublin,  and  the  magazine  there,  and  to  usurp  the  government : 
but  this  being  discovered  by  the  Duke  of  Ormond  the  night  before  it  was  to  be 
executed,  some  of  his  accomplices  were  taken,  and  executed  as  traitors.  The 
deaths  of  these,  Blood  and  the  other  surviving  rogues,  bound  thcmscKes  by -a 

Vol.  IL  P  solemn 


.106 


C0LONEL    BLOOD. 


at  Tyburri;,  and  for  stealing  the  crown  out  of  the  Tower, 
^e  was  very  near  being  successful  in  both  these  enters 
prises  :  it  was  with  no  small  difficulty  that  the  duke  es- 
caped, and  the  crown  was  wrested  from  his  hands. 

The  cunning  of  this  boldest  of  all  thieves  was 
equal  to  his  intrepidity.  He  told  the  king,  by  whom 
he  was  examined,  that  he  had  undertaken  to  kill 
him  ;  and  that  he  went  with  that  purpose  to  a  place 
in  the  river  where  he  bathed  i  but  was  struck  with  so  pro- 
found an  awe  upon  siglit  of  his  (naked)  majesty,  that  his 
resolution  failed  him,  and  he  entirely  laid  aside  his  de- 
sign :  that  he  belonged  to  a  band  of  ruffians  equally  des- 
perate with  himself,  who  had  bound  themselves  by  the 
stronijest  oaths  to  revensre  the  death  of  any  of  their  asso- 
ciates.     Upon  this  he  received  the  royal  pardon,  and  had 

solemn  oath  to  rcvcngs  upon  the  person  of  the  Duke.  Tiiat  nobleman  lived 
at  Clarendon  House,  and  was  observed  by  Blood  to  go  usually  late  home,  and 
attended  with  only  two  or  three  footmen,  which  gave  that  villahi  occasion  to 
lay  a  plot  for  the  working  his  intended  revenge. 

To  this  end,  himself,  with  five  or  six  more  of  his  associates,  well  mounted  and 
armed,  waited  at  the  Bull  Head  Tavern  at  Ciiaring-Cross,  till  (he  Duke  came 
'by,  and  then  all  took  horse  and  gallopped  after  him.  Tliey  overtook  him  near 
l)is  own  gate,  knocked  down  hu  footmen,  took  him  out  of  his  coach,  forced 
Lira  up  beiiind  one  of  the  horsemen,  to  vvlioju  tlicy  tied  him,  and  were  p^ing 
away  with  him.  The  coachman  and  servants  crying  out,  the  porter. came  forth, 
and  seeing  what  was  done,  pursued  them.  The  Duke  strove  so  violently  to 
free  himself,  that  at  last  he  got  loose,  and  threw  himself  with  the  villain  he  was 
tyed  to,  oiF  the  horse.  The  rest  turned  back,  and  lindhig  it  impossible  to  carry 
him  away,  discharged  tvo  pistols  at  hini ;  but  it  being  so  dark,  that  they  coul^ 
not  see  to  take  aim,  they  missed  him  both  time§.  Thp  porter  and  otiier  assist- 
ance coming  up,  they  were  glad  to  make  ha.ste  away,  leaving  the  Duke  much 
bruised  with  his  fall.  Their  design,  as  it  was  afterwards  found,  was  to  carry 
iiim  to  Tyburn,  and  there  to  hang  him  with  a  paper  pinned  to  his  breast,  ex- 
pressing the  reasons  of  this  monstrous  piece  of  villany.  The  king  offered  ^ 
thousand  pounds  for  the  discovery  of  any  one  concerned  in  it.  But  with  so 
horrible  a  fidelity  were  these  wretches  linked  together,  that  so  great  a  reward 
produced  no  discovery  ;  and  they  had  been  for  ever  unknown,  had  not  the 
attempt  on  the  crown  led  Blood  to  the  confession  of  this  attempt  on  th$ 
Puke. 

a  hand? 


COJ.ONEL    BLOOD.  107 

S  bandscime  pension  assigned  him  of  6001.  per  year.  He 
Was  now  no  longer  eonsidtired  as  an  impudent  criminal, 
hilt  as  a  court  favourite;  and  application  was  made  to 
the  throne  by  tlic  mediation  of  Mr.  Blood*.  Ob.  24 
Aug.   1680. 

The  particulars  of  his  attempt  on  the  crown  and  regalia 
in  the  Tower  of  London,  is  related  by  Mr.  Edwards  him- 
self, at  that  time,  keeper. 

About  three  weeks  before  he  put  his  intended  plan  in 
execution,  he  came  to  the  Tower  as  a  stranger,  to  see 
the  curiositiesj  habited  as  a  clergyman,  with  a  long 
cloak^  cassock,  and  canonical  girdle,  and  brought  a  wo- 
man with  him,  whom  he  called  his  wife^  though  it  after- 
wards appeared  his  real  wile  was  ill  at  the  time  in  Lan- 
cashire :  his  pretended  wife  after  seeing  the  crown,  &c. 
feigned  a  sudden  indisposition,  and  desired  ]Mr.  Edwards 
to  procure  her  some  spirits,  who  immediately  caused  his 
wife  to  fetch  some ;  after  wh-ich,  appearing  to  be  some- 
what recovered,  Mrs<  Edwards  invited  her  up  stairs^ 
where  she  pretended  to  repose  herself  for  some  time  on  a 
bed;  after  which  they  departed,  with  great  thanks  for 
the  attention  received. 

In  three  or  four  days  after,  Blood  called  on  Mrs.  Ed- 
wards, with  a  present  of  iour  pair  of  white  gloves  j  and 
having  began  the  acquaintance,  made  frequent  visits  to 
improve  it,  accompanied  by  his  pretemled  wife,  who  pro- 

*  Dt.  Walter  Pope,  in  his  ''Life  of  Bishop  Ward,"  riifornis  us,  "that 
Blood,  being  of  a  sviddeu  become  a  grea<  favourite  at  court,  and  the  chief  agent 
of  the  dissenters,  bronglit  tiie  hisliop  a'  verbal  message  from  the  king  not  to 
molest  them ;  upon  whidi  he  went  to  waif  on  his  majesty,  and  humbly  repre- 
sented to  him,  that  there  were  only  two  troublesome  nonconformists  in  hiu 
diocese,  whom  he  doubted  not,  witli  his  majesty's  permission,  but  that  he 
should  bring  to  tlirir  duty  ;  and  then  he  named  them.  These  are  the  very  men, 
replied  the  king,  7/011  miift  not  med'Ue  uith:  to  which  he  obeyed,  letting  rhe. 
prosecution  a^aiwst  them  fall." 

P  2  fsiiei 


108  COLONEL    BLOOD. 

lessed  she   could   never  sufiieicutly  repay    the    kindness 
received. 

T3Ioodj  in  one  of  his  visits  to  the  Edwards's,  observed 
that  his  wife  eoidd  discourse  ot"  nothing-  but  the  kindness 
of  the  good  peo[)le  in  the  Tower;  adding  she  had  thought 
on  a  plan  to  cement  a  lasting  friendship  between  them, 
which  was:  Mr.  Edwards  havinir  a  duuohter  at  that  tini« 
marriageable,  that  a  match  should  take  place  between 
her  and  a  pretended  nephew  of  his,  who  had  from  two 
to  three  hundred  pounds  a-year. 

This  proposal  was  easily  assented  to  by  old  Mr.  Ed- 
^vards,  who  invited  the  person  to  dine  with  him,  which 
was  readily  accepted  by  our  adventurer,  who  taking  upon 
him  to  say  grace,  performed  it  with  great  devotion,  and 
concluded  a  long  winded  one,  with  a  pra^^er  for  the  king, 
queen,  and  royal  family.  After  dinner  he  went  to  sec 
tiie  rooms,  and  observing  a  handsome  pair  of  pistols,  he 
expressed  a  great  desire  to  buy  them,  to  present  to  a 
young  lord,  his  acquaintance;  but  it  wjis  afterwards 
thought  l)ut  to  disarm  the  house  against  his  intended 
depredation. 

At  his  departure,  which  was  with  a  cononical  benedic- 
tion of  the  good  company,  he  appointed  a  day  and  hour 
to  bring  his  young  nephew  to  his  mistress;  and  it  was 
that  very  day  that  he  made  his  attempt,  viz.  the  9th  of 
May,  about  seven  in  the  morning.  Anno  lG73. 

The  old  man  was  got  up  ready  to  receive  his  guest, 
and  the  daughter  had  put  herself  into  her  best  dress  to 
entertain  her  gaUant;  when  behold  Parson  Blood,  with 
three  more,  came  to  the  jewel-house,  all  armed  uith 
Vapicr  blades  in  their  canes,  and  every  one  a  dagger  and 
a  pair  of  pocket-pistols.  Two  of  his  companions  entered 
vith  him,  and  the  third  staid  at  the  door,  it  seems  for  a 
watch.  The  daughter  thought  it  not  modest  for  her  to 
l-'oine  down  till  she  was  called,  but  sent  her  maid  to  view 

the 


COLONEL    BLOOD.  109 

the  company,  and  bring  Iut  a  description  of  her  Intended 
liusbaiui.  The  uiiiid  conceived  that  he  was  the  intended 
bridegroom  who  staid  at  the  door,  because  he  was  the 
youngest  oi'  the  company,  and  returned  to  her  young 
mistress  with  the  character  she  had  formed  of  his 
person. 

Blood  told  ]Mr.  Edwards,  that  they  would  not  go  up 
stairs  till  his  wife  came,  and  desired  him  to  shew  his 
friends  the  crown  to  pass  the  time.  But  as  soon  as  they 
entei'ed  the  room  where  the  crown  was  kept,  and  the  door 
as  usual  shut  behind  them,  they  threw  a  cloak  over  the 
old  man's  head,  and  clapped  a  gag  into  his  mouth, 
which  was  a  great  plug  of  wood^  w^ith  a  small  hole  in  the 
middle  to  take  breath;  this  was  tied  with  a  wax  leather 
round  his  neck,  at  the  same  time  they  fastened  an  iroa 
liook  to  his  nose,  that  no  sound  might  pass  that  way. 

When  they  had  thus  secured  him,  they  told  him  their 
resolution  was  to  take  the  ciiown,  globe,  and  sceptre;  and 
that  if  he  would  quietly  submit,  they  would  spare  his  life; 
otherwise  he  was  to  expect  no  mercy. 

He  thereupon  made  as  much  noise  to  be  heard  ns  pos- 
sible; on  which  they  knocked  him  down  with  a  wooden 
mallet,  and  told  him  if  he  would  lay  quiet,  they  would 
still  spare  his  life,  but  if  not,  on  the  next  attempt  to  make 
a  noise  they  would  kill  him ;  but  he  straining  to  make 
a  greater  noise,  they  gave  him  nine  or  ten  strokes  with 
the  mallet,  as  appeared  afterwards  by  the  bruises  on  his 
liead,  and  stabbed  him  in  the  belly. 

Mr.  Edwards  was  at  this  time  almost  eighty  years  of 
age,  and  appearing  not  to  breathe,  one  of  them  said  he  is 
dead,  i*ll  warrant  him;  but  coming  a  little  to  himself^ 
he  judged  it  prudent  to  lay  quiet. 

One  of  them  named  Parrot  concealed  the  globe  in  his 
cloaths.  Blood  held  the  crown  under  his  cloak,  and  the 
third  was  about  to  file  the  sceptre  in  two,  it  being  too 

long; 


liO  ColoKel  elood. 

long  to  put  in  a  bag  they  had  brought  for  the  pufposc. 
But  before  the}'  could  accomplish  this,  young  Mr.  Ed- 
wards, who  had  been  into  Flanders,  providentially  return-' 
cd  to  England,  and  arrived  at  the  Tower  to  visit  his  aged 
father  at  the  very  time  they  were  thus  employed;  and 
coming  to  the  jewel-house  observed  tlieir  centinely  and 
told  him  if  he  had  any  business  with  his  father,  he  Avould 
go  up  stairs  and  inform  him.  In  the  mean  time  the  cen- 
tinel  gave  notice  of  the  son's  arrival,  on  which  they  hasted 
away  with  the  crown  and  globe,  not  havino;'  time  to  file 
the  sceptre;  and  as  they  did  not  think  of  tying  the  old 
man's  hands,  lie  immediately  got  up,  and  cried  Treason! 
Murder ! 

His  daughter  on  hearing  him,  fan  out  upon  Tower  Hill, 
and  cried  Treason!  the  crown  is  stolen!  and  Blood,  with 
Parrot,  n^aking  more  than  common  haste^  were  observed 
to  jog  against  each  other,  which  caused  them  to  be  sus- 
pected. By  this  time  young  Edward?,  with  a  Captain 
Beckman,  went  in  pursuit  of  the  villains,  and  the  alarm 
being  given  to  the  warder  at  the  drawbridge,  he  attempt- 
ed tostop  them,  but  Blood  coming  up  to  him,  discharged 
a  pistol,  through  fear  of  which  lie  fell,  though  not  liurt> 
and  they  got  safe  to  the  little  ward-house-gate,  where  a 
soldier,  who  had  served  under  Cromwell,  seeing  them 
shoot  at  the  warder,  though  he  stood  ccntinel  at  the  last 
gate,  suffered  them  through  cowardice  to  pass  to  Tower 
Hill,  and  were  proceeding  to  St.  Catharines,  commonly 
called  the  Iron  Gate,  where  their  horses  were  in  waiting, 
crying  all  the  way  they  ran.  Stop  the  Rogues!  They 
being  thought  innocent  by  the  disguise  of  Blood's  cano- 
nical robes,  till  Captain  Beckman  coming  up  to  them. 
Blood  discharged  his  second  pistol  at  his  head,  but  he 
stooping  down  avoided  the  shot,  and  seized  the  rogue 
>vho  bad  the  crown  under  his  cloak,  yet  had  he  the  im- 
pudence to  struggle  a  long  time,  till  the  crown  was  fairly 

wrcstc  d 


COLONEL    BLOOD.  Ill 

Wrested  from  him_,  which  when  he  loosed,  he  said  it  was 
a  gaJlant  attempt  how  unsuccessFul  soever;  for  it  was  for 
H  crown.  Parrot  was  taken  hefore  Blood  hy  a  servant  of 
Captain  Sheaburn.  Some  innocent  persons  had  near 
suffered  for  the  guilty;  as  young  pdwards,  overtaking  a 
man  who  was  blooded  by  the  scuffle,  was  going  to  run 
him  through  as  bjs  father's  murderer,  but  v;as  stayed 
by  Captaiu  Beckman,  who  e-vchumed,  he  is  none  of 
them  ] 

Hunt,  Blood's  son-in-law,  leaped  on  his  horse,  with  two 
more  of  the  set,  and  rode  away  ;  but  a  cart_,  standing 
empty  in  the  street,  chanced  to  turn  short,  and  Hunt  run 
liis  head  against  a  pole  that  stuck  out,  but  recovering  his 
legs,  was  remounting;  but  being  known  by  a  coblcr,  who 
Was  running  to  enquire  the  disaster,  said_,  ''  This  is  Tom 
Hunt,  who  was  in  that  bloody  attempt  on  the  Duke  of 
Ormond."  A  constable  being  on  the  spot,  immediately 
seized  him,  and  carried  him  before  Justice  Smith,  who, 
upon  liis  confident  denial  of  being  the  same  Hunt,  was 
about  to  discharge  him ;  but  the  hue  and  cry  coming  from 
the  Tower,  he  was  committed  to  s^fe  custody. 

Young  Edwards  proposed  to  Lieutenant  Jiainsford  tp 
mount  some  of  his  soldiers  upon  the  horses  that  were  left, 
find  send  them  to  follow  the  rest  that  escaped ;  but  he 
bade  him  follow  them  himself,  it  was  his  lousiness,  and 
led  the  horses  into  the  Tower  as  forfeited  to  the  lieutenant. 

Hunt,  as  hath  been  said,  was  son-in-law  to  Blood,  and 
trained  bv  him  to  desueratc  undertakings. 

Parrot  was  a  silk-dyer  in  Southwark  ;  and  in  the  civil 
wars  had  been  Major  General  Harrison's  lieutenant. 

In  the  struggle  for  the  crown,  the  great  pearl  and  a  fine 
diamond  fell  out,  and  were  lost  for  a  time,  with  some 
smaller  stones.  But  the  pearl  was  found  by  Catherine 
Maddox,  a  poor  sweeping  woman  to  one  of  the  warder's, 
»ud  the  diamond  by  a  barber's  apprentice^  and  both  faith- 

full 


112  AN  EXTRAOKDINAKT  EARTHQUAKE^  8CC. 

fully  restored.  O^her  smaller  stones  were  by  several  per- 
sons picked  up  and  brouglil  in.  The  line  ruby  belonginu; 
to  the  sceptre  was  found  in  Parrot's  pocket;  so  that  not 
any  considerable  thing  was  wanting.  The  crown  only 
was  bruised,  and  sent  to  repair. 

The  king  was  immediately  informed  of  the  particidars, 
and  ordered  a  proper  examination  of  all  the  parties;  but 
being  advised  to  hear  the  examination  himself.  Blood 
appeared  to  be  so  little  intimidated,  that  the  king  was  in- 
duced not  only  to  pardon  him  and  his  associates,  but 
granted  him  a  pension  of  oOOl.  per  annum;  as  Blood  de- 
clared, there  were  hundreds  of  his  friends  bound  by  so- 
lemn engagements  to  revenge  the  death  of  any  of  their 
fraternity,  not  excepting  even  the  life  of  his  majesty. 

Mr.  Edwards  had  a  grant  of  '200/.  and  his  son  100/. 
Though  many  persons  solicited  a  greater  reward  for  the  ser- 
vices of  the  old  keeper  and  his  son,  no  farther  notice  was 
taken  of  them,  though  the  old  gentleman  was  so  much  dis- 
tressed as  to  sell  his  order  on  the  treasury  of  100/.  for  50 /.in 
order  to  pay  his  surgeon  for  drugs,  &.c.  with  th6  best  part, 
and  dying  within  a  year  and  a  month  after  he  had  re- 
ceived the  wounds,  did  not  greatly  enjoy  the  little  rem- 
nant of  reward  for  his  loyalty. 

AN  EXTRAORDINARY  EARTHQUAKE  IN  CHINA. 

On  the  19th  of  Juno,  1718,  an  earthquake  extended 
through  several  inland  provinces  of  China,  in  some  of 
which  the  shocks  were  slight,  and  consequently  neither 
long  nor  terrible,  while,  in  other  places,  the  gates  and 
walls  of  cities  were  thrown  down  and  laid  in  ruins ;  but 
it  was  dreadful  beyond  description  at  Yong-ning-tchin, 
which  was  entirely  swallowed  up,  without  leaving  the 
least  mark  either  of  men,  houses,  or  animals ;  while  seve- 
ral mountains  were  thrown  over  a  plain  to  the  distance  of 
'  above 


ACCOLNT  OF  JOHN   FERGUSON,  &C.  113 

above  two  leaoues.  The  earth  opened  near  the  town  of 
Tong-ouei,  and  the  mountains  f'alhng,  rolled  over  the 
town  from  north  to  south;  so  that,  in  an  instant,  tlie 
wiiole  town  was  in  a  manner  overwhelmed:  the  treasury, 
the  public  granaries,  the  houses,  prisons,  prisoners,  all 
were  buried  in  the  earth;  and  of  the  governor's  whole 
family,  only  himself,  a  son,  and  a  valet  escaped.  The 
plain  rose  in  waves  to  the  height  of  six  fathoms  or  more; 
and  so  terrible  was  the  desolation,  that  scarce  three  per- 
sons in  ten  were  saved. 


J 


A  RECOVERY  OF  SIGHT. 


AMES  ORR,  of  the  parish  of  Comber,  in  the  county 
of  Down,  in  Ireland,  died  about  the  year  1752,  or  53,  in 
the  ninety-third  of  his  age.  Eight  years  before  his  death 
he  recovered  his  eye-sight  (having  been  blind  twenty 
years)  so  perfectly  as  to  be  able  to  read  a  small  print 
without  spectacles. 

The  ancient  and  present  state  of  Dozen,  1754. 

.An  Account  of  John  Ferguson  of  Killmellford  in  the 
shire  of  Argyh  in  Scotland,  zcho  lived  Eighteen  Yean 
on  Hater. 

About  the  year  1745  he  happened  to  overheat  himself 
on  the  mountains,  in  pursuit  of  cattle,  and  in  that  con- 
dition drank  excessively  of  cokl  water  from  a  rivulet, 
near  which  he  fell  asleep;  he  awaked  twenty-four  hours 
after  in  a  high  fever:  during  the  paroxysm  of  the  fever, 
and  ever  since  that  time,  his  stomach  loaths  and  cannot 
retain  ;iuy  kind  oi"  aliment,  except  water,  or  clarified 
whev.  Archibald  CambcU  of  Incverlivcr,  to  whont  this 
man's  father  was  tenant,  carried  him  to  liis  own  house,  and 
locked  him  in  a  chamber  for  twenty  days,  and  supplied 
Vol.  n.  Q  himself 


114  THE  CRUEL  MIDV.IFE,  &,C. 

himself  with  water,  at  no  greater  quantity  in  a  day 
than  an  ordinary  man  would  use  for  common  drink;  and 
at  the  same  time  took  particular  care  that  it  should  not  be 
]  -  blc  for  his  guest  to  supply  himself  with  any  other 
ibod ;  yet  afttr  that  space  of  time  he  found  no  alteration 
in  his  vigour  or  visage. 


THE  CRUEL  M  I  DV»'IFE,  W  ITH  HER  HORRIBLE  PUNISHMENT. 

IN  the  year  If)73,  an  eminent  midwife  in  Paris  had,  by 
her  great  skill  in  her  profession,  obtained  the  favours  of 
the  greater  part  of  the  inhabitants — the  genteeler  of 
whom  she  delivered  at  their  own  houses j  but  for  those, 
whom  either  inclination,  or  a  worse  cause,  made  it  neces- 
sary to  be  secretly  delivered,  she  had  provided  accom? 
modations  at  her  own  house,  to  which  great  numbert 
resorted. 

It  happened  that  a  gentleman  who  lived  next  door  to 
the  midwife  had  observed,  that  although  many  pregnant 
women  went  to  he  delivered  at  her  house,  yd  very  few 
children  were  brought  out,  and  his  suspicions  of  foul  play 
towards  tiie  infants  increasing  daily;  he  at  length  con- 
sulted with  some  of  his  neighbours,  who  joined  him  in 
requesting  a  warrant  from  a  magistrate  to  search  for  some 
plate,  which  they  pretended  to  have  lost.  In  order,  how- 
ever, not  to  iihirm  the  midwife,  they  began  their  sham 
searcii  at  the  distance  of  nine  or  ten  houses  from  her's. 

\V'lien  they  came,  however,  to  her  abode,  she  affected 
the  utmost  unconcern,  desiring  the  gentlemen  not  to 
hurry  themselves,  but  to  proceed  in  their  search,  with  all 
possible  circumspection; — they  did  so — and  on  their 
coming  to  the  necessary-house,  they  put  down  a  hook, 
which  they  had  brought  with  them  on  purpose,  and  took 
up  the  body  of  a  child  newly  destroyed.  They  con- 
tinweJ  the  fcarch,  till  they  had  found  no  let'.s  than  sixty- 
two 


THE  CRUEL  MIDWIFE,  Sec.  115 

two  children — some  of  whom  were  in  great  measure 
decayed;  but  many  of  them  appeared  to  have  been 
deposited  in  that  place  within  a  very  few  weeks  at  the 
most. 

The  consequence  of  this  was,  that  the  midwife  was 
immediately  apprehended,  and  brought  to  trial,  and  con- 
demned on  the  fullest  evidence,  besides  her  own  confes- 
sion. She  was  sentenced  to  be  executed  in  the  following 
manneiv,  and  she  suiTered  accordingly  on  the  28th  day 
of  May,  1673. 

"  A  gibbet  was  erected,  under  which  a  fire  was  made, 
and  the  prisoner  being  brought  to  the  place  of  execution, 
was  hung  up  in  a  large  iron  cage,  in  which  were  also 
placed  sixteen  wild  cats,  which  had  been  catched  in  the 
woods  for  the  purpose. — When  the  heat  of  the  fire  be- 
came too  great  to  be  endured  with  patience,  the  cats  flew 
upon  the  woman,  as  the  cause  of  the  intense  pain  they 
felt. — In  about  fifteen  minutes  they  had  pulled  out  her 
intrails,  though  she  continued  yet  alive,  and  sensible,  im- 
ploring, as  the  greatest  favour,  an  immediate  death  from 
the  hands  of  some  charitable  spectator.  No  one,  how- 
ever, dared  to  afford  her  the  least  assistance  j  and  she 
continued  in  this  wretched  situation  for  the  space  of 
thirty-five  minutes,  and  then  expired  in  unspeakable 
torture." 

At  the  time  of  her  death,  twelve  of  the  cats  were  ex- 
pired, and  the  other  four  were  all  dead  in  less  than  two 
minutes  afterwards. 

However  cruel  this  execution*  may  appear  with  regard 

*  It  has  been  sugf^csted  by  some  writers  that  were  the  crime  of  murder  pim% 
ished  ill  this  country  by  a  more  exemplary  mode  than  now  practi^^ed,  our  history 
would  not  be  so  often  disgraced  \vith  tli«t  most  horrid  oiTence ;  but  it  has  been 
wisely  answed,  that  wliile  our  laws  are  justly  acknowledged  the  mildest  in  the 
world,  rn.iece.isnry  and  lingering  torments  are  as  wisely  dispensed  with  j  as  the 
(;.)nscienc8  of  t  very  offender  in  this  way  must  be  evidently  more  poignant  than 
that  uf  the  greatest  outward  torture  ! 

Q  2^  to 


llG  WONDERFUL  IISCAPE. 

to  the  poor  animals,  it  certainly  cannot  be  thought  too 
severe  a  punishment  for  such  a  monster  of  iniquity,  as 
could  calmly  proceed  in  acquiring  a  fortune  by  the  deli- 
berate nnudcr  of  such  numbers  of  harmless  innocents. 

The  above  story  is  strictly  trUe  in  every  part  of  it,  and 
as  v\ell  known  in  Paris,  as  tliose  of  Mary  Blandy,  or  Eliz. 
Jefferics  in  Kngland, 

AN   INSTANCE  OF   GKATITUDE. 

oIR  William  Fitzwiliians  the  elder,  being  a  merchant- 
taylor,  and  servant  souictinies  to  cardinal  Woolsey,  was 
chosen  alderman  of  Broadstreet  ward  in  London,  1506. 
Going  afterwards  to  dwell  at  Milan  in  Northamptonshire, 
in  the  fall  of  the  cardinal,  his  former  master,  he  gave 
him  kind  entertainment  at  his  house  in  the  country;  for 
vliich,  being  called  before  the  king,  and  demanded  how 
he  durst  entertain  so  great  an  cnemj-  to  the  state?  His 
answer  was,  "That  he  had  not  contempluousl}',  or  wil- 
fully done  it;  hut  only  because  he  had  been  his  master, 
and  partly  the  means  of  his  greatest  fortunes."  The  king 
was  so  w  ell  pleased  with  his  answer,  that,  saying  himself 
had  few  such  servants,  he  immediately  knighted  him,  and 
afterwards  made  him  one  of  his  privy-council. 


WONDERFUL  ESCAPE. 

A.  DUTCH  seaman  being  condemned  to  death,  his  pun- 
ishment was  changed,  and  he  was  ordered  to  be  left  at 
St.  Helleu's  island.  This  unhappy  person  representing 
t  himself  the  horror  of  that  solitude,  fell  upon  a  resolution 
to  attempt  the  strangest  action  that  evc-r  was  heard  of. 
There  had  that  day  been  interred  in  the  same  island  an 
officer  of  the  ship:  the  seaman  took  up  the  body  out  of 
the  coffin ;  and  having  made  a  kind  of  rudder  of  the  upper 
board,  ventured  himself  to  sea  in  il.  It  happened  for- 
junatcl}'  to  him    to  he  so  gre;it  :i  calni  that  the  ship  lay 

iniBiurQabh: 


t 


THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  OF  PIERCY.  1  17 

immoveable  witliin  a  league  and  a  half  of  the  island; 
when  his  companions  seeing  so  strange  a  boat  float  upon 
the  waters,,  imagined  they  saw  a  spectre,  and  were  not  a 
little  startled  at  the  resolution  of  the  man,  who  durst 
hazard  himself  upon  that  clement  in  three  boards  slightly 
nailed  together,  though  he  had  no  confidence  to  find  or 
be  received  by  those  who  had  so  lately  sentenced  him  to 
death.  Accordingly  it  was  put  to  the  question,  whether 
he  should  be  received  or  not;  some  would  have  the  sen- 
tence put  in  execution,  but  at  last  mercy  prevailed,  and 
Jic  was  taken  aboard,  and  came  afterwards  to  Holland; 
where  he  lived  in  the  town  of  Horn,  and  related  to  many 
how  miraculously  God  had  delivered  him. 

THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  OF  PIERCY. 

iVlALCOLM,  king  of  Scotland,  having  laid  siege  to 
Alnwick  Castle,  which  being  unable  to  resist  him,  must 
liave  inevitably  fallen  into  his  hands,  as  no  relief  could 
be  expected ;  whereupon  a  young  Englishman,  without 
any  other  arms  than  a  slight  spear  in  his  hand,  at  the  end 
whereof  hunoj  the  kevs  of  the  castle,  rode  into  the  ene- 
my's  camp,  and  approaching  near  the  king,  slooping 
the  lance,  as  if  he  intended  to  present  him  with  the  keys 
of  the  garrison,  but  at  the  same  time  made  such  a  home 
thrust  at  the  king,  that  piercing  him  into  his  brain, 
through  one  of  his  e^-es,  he  fell  down  dead,  and  the  bold 
undertaker  escaped  by  the  swiftness  of  his  horse. 

From  this  desperate  action,  he  took  tipon  himself  the 
name  of  Pcrcic,  or  Pierce-eye.  And  from  him  descended 
the  ancient  earls  of  Northumberland. 

T<^   TH):    r.DlTOR    OF    THE    SeiENTIFIC   AND    WONDERFUL 

MI'S  ELM. 
Sir. 
According  to  prcmiisc,  I  now  si-nd   vou  more  Miscellaneous  Arlicles,  wliich 
To'i  will  liiid  no  ways  inlccior  to  luv  loriuer  accounts  under  the  same  title, 

aud 


118  TWO    INSTANCES    OF    FECUNDITY. 

and  as  well  authenticated ;  which  leaves  me  no  room  to  doubt  but  they  will 
procure  a  place  in  the  Scientific  and  Wonderful  Museum,  which  will  oblig*. 
niany  besides.  Your  Occasional  Correspondent 

Nottingham,  February  4th,  18,04.  D.  B.  L. 


A  MARVELLOUS  TEMPEST  OF  THUNDER 

Occurred  in  the  year  1558,  in  the  sixth  of  Queen 
Mary,  about  four  months  before  her  death,  viz.  on  the 
7th  of  July  within  a  mile  of  JNottingham,  was  a  marvel- 
lous tempest  of  thunder,  which  as  it  came  through  two 
towns,  Lenton  and  Wilford,  the  former  on  the  north,  the 
latter  on  the  south  side  of  the  River  Trent,  exactly  oppo- 
site, and  each  one  mile  from  Nottingham,  beat  down  all 
the  houses  and  churches,  the  bells  were  cast  to  the  out- 
side of  the  church-yards,  and  some  webs  of  lead  400  feet 
into  the  field  writhen  like  a  pair  of  gloves.  The  River 
Trent  running  betwixt  the  towns,  the  water  with  the  mud 
in  the  bottom  was  carried  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  cast 
against  the  trees;  the  trees  were  pulled  up  by  the  roots, 
and  cast  twelve  score  foot  distance;  also  a  child  was 
taken  forth  from  a  man's  hands  two  spear  length  high, 
and  carried  an  hundred  foot,  and  then  fell,  wherewith  his 
arm  was  broke,  and  so  died ;  five  or  six  men  thereabout 
were  slain.  There  fell  some  hail-stones  that  were  fifteen 
inches  about. — Vide  Deerino^'s  Hist.  Nottingham. 


TWO  INSTANCES  OF  FECUNDITY. 

June  21,  1778,  the  wife  of  Thomas  Robinson,  Rope- 
maker,  Ouse-bridge-end,  "^  orI<,  was  delivered  of  three 
girls  all  lively  They  had  been  married  ten  years,  and 
had  eleven  children,  seven  of  whom  v>ere  born  within 
the  last  four  years  and  nine  months  preceding  the  above 
time. 

Peccmber 


A  SINGULAR  INSTANCE,  &C.  119 

December  20,  1779,  "^'^I's.  Smithcrs  of  Red  Lion  Street, 
was  delivered  of  two  boys  and  a  girl ;  and  what  is  very 
remarkable,  that  she  was  fifty  years  of  age,  and  never  had 
a  child  before. 


Singular  Instance  of  a   Woman  s  Recovering  after  hating 
Swallozced  about  Eighty  Pins. 

IN  the  month  of  November,  1779,  as  a  joung  woman 
named  Mary  Spclmore  (who  lived  in  St.  Peter's  parish, 
Derby)  was  hanging  out  some  linen  to  dry,  she  had  the 
shocking  misfortune  to  swallow  a  great  number  of  pins, 
which  she  had  put  in  her  mouth,  by  a  sudden  emotion 
of  the  line  on  which  the  cloaths  were  hung.  A  surgeon 
being  immediately  sent  for,  and  proper  means  used,  she 
voided  several  that  day,  and  continued  to  throw  up  more 
or  less  for  many  days  after  the  accident  happened;  but 
what  is  very  extraordinary,  notwithstanding  the  violent 
retching  fits  with  which  she  was  attacked  v.ith,  she  never 
voided  more  than  one  at  a  time,  though  the  number 
amounted  in  foiu"  days  to  76,  all  of  which  came  upwards, 
excepting  three  only.  Some  of  the  pins  were  remarkably- 
long  ones;  and  at  first  her  convulsions  were  so  strong, 
that  it  was  with  difficulty  several  persons  could  hold  her. 
But  she  being  continually  troubled  with  a  pain  in  her 
side,  arms,  and  other  parts  of  her  body,  shortly  after  en- 
tered the  hospital  at  Nottingham  (part  of  which  hospital 
is  for  the  use  of  the  poor  of  Derby,)  there  gathered  a 
tumor  in  her  left  side  and  near  her  left  shoulder.  These 
were  suppurated  and  opened,  and  several  pins  came  out 
by  these  wounds.  She  was  after  this  discharged  from  the 
hospital  perfectly  cured.  It  was  about  five  months  from 
her  first  swallowing  the  pins  to  her  being  pronounced 
cured. 

A    RKMAK- 


(    i^^o    ) 

A  UTlMAllFvAULE  IxNSTANCE  OF  ABSTINENCE   FROM   F001> 

-Ann,  the  daughter  of  Jonathan  Walsh,  of  Harrow- 
Gate,  in  Yorkshh-e,  at  the  age  of  twelve  years,  entirel} 
lost  her  appetite,  and  she  had  not  eaten  of  any  kind  of 
solid  victuals  for  several  years  after,  and  her  support  was 
nothing  but  half  apintof  wine  and  water,  which  served  her 
three  days;  notwithstanding  so  small  a  quantity,  she  en- 
joyed to  her  death  a  good  state  of  health,  which  happened 
in  the  year  1778. 

TWO    KEMARKABLE    AND    PROVIDENTIAL    ESCAPES  FROM 

DEATH. 

J\T  St.  Blazey,  in  Cornwall,  a  very  singular  accident 
au'l  providential  escape  occurred  in  that  place  in  the  year 
179-1. — Mr.  Potter  of  that  place  determining  to  get  rid  of 
a  large  mischievous  mastiff,  took  him  to  a  mine  shaft  of 
tremendous  depth,  and  having  tied  a  stone  round  the  ani- 
mal's neck,  attempted  to  throw  the  creature  therein; 
when  the  dog  instantly  seizing  Mr.  Potter  by  the  collar, 
they  both  tumbled  iiito  the  pit  together,  and  notwith- 
standing the  amazing  height  they  both  fell,  neither  wa? 
killed;  but  one  of  Mr.  Potter's  Icgts  was  unfortunatelv 
so  much  hurt,  as  to  render  amputation  necessary;  how- 
ever, he  shortly  after  recovered.  The  accident  was  dis- 
covered about  sixteen  hours  after,  entirely  through  the 
loud  and  dismal  bowlings  of  the  dog. 

October  179f)- — As  a  lad,  named  Clarke,  was  at  work 
in  a  gravel  pit  at  Rowborough,  Somerset,  the  timber 
gave  way,  and  he  was  buried  near  eleven  fathoms  under 
ground.  A  number  of  men  immediately  ^^et  to  work  to  dig 
for  him,  supposing  he  was  crushed  to  death ;  when  thej'  h.id 
dug  down  to  him,  to  their  astonishment,  notwithstanding 
he  bad  remained  inidcr  tlie  earth  near  thirty-two  hours, 
he  was  taken  out  without  exp<Miencing  the  least  i-njury. 

si,\- 


(      121      ) 

SINCULAK    PHENOMENON. 

On  Sunday,  the  C5th  of  December,  1790,  about  tert 
o'clock  in  the  morning  there  appeared  floating  in  the  at- 
mosphere minute  particles  of  ice,  which  in  about  an  hour 
became  condensed,  and  fell  in  sleet,  covering  the  surface 
of  the  ground  with  ice.  The  cold  was  intense  that  morn- 
ing; the  thermometer  was  i  6  degreesf  below  the  freezing 
point.  This  phenomenon  was  never  before  seen  but  in 
very  high  latitudes. — ^Observations  on  the  above  were 
taken  near  Mansfield,  in  the  County  of  Nottingham. 

D.  B.  L. 

to  THE  EDITOR  OF  KIRBy's  SCIENTIFIC   itlUSEUM. 

Sir, 
if  you  think  tlie  following  Letter  of  the  great  Dr.  Franklin  to  M.  Dubourg,  on 
llie  Prevailing  Doctrines  of  Life  and  Death,  worth  your  acceptance  to  be 
inserted  in  your  truly  Valuable  Museum,  it  is  wholly  at  your  service. 

Your's,  (ice. — A  Lover  of  Facts  ' 
DEAR  SIR, 

Y  OUR  observations  on  the  causes  of  death,  and  the 
experiments  which  you  propose  for  recalling  to  life  those 
who  appear  to  be  killed  by  lightning,  demonstrate  equally 
your  sagacity  and  your  humanity.  It  appears  that  the 
doctrines  of  life  and  death,  in  general,  are  yet  but  little 
wnderstood. 

A  toad  buried  in  sand  will  live,  it  is  said,  till  the  sand 
becomes  petrified  ;  and  then,  being  inclosed  in  the  stone* 
it  may  still  live  for  we  know  not  how  many  years  or  ages' 
The  facts  which  are  cited  in  support  of  this  opinion  are? 
too  numerous  and  too  circumstantial  not  to  deserve  a 
certain  degree  of  credit.  As  we  arc  accustomed  to  see 
all  the  animals  with  which  we  are  acquainted  eat  and 
drink,  it  appears  to  us  difficult  to  conceive  how  a  toad 
can  be  supported  in  such  a  dungeon;  but  if  we  reflect 

hat  the  necessity  of  nourishment,  which  animals  expe 
Vol.  II,  R  rience 


122  LETTER  or  DR.  FRANKLIX. 

rience  in  their  ordinary  state,  proceeds  lioni  the  continnal. 
waste  of  th«ir  substance  by  perspiration,  it  will  apj)ear  less 
incredible  tliat  some  animals  in  a  torpid  state,  perspiring 
less  because  tliey  use  no  exorcise,  should  have  less  need 
of  aliment;  and  tlial  others,  who  are  covered  with  scales 
or  shells,  which  stop  perspiration,  such  as  land  and  sea- 
turtles,  serpents,  and  every  species  offish,  should  be  able 
to  subsist  a  considerable  time  without  any  nourishment 
whatever.  A  plant,  with  its  ilowers,  fades  and  dies  im- 
mediately if  exposed  to  the  air,  without  having  its  root 
immersed  in  an  humid  soil,  from  which  it  may  draw  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  moisture  to  supply  that  which  ex- 
hales from  its  substance,  and  is  carried  &S  continually 
by  the  air.  Perhaps,  however,  if  it  were  buried  in  quick- 
silver, it  might  preserve  ff)r  a  considerable  space  of  time 
its  vegetables  life,  its  smell,  and  coIomjt.  If  this  be  the 
case,  it  might  prove  a  commodious  method  of  transport- 
ing from  distant  countries  those  delicate  plants  which 
are  unable  to  sustain  the  inclemency  ©f  the  weather  at 
sea,  and  which  require  particular  care  and  attention. 

1  have  seen  an  instance  of  common  flies  preserved  in  a 
manner  somewhat  similar.  They  had  been  drowned  in 
Madeira  wine,  apparently,  about  the  time  when  it  was 
bottled  in  Virginia  to  be  sent  to  London.  At  the  open- 
ing of  one  of  the  bottles,  at  the  house  of  a  friend  where 
I  then  was,  three  drowned  Hies  fell  into  the  first  glass  that 
Was  filled.  Having  heard  it  remarked  that  drowned  flies 
were  capable  of  being  revived  by  the  rays  of  the  sun,  I 
proposed  making  the  experiment  upon  these:  they  were, 
therefore,  exposed  to  the  sun  upon  a  sieve,  which  had 
been  employed  to  strain  them  out  of  the  wine.  In  less 
than  three  hours  two  of  them  began  by  degrees  to  reco- 
ver life.  This  commenced  by  some  convulsive  motions 
in  the  thighs,  and  at  length  they,  raised  themselves  upon 
their  legs,  wiped  their  eyes  with  their  fore-feet,  beat  and 

brushed 


ANIMALS  FOUND  IN  SOLID  SUBSTANCES.  12S 

brushed  their  wings  with  their  hind-feet,  and  soon  after 
began  to  fly,  finding  themselves  in  okl  England  without 
knowing  how  they  came  thither.  The  third  continued 
iifeless  till  sun-set,  when,  losing  all  hopes  of  hira,  he  was 
thrown  away. 

I  wish  it  were  possible,  from  this  instance,  to  invent  a 
mctliod  of  embalming  drowned  persons,  in  such  a  myn- 
ner  that  they  might  be  recalled  to  life  at  any  period  how- 
ever distant;  for,  having  a  very  ardent  desire  to  see  and 
observe  the  state  of  America  an  hundred  years  hence,  I 
should  prefer  to  an  ordinary  death,  the  being  immersed 
ill  a  cask  of  Madeira  wine  with  a  few  friends  till  that 
time,  to  be  then  recalled  to  life  by  the  solar  warmth  of 
my  dear  countr}'.  But  since,  in  all  probability,  we  live 
in  an  age  too  early,  and  too  near  the  infancy  of  science, 
to  hope  to  see  such  an  art  in  our  time  brought  to  perfec- 
tion, I  must,  for  the  present,  content  myself  with  the  treat 
which  you  are  so  kind  as  to  promise  me  of  the  resurrec- 
tion of  a  fowl  or  a  turkey-cock.  I  am,  dear  Sir, 

Your  sincere  friend^ 
Benjamin  Franklin, 

To  substantiate  the  doctor's  opinion,  the  following  will 
be  found  well  worth  preserving. 

In  l6So,  Blondel  reported  to  the  academy  at  Paris 
that  there  were  frecjuently  found  at  Toulon,  stones  in 
which  were  oysters,  good  to  eat. 

In  1(585,  Cassini  mentioned  a  fact  of  a  similar  nature, 
upon  the  authority  of  M.  Duraffe,  who  had  been  sent  am* 
bassador  to  Constantinople,  and  who  had  assured  him 
that  he  had  found  very  hard  stones  in  which  were  in- 
closed little  fish,  called  dacti/ls  or  razor-Jish;  but  the 
following  appear  to  be  at  the  least  as  surprizing^  and  are 
much  more  recent. 

Some  workmen  in  the  quarries  of  Bourswic,  i*i  Gothia, 
having  detached  a  block  of  stone,  one  of  them  broke  it, 

R2  an4 


124  ANI-MAI,S  FOUND  IN  SOLID  SUBSTANCKS. 

and  found  in  it  a  living  toad.  It  was  attempted  to  cut  out 
the  part  which  bore  the  impression,  but  it  fell  into  sand. 
This  animal  was  of  a  grey-black  colour,  with  its  back 
somewhat  spotted,  appearing  as  if  incrusted  with  small 
particles  of  the  stone :  the  colour  of  its  belly  was  brighter. 
Jts  eyes,  which  were  small  and  round,  sparkled  with  iirc, 
from  under  a  tender  membrane,  by  which  they  were  co-r 
yered.  They  vyere  of  the  colour  of  pale  gold.  When 
touched  on  the  head  with  a  stick,  he  closed  his  eyes,  as 
if  asleep,  and  re-opened  tliem  little  by  little,  when  the 
stick  was  taken  away.  Besides  this,  he  had  no  motion, 
The  aperture  of  his  mouth  was  closed  by  a  yellow  mem- 
Ibrane,  Being  pressed  on  the  back,  he  ejected  a  clear 
water,  and  died.  Under  the  membranes  which  covered 
his  mouth,  were  found  in  the  upper  and  lower  jaws,  two 
sharp  incisive  teeth,  stained  with  a  little  blood. 

Leprince,'a  celebrated  sculptor,  assures  us  of  his  having 
seen  in  175G,  at  Eccrctteville,  in  a  chateau  belonging  to 
M,  Larivierre-Resdo,  a  toad  living  within  the  hollow  of 
a  hard  stone,  in  which  he  was  confined  ;  and  facts  of  this 
jiind  are  by  no  means  singular. 

In  1764,  the  workmen  in  the  quarries  of  Savonieres,  in 
Lorraine,  came  to  inform  the  sagacious  Grignon  that  they 
had  found  a  toad  in  a  block  of  stone  at  forty-five  French 
feet  below  the  surface  of  the  earth.  This  celebrated  nar- 
turalist  immcdiaiely  went  to  the  spot;  but,  as  he  assures 
us,  in  his  excellent  work,  entitled,  Memoires  de  Physique 
sur  Vurt  dcfahriqucr  Icfcr,  he  found  no  vestige  of  the  ani- 
mal's prison.  He  saw  a  crack  in  the  body  of  the  stone, 
but  no  impression  of  the  body  of  the  animal.  The  toad 
■which  had  been  brought  him  was  of  the  middling  size,  of 
a  grey  colour,  and  apparently  in  its  ordinary  condition. 
He  was  assured  that  this  was  the  first  he  had  found  during 
thirty  years  in  those  quarries.  The  fact  certainly  deserved 
t-p  be  clpsjily  foUpwed  up ;  wherefore  Griguou  promised 

ye  com-? 


ANIMALS  POUND  IN  SOLID  SUBSTANCES.  125 

I'ccompencc  to  him  that  should  find  another,  so  iiichjscci 
in  the  stone  that  it  could  not  get  out. 

In  1770,  he  was  shewn  one  in  two  concave  leaves  of 
stone,  in  which  he  was  assured  it  had  been  lound;  but, 
on  examining  the  fact  with  scrupulous  attention,  Grignou 
found  that  the  cavity  was  the  impression  of  a  shell,  and, 
consequently,  he  thought  himself  bound  to  regard  the 
fact  as  apocryphal.  Nevertheless,  in  1771^  tlie  same 
fact  re-appeared  on  the  spot,  and  became  the  subject  of 
a  curious  memoir  which  was  read  by  Guettard,  to  the 
royal  academy  of  sciences  at  Paris.  The  following  arc 
the  principal  circumstances  reported  by  that  naturalist. 

In  levelling  a  wall  which  was  known  to  have  stood 
more  than  an  hundred  years,  there  was  found,  in  the 
midst  of  a  large  block  of  stone,  a  toad,  which,  upon  in- 
spection, appeared  to  have  only  very  lately  died.  No 
passage  by  which  it  might  have  entered  the  stone  could 
be  traced.  It  was  presented  to  the  academy  in  its  recent 
state. 

V  arious  facts  of  this  nature,  but  particularly  this  itself, 
and  the  observations  made  on  it  by  Guettard,  induced 
Herissant,  who  was  then  living,  to  pursue  experiments 
adapted  to  the  discovery  of  the  truth. 

On  the  (2 1st  of  February  1771,  he  inclosed  three  living- 
toads  in  as  many  cells  of  plaster,  fabricated  in  a  trunk  of 
fjr,  covered  at  all  points  with  a  body  of  mixed  brick  and 
plaster.  On  the  8th  of  April  1774,  he  opened  the  trunk, 
and  found  two  of  the  toads  living.  That  which  occupied 
the  cell  in  the  centre  was  dead ;  but  it  was  observable 
that  this  had  been  larger  than  the  other*,  and  vcrj 
much  straitened  for  room.  A  careful  examination  of  this 
experiment  led  those  who  were  witnesses  of  it  to  conclude, 
that  those  animals  had  been  completely  excluded  from 
all  commuuicatiou  with  the  exterior  air,  and  heat,  they 

had 


126  ANIMALS  fOl'ND  IN  SOLID  SUBSTANCES. 

had  lived  during  the  lapse  of  time   in  total  privation  of 
food. 

The  academy  engaged  this  philowpher  to  repeat  liis 
experiment.  After  having  witlidrawn  tlie  dead  toad_,  he 
enclosed  the  two  living  ones  again,  and  deposited  his 
trunk  in  the  hands  of  the  secretary  of  the  academy^  in 
order  that  that  illustrious  body  might  open  it  v/henevcr 
it  should  think  proper  :  but  he  was  too  much  occupied 
with  the  subject  to  conline  himself  to  this  single  experi- 
ment; he  continued^  therefore,  the  three  following; 

1.  On  the  15th  of  the  next  April,  he  enclosed,  with 
minute  accuracy,  two  living  toads  in  a  nest  of  plaster, 
covered  with  glasses,  through  which  he  could  see  the 
animals,  and  examine  them  every  day.  On  the  Qtl^  o 
the  subsequent  month  he  carried  this  apparatus  to  the 
academy,  and  showed  them  one  of  the  toads  alive ;  but 
the  other  had  died  on  the  preceding  evening. 

2.  On  the  same  da\',  the  1  jth  of  the  preceding  April, 
he  had  enclosed  two  other  living  toads  in  another  nest 
of  plaster,  but  which  was  still  better  secured,  with  a 
funnel  of  glass.  These  animals  were  placed  on  a  little 
sand ;  and  b}'  means  of  the  funnel,  at  periods  of  eight 
days,  he  let  fall  three  drops  of  water  on  their  backs,  be- 
ing afterward  careful  to  close  the  opening  of  the  funnel 
with  mortar. 

3.  He  further  enclosed  another  living  toad  in  a  jug, 
which  he  surrounded  with  sand,  so  as  to  deprive  it  of  all 
communication  with  exterior  air :  this  animal,  which  he 
presented  to  the  academy  at  the  same  time  with  the  others 
continued  in  health,  and  even  croaked  whenever  her  jug 
was  shaken. 

It  is  unfortunate  that  this  naturalist  was  prevented  by 
death  from  pursuing  these  experiments  a  sufficient  length 
of  time.  His  first,  however,  has  established  that  two 
toads  lived  in  healthy  during  more  than  three  years,  in  ' 

a  stale 


ANIMALS  FOUND  IN  SOLID  SUBSTANCES.  127 

-I  state  of  total  privavion  of  all  nourishment  and  exterior 
air. 

We  shall  observe  on  this  subject,  that  if  these  animals 
sustain  abstinence  during  a  period  whicli,  at  first  sight, 
appears  marvellous,  this  faculty  is  given  them,  on  the 
one  hand,  by  a  slovi^  digestion,  and,  on  the  other,  per- 
haps, by  the  nourishment  which  they  derive  from  their 
skins.  Grignon  has  actual!}'^  observed  to  this  purpose, 
that  toads  shed  their  skins  several  times  durini2f  a  vear, 
and  that  they  swallow  them.  A  large  toad ;  he  tells  us, 
sheds  it  six  times  in  the  space  of  a  winter.  In  fine, 
those  which,  according  to  the  relations  above  transcrib- 
ed, may  be  imagrined  Lo  have  passed  several  ages  with- 
out taking  nourishment,  have  been  in  a  state  of  total 
inaction,  in  a  suspension  of  life,  and  in  an  atmosphere 
the  temperature  of  which  allowed  no  dissipation  of  their 
substance:  hence  they  have  had  no  need  to  repair  any 
loss ;  aiul  it  appears  certain  that  the  moisture  of  the 
place  has  kept  up  that  of  the  animal,  so  much  only  being 
requisite  as  might  serve  to  prevejit  its  destruction,  by 
the  diymg  of  its  parts. 

Toads  are  not  the  only  animals  which  have  the  pri- 
vilege of  retaining  life  during  long  continuance  of  fasting 
and  exclusion  from  air.  The  two  facts  related  at  tlie 
commencement  of  this  as  shall  furnish  proofs,  and  they 
are  strongly  supported  by  the  following  : 

There  were  found  in  Spain,  in  the  midst  of  a  block  of 
marble,  which  a  sculptor  of  Madrid  was  forming  into  a 
lion  of  the  natural  colour,  for  the  royal  palace,  two 
Jiving  worms.  These  worms  occupied  two  little  cavities, 
neither  of  which  had  any  issue,  by  which  air  could  have 
introduced  itself.  They  were  to  all  appearance,  nou- 
rished by  the  substance  of  the  marble,  for  they  were  of 
the  same  colour.  This  fact  was  authenticated  by  Cap- 
tain Ulloa^  a  celebrated  Spaniard^  who  conducted  tli? 

voyage 


12S  ASiMALS  found  iX   SOLID  SUBStANCESI. 

voyage  made  by  the  French  academicans  to  Peru,  to  de- 
termine the  figure  of  the  earth.  He  a^-sertcd  that  he 
had  seen  the  worms. 

A  searabtBus,  of  the  species  called  capiicorni/s  mh^ 
found  alive  in  a  piece  of  wood  taken  from  the  keel  of  a 
vessel  lying  in  tlie  harbour  of  Portsmouth.  No  opening 
could  be  discovered  in  the  wood.  Several  considerations 
however  render  this  fact  suspicious. 

We  read  in  tlie  public  papers  of  Provence,  for  tlie 
ITlbof.lune  1772,  that  a  living  adder  Mas  found  in  a 
block  of  stone  of  thirty  Prench  feet  diameter,  the  cen- 
tre of  which  it  occupied.  It  was  twisted  nine  times  round 
itself,  in  a  spiral  line.  It  could  not  support  the  weight 
of  the  atmosphere,  but  died  in  a  few  minutes  after  it  was 
taken  from  the  stone.  On  examining  the  stone,  not  the 
least  crevice  could  be  discovered,  through  which  it 
might  have  cre})t,  nor  the  minutest  opening  through 
which  it  could  have  received  fresh  air,  or  inhale  any 
sort  of  substance. 

Misson  mentions,  in  his  travels  in  Italy,  a  living  crab, 
which  was  found  in  the  midst  of  a  marble  at  Tivoli, 
Peyssonel,  physician  to  the  king,  at  Guadalonpe,  caus- 
ing a  well  to  be  dug  ai  his  house,  the  workmen  found 
living  frogs  in  the  midst  of  beds  of  petrifactions,  Peys- 
sonel, apprehensive  of  some  fraud,  descended  himself 
into  the  well,  caused  the  beds  of  rock  and  petrifactions 
to  be  dug  in  his  presence,  and  took  out,  with  his  own 
hands,  green  frogs,  exactly  similar  to  the  common. 

The  following  fact  may  also  well  demand  a  place  in 
this  collection  :  Vendron,  director  of  the  posts,  at  Dun- 
^•irk,  wrote  on  the  iGth  of  January  1770>  that  he  had  a 
very  fine  peacock,  which  had  disappeared  for  some 
days,-  and  that  he  had  searched  for  it  in  vain  throughout 
his  hoiist.' ;  that  his  ^ard  being  full  of  snow,  to  the  height 
of  four  French  feet,  he  had  caused  the  snv>w  to  be  car- 
ried 


rn'j  ?  I'lj M . S.  Kirbij  L onUo/i  Jfiuue I'Uri *(  /  Seo/t  S/raiid Mivr/,  i,  /,v,\i . 


ANIMALS  FOUND  IN   SOLID  SUBSTANCES.  1G9 

ried  into  the  street  (fearing  wlien  tlie  thaw  came  on,  it 
would  inundate  his  cellars),  and  that  his  peacock  had 
been  found  alive,  confined  under  a  heap  of  the  snow. 
The  animal,  he  adds,  was  entirely  frozen  :  I  set  it  before 
the  fire,  where  it  was  thaw<?d,  and  afterward  gave  it 
food :  it  has  since  done  perfectly  well.  The  author 
should  have  mentioned  the  length  of  the  time  during 
which  the  aiiimal  was  lost,  and  that  during  vrhich  it  had 
been  buried  under  the  snow. 

Mr.  Chaulton,  a  stone-cutter  at  Ramsey  in  Kent,  in 
sawing  a  block  of  marble  asunder,  found  therein  a  living 
toad,  of  a  more  than  ordinary  size,  lodged  in  a  cavity  in 
the  middle  of  the  block.  The  cavity  was  pretty  near  the 
shape  of  the  toad,  but  something  larger  ;  and  the  animal 
itself  was  of  a  dusky,  yellow  colour. 

At  Tivola,  in  Italy,  some  workmen,  having  cleft  a 
large  block  of  stone,  found  in  the  centre  thereof,  in  a 
hollow  space,  a  large  sea-crab,  which  weighed  four 
pounds,  which  they  boiled  and  eat. 

Alexander  ab  Alexandre  assures  us,  that  he  found  in 
the  middle  of  a  large  block  of  marble,  a  wrought  dia- 
mond i  and  in  another  piece,  a  considerable  quantity  of 
sweet  scented  oil. 

Baptist  Tulgosus  reports  a  large  worm  to  have  been 
found  in  the  middle  of  a  flint. 

At  Chillingham  in  Northumberland,  a  live  toad  was 
found  in  the  middle  of  a  large  block  of  stone,  of  which 
was  made  a  chimney-piece  ;  the  hole  being  divitk.d  ecjual- 
ly,  and  is  still  to  be  seen,  each  half  at  equal  distance 
from  the  middle  of  the  chimney-piece,  at  a  gentleman's 
house  in  that  neighbourhood. 

THE    MEMORABLE    CROSS    IN    ClIEAPSIDE, 

With  an  En^ravin^. 
N  the  first  ages  of  Christianity,  a  variety  of  crosses  were 
Vol.  II.  3  erected 


130  CHEAPSiDE  cnoss. 

erected  in  the  highways  and  public  places  throughout 
Europe,  as  monuments  of  the  sufteriugs  the  Saviour  of 
mankind  underwent.  Many  are  still  to  be  seen  in  Italy, 
France,  Spain,  the  Netherlands,  and  some  few  in  Eng- 
land. But  the  foundation  of  llie  crosses  at  Grantham, 
Wooborne,  Northampton,  Stony-stratford,  Dunstable, 
St.  Albans,  Waltham,  West-cheap,  and  Charing,  were 
founded  by  Edward  I.  on  the  following  occasion  ; 

On  the  death  of  Henry  the  Third,  Edward  the  First 
ivas  on  an  expedition  in  the  holy  land,  and  had  been 
there  above  a  year  when  his  father  died.  When  one 
Anzazim,  a  desperate  Saracen,  who  had  often  been  em- 
ployed to  him  from  their  general,  being  one  time,  upon 
pretence  of  some  secret  message,  admitted  alone  into 
the  chamber,  with  a  poisoned  knife,  gave  him  three 
■wounds  in  the  body,  two  in  the  arm,  and  one  near  the 
arm-pit,  which  were  thought  to  be  mortal,  and  would 
probably  so  have  proved,  had  not  his  excellent  and 
affectionate  Queen  Eleanor,  daughter  to  Ferdinand 
the  Third,  king  of  Spain,  at  the  hazard  of  her  own  life, 
sucked  the  poison  from  the  w  ounds  with  her  mouth,  and 
thereby  effected  a  cure.  She,  however,  experienced 
no  ill  consequences  from  the  poison,-  but  many  3'ears 
after,  in  a  journey  with  Edward  towards  Scotland,  she 
was  taken  ill,  and  died  at  Herdehy  in  Lincolnshire  :  in 
whose  memory,  and  as  monuments  of  her  virtue  and  his 
affection,  he  caused  the  aforesaid  crosses,  with  her  sta- 
tue, to  be  erected  in  all  chief  places  where  the  corpse 
rested  in  the  way  to  its  interment  in  Westminster  abbey. 

Having  stated  thus  the  foundation  of  these  crosses, 
we  shall  now  confine  ourselves  to  that  of  Cheapside, 
which  occupies  a  place  in  this  work,  more  from  the  re- 
markable transactions  and  occurrences,  at  different 
periods,  that  have  distinguished  it  in  our  annals,  than 
as  to  the  singularity  of  its  distinguished  origin. 

Cheapsidev 


Ch£AP31DE-CR0S?,  131 

Chcapside  Cross  was  first  built  in  the  year  1290,  and 
stood  at  tlie  end  of  Cheapside,  next  St.  Pauls,  from 
which  it  is  called,  by  Stow,  the  Cross  in  West  Cheap  J 
which  being,  by  length  of  time,  greatly  decayed,  John 
Hatherly,  Mayor  of  London,  procured,  in  the  year 
1441,  licence  of  King  Henry  the  Sixth,  in  the  21st  of 
his  reign,  to  re-edify  the  same  in  a  more  beautiful  man- 
ner, for  the  honour  of  the  city  ;  and  had  licence  also 
to  take  up  two  himdred  fodder  of  lead  for  the  building 
hereof,  and  of  certain  conduits,  and  a  common  gra- 
nary. 

This  Cross  was  then  curiously  wrought,  at  the  charges 
of  divers  citizens,  John  Fisher,  mercer,  gave  600  marks 
towards  it;  the  same  was  begun  to  be  set  up  in  1484* 
and  was  not  finished  before  the  year  ]48()\  The  second 
of  Henry  the  Eighth  it  was  new  gilt  all  over,  in  the 
year  1522,  against  the  coming  over  of  the  Emix^ror 
Charles  V.  and  was  new  burnished  against  the  corona- 
tion of  Edward  VI.;  and,  in  ^553,  against  the  corona- 
tion of  Queen  Mary  ;  and  gilt  again,  in  the  year  (554, 
against  the  coming  in  of  King  Phillip.  Since  which 
time  the  said  cross  having  been  represented  bv  divers 
juries,  or  quests  of  Wardmote,  to  stand  in  the  highway 
to  the  hindrance  of  carriages.  Sec.  as  they  alledged,  but 
could  not  have  it  removed  ;  it  followed,  that,  in  the 
year  1581,  on  the  21slof  June,  in  the  night,  the  lowest 
images  round  about  the  said  cross,  being  of  Christ's  Re* 
surrection,  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  King  Edward  the  Con- 
fessor, and  such  like,  were  broken  and  defaced.  Where- 
upon proclamation  was  made,  that  whosoever  would 
give  information  of  the  offenders  thereof  should  have 
forty  crowns  ;  but  nothing  came  to  light.  The  imatre  of 
the  blessed  Virgin  at  that  time  was  robbed  of  her  Son, 
and  her  arms  broken,  by  which  she  staid  him  on  her 

S  2  knees  J 


132  CHEAPSIDE    CROSS. 

knees  j  lier  wliole  body  ^vas  also  haled  with  ropes,  and 
left  ready  to  fall  :  but  was,  in  the  year  159-5,  again  fas- 
tened and  repaired  ;  and,  in  the  year  1596,  about  Bar- 
tholomezc-t'ide,  a  male  child,  mishapen,  as  if  born  before 
its  time,  all  naked,  was  laid  in  her  arras ;  the  other 
images  remaining  broken  as  before. 

On  the  east  side  of  the  same  cross,  the  steps  being 
taken  from  thence,  under  the  image  of  Christ's  Resur- 
rection, which  was  much  defaced,  was  then  set  up  a  cu- 
rious wrought  tabernacle  of  grey  marble ;  and,  in  the 
same  an  alabaster  image  of  Diana,  a  w^oman,  for  the  most 
part  naked,  and  water,  conve^'ed  from  the  Thames, 
falling  from  her  naked  breasts  for  a  time ;  but  the  same 
was  oftentimes  dried  up. 

In  the  year  1599>  the  timber  of  the  cross,  at  the  top, 
being  rotted  within  the  lead,  the  arms  theieof  bending, 
were  in  danger  of  falling,  to  the  prejudice  of  passengers; 
and  therefore  the  whole  body  of  the  cross  was  scaffolded 
about,  and  the  top  thereof  taken  down,  intending,  in- 
stead thereof,  to  set  up  a  pyramid  :  but  some  of  Eliza- 
beth's counsellors  sent  letters  to  Sir  Nicholas  Mosley,  then 
mayor,  by  her  highness's  express  command  concerning 
the  cross,  ordering  the  same  forthwith  to  be  repaired, 
and  placed  again  as  it  formerly  stood. 

Notwithstanding  the  said  cross  stood  heedless  more 
than  a  year  after;  whereupon  the  said  counsellors,  in 
great  number,  meaning  not  any  longer  to  permit  the 
continuance  of  such  a  contempt,  wrote  to  William  Ri- 
der, then  mayor,  requiring  him,  by  virtue  of  her  high- 
ness's said  former  direction  and  command,  without  any 
further  delay,  to  accomplish  the  same,  her  majesty's 
most  princel}^  care  therein,  respecting  especially,  the  an- 
tiquity and  continuance  of  that  monument,  and  ancient 
ensign  of  Christianity,  dated  the  24th  of  December, 
Jl(iO0.     After  this  a  crosi;  of  timber  was  framed,  set  up, 

covered 


CMEAPSIDE  CROSS.  1J3 

tiovcrcd  with  lead  and  gilt;  the  body  of  the  cross  dowu- 
Tvards  cleansed  of  dust,  and  the  scaffold  carried  thence. 
About  twelve  nights  following,  the  image  of  our  lady 
was  again  defaced  by  })lucking  off  her  crown  and  almost 
her  head,  taking  from  her  naked  child,  and  stabbing 
her  in  the  breast. 

At  the  west  end  of  Cheapside  was  some  time  a  stone 
cross  of  greater  antiquity  than  the  time  of  Edvvard  the 
First,  which,  by  w'ay  of  distinction,  was  called  the  Old 
Cross  :  and  here,  according  to  Ealph  IligdiH,  in  lii.s 
Polichronicon,  was  Walter  Slapleton,  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester, treasurer  to  Edward  II.  brought  by  the  bur- 
gesses of  London,  and  beheaded  in  a  most  barbarous 
manner.  This  Old  Cross  stood  and  remained  at  the  east 
f-nd  of  the  parish  church,  called  St.  Michael  in  the 
Corn,  by  Paul's-gate,  near  the  north  end  of  the  Old 
Exchange,  till  the  year  1390,  the  13th  of  Rijhard  the 
Second,  in  place  of  which  Old  Cross,  then  taken  down, 
the  said  church  of  St.  Michael  was  enlarged,  and  also  a 
fair  water-conduit  erected,  about  the  ninth  year  of  Henry 
the  Sixth. 

It  docs  not  appear  that  Cheapside  Cross  underwent  any 
repair,  or  was  in  any  shape  beautified  from  the  year  I6OO, 
until  its  final  destruction  in  l643;  when  Puritanical  prin- 
ciples so  complett.'l}^  prevailed,  that  few  remnants  of 
antiquity,  relative  to  the  Romish  persuasion,  have  esca- 
ped the  zcrath  of  their  intemperate  zeal*.  Innumerable 
images  of  the  virgin  and  child,  representations  of  the 
crucifixion,  and  the  various  passions  of  Christ,  many  of 

which 

•  ThoBgh  tlie  Pimtans  were  so  anxious  to  demolish  alt  outward  represen, 

tations  of  the  miracles  and  auffering  of  Christ,  they  were  extremely  desirous  to 

keep  in  remembrance  his  name,  as  under  the  cloak  of  that  they  might  practise. 

almost  every  enormity ;  thus  in  the  baptism  of  thsir  children  ia  recorded  * 

remarkable  christian  uame, 

"  If 


134  CHEAPSIDn    CROSS, 

T\liich  were  of  tlie  most  excellent  Avorkmanship;  with  3- 
host  of  saints  and  symbols,  fell  a  prey  to  the  levelling 
party;  and  among  others,  not  least  valuable,  we  have  to 
lament  the  marti/tdoni  of  thos<"  relitpies  of  ancient  times, 
the  Crosses  of  Cheapside  and  Charing;  who  fell  victims 
to  the  unbridled  rage  of  about  as  enlightened  a  populace, 
as  those  who  so  eminently  distinguished  themselves  in 
the  memorable  religious  riot  in  1780. 

Cheapside  Cross  was  ever  held  in  great  repute  as  a  ge- 
neral rendevouz  in  party  discontent;  and  like  its  coeval 
sufferer,  that  of  Charing,  must  have  witnessed  many  acts 
of  justice  inflicted  on  the  daring  innovatcvs  of  the  laws  ot 
their  country;  and  although  not  regarded  as  a  situation 
for  general  punishment  of  offenders,  it  has  still  to  record 
some  of  a  very  particular  and  interesting  nature:  these 
punishments  are  however  stated  to  have  taken  place  at 
the  standard  in  Cheap;  but  Strype,  in  his  last  edition  of 
Stow's  Survey,  expresses  great  doubt  of  the  situation  of 
the  old  standard,  and  thinks  it  occupied  the  scitc  of  the 
ancient  Cross;  as  he  instances  that  in  the  reign  of  Ed- 
ward the  Third,  w"hcn  Justintrs  and  RunninLis,  on  horse- 
back,  were  practised  between  the  great  Cross  and  the 
Conduit  at  Soptu-^&-1ane  End,  there  was  no  such  stand- 
ard, or  other  obstacle  between  them;  neither  was  that 
street  paved  with  hard  stone  as  it  now  is. 

But  of  the  executions  in  Cheap  in  the  year  1G93,  tltree 
men  had  their  right  hands  cut  off,  for  rescuing  a  prisoner 
arrested  by  an  officer  of  the  city:  in  the  j'car  1381,  Wat 
Tyler  beheaded  Richard  Lyons,  and  others  there :  in  the 
year  1351,  the  26th  of  Edward  the  Third,  two  fishmon- 
gers were  beheaded  at  the  standard  in  Cheap;  but  we  do 
not  read  of  their  offence:  in  the  year  1399,  Henry  the 

"  If  Jesus  Christ  had  not  come  into  tlie  world  thou  hadst  been  damned" 
BAREBOXE.  This  worthy  was  a  brother  of  the  cel^'bratcd  Praise  God 
i>Hreboue,  of  notorious  canting  memory. 

Fourth 


CIIEAPSIDE    CROSS.  ^35 

Fourth  caused  the  Blank  Charters,  made  by  Richard  the 
Second,  to  be  burnt  there:  in  the  year  14j0,  Jack  Cade 
having  gained  possession  of  the  city,  sent  to  the  Lord 
Scales  to  bring  his  prisoner,  the  Lord  Say,  from  the 
Tower  to  the  Guildiiall,  whither  he  had  called  the  Lord 
a.\Lp'ur  With  liis  brethren;  before  whom  he  caused  the 
Lord  Say  to  be  arraigned,  who  craving  to  be  tried  by  his 
peers,  was  forth .vith  taken  from  his  keeper,  carried  to  the 
standard  in  Cheapside,  and  there  liad  his  head  chopped 
off;  which,  being  pitched  upon  a  pike,  was  born  before 
him  to  Miie  End,  whither  he  went  to  have  conference 
With  the  rebels  of  Essex;  and  by  the  way,  meeting  with 
Sir  James  Cromer,  High  Sheriff  of  Kent,  who  had  lately 
married  the  Lord  Say's  daughter,  he  caused  his  head 
also  to  be  struck  off,  and  carried  before  him  in  derision. 

There  is  several  scarce  pamphlets,  extant,  concerning 
Cheapside  Cross,  some  of  which  bear  a  wood-cut  repre- 
senting the  figure  of  the  Cross  as  it  stood  just  before  its 
demolition;  and  others  with  the  populace,  soldiers.  Sec. 
pulling  it  down  ;  but  the  most  authentic  view  is  that  from 
La  Sevens  scarce  book,  containing  a  view  of  Cheapside, 
from  which  one  view  is  taken,  and  the  Entr}'  of  jNIarj 
de  jMedicis  into  London,  on  a  visit  to  her  son-in-law, 
Charles  L  The  body  of  the  pamphlets  in  contradiction 
to  their  titles,  give  little  or  no  historical  relation  to  the 
origin  or  history  of  what   it  promises, 

ji  Rcmarkahle  thunder  storm,  zcith  the  Singular  course 

of  the  LIGHTNING. 
(Communicated  by  D.  B.  L,  of  Nollin(;hom.J 

About  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  Thursda}-,  th( 
2]  St  of  August,  1794,  two  very  black  clouds  were  seen  to- 
wards the  south  west,  which  in  their  north-east  course, 
appeared  to  attract  each  other;  this  attractive  power  in 

these 


156  A    THUNDER    STORM-^    &C. 

these  clouds  was  occasioned  by  their  being  highly  charg- 
ed with  a  contrary,  electricity^  which  burst  out  a  violent 
explosion,  as  soon  as  the  clouds  came  in  contact ;  the 
vivid  flashes  of  lightning  followed  each  other  in  a  quick 
succession,  amidst  a  torrent  of  rain  and  hail;  at  this  in- 
stant a  ball  of  fire  was  ?cen  to  strike  the  top  of  a  chimney 
in  Mr.  Wragg's  house,  *  near  Mansfield,  in  the  county  of 
Nottingham,  where  it  was  attracted  by  an  iron  cramp, 
from  whence  it  descended  to  the  roof,  throwing  down 
part  of  the  chimnc}',  and  scattering  the  stones  to  a  con- 
siderable distance.  The  lightning,  after  running  nine 
yards  along  the  roof,  penetrated  the  ceiling  of  a  garret, 
where  it  tore  off  a  i)iece  about  seven  feet  in  length,  and 
near  six  inches  in  width  ;  it  was  here  attracted  by  another 
iron  cramp  in  a  sloping  beam,  from  whicli  it  separated  a 
piece  near  three  feet  in  length,  and  about  eleven  inches 
in  circumference :  from  this  beam  it  forced  its  way 
through  the  floor  to  a  gilt  frame  of  a  looking-glass  in  the 
clrawinc:-room,  where  it  burst  open  a  tea-chest,  melted  a 
piece  of  lead  in  the  inside  the  size  of  half-a-crovvn,  and 
scattered  a  pack  of  cards  to  the  other  end  of  the  room;  a 
stream  of  the  electric  fluid  appeared,  by  a  black  line  on 
the  floor,  to  have  run  ten  feet  to  an  iron  fender.  The 
lightning  then  took  its  course  downwards  to  the  parlour, 
where  it  ran  round  another  gilt  frame  of  a  looking-glass, 
near  to  which  Mrs.  Wragg  was  sitting  with  a  child  in  her 
lap,  they  both  received  a  strong  shock,  which  in  all  pro- 
bability would  have  been  fatal  to  them,  had  not  a  bell- 
wire,  that  hung  over  the  glass,  conducted  the  electric 
fluid  to  the  bell  in  the  passage :  its  course  from  thence 
js  very  extraordinary,  for  the  bell  in  the  passage  from 
whence  the  elcciric  fluid  descended  on  the  wall  in  a  nar- 
row stream  to  where  it  divided  into  two,  was  attracted  by 

:■••  3Ir,  Curlis;,  grazier,  now  lives  in  tlie  house, 

the 


I 


EXTRAOIIDINA.RV    DEAtHS.  15? 

the  iron  hinge  of  the  street  door^  and  split  the  wood  to 
which  the  hinges  was  nailed;  the  passage  of  the  electric 
fluid  to  the  hinge  was  through  a  stone  wall  eleven  inches 
thick;  and  the  aperture  it  made  was  so  small,  that  it 
would  hardly  admit  a  knitting  needle ;  the  other  stream 
was  attracted  through  the  wall  by  an  iron  bar  in  the 
kitchen,  where  it  spent  its  force,  without  doing  any  da- 
mage to  the  parlour. 

EXTRAORDINARY    DEATHS. 

UlED  on  Monday,  23d  of  January,  1804,  at  Cowpen, 
Marlow  Sidney,  Esq.  a  remarkable  eccentric  character, 
in  the  99th  year  of  his  age.  For  many  years  he  had  such 
an  antipathy  against  medical  gentlemen,  that  even  in  his 
last  illness,  he  would  not  suffer  any  to  attend  him.  He 
was  very  partial  to  the  dress  and  company  of  the  fair  sex, 
but  never  had  the  pleasure  of  tying  the  liymenial  knot. 
When  seventy  years  of  age,  his  thirst  for  innocent  and 
childish  amusements  was  such,  that  he  actually  went  to 
the  dancing  school,  where  he  regularly  attended,  and- 
appeared  highly  gratified  with  his  youthful  associates. 
About  two  years  ago,  a  sister,  v.ho  resides  in  London, 
was  at  the  trouble  of  paying  him  a  visit;  and  during  her 
short  stay,  he  generously  indeed  allowed  lier  milk  and 
lodging  ;  but  for  bread  and  other  necessaries  she  was  ob- 
liged  to  provide  herself.  When  he  had  any  money  to 
send  to  his  banker  at  "Newcastle,  three  of  his  most  trusty 
servants  were  well  mounted  and  armed  with  pistols;  liis 
principal  man  rode  in  the  middle  with  the  cash,  and  the 
other  two  at  proper  distances  from  him,  in  his  van  and 
rear.  In  this  defensive  manner  they  marched  along, 
the  better  to  resist  any  attack  tliat  might  be  attempted  by 
daring  highwaymen.  Tliough  so  singular  in  his  hianner, 
no  person  deserved  better  the  name  of  a  good  man. 
t'ebruary  1,  1801. — Mr.  J.  Packer,  in  Spinningfield, 
VoLlI.  I  aged 


13S  A    DREADFUL   ACCIDENT. 

aged  33^  only  five  feet  seven  inches  high,  and  weighed 
'\\e  enormous  weight  of  29  stone. 

At  Lane  End,  Staffordshire,  at  the  advanced  age  of  106, 
Mr.  J.  Meller;  he  was  attended  to  the  grave  by  thirteen 
friends,  whose  ages  amounted  1 296- 

August  2d.  1803. — John  Parker,  aged  eight  years,  a 
servant  to  Mr.  BulUvant,  of  Stanton  in  Derbyshire,  was 
killed  in  a  most  extraordinary  manner.  He  was  return- 
ing home  on  the  back  of  a  poney,  and  by  some  means 
fastened  a  basket  he  was  carrying  upon  the  post  of  a 
gate,  which  he  was  endeavouring  to  open.  The  basket 
was  fixed  to  the  boy  by  means  of  a  leather  strap,  which, 
by  the  accident,  being  drawn  tight  across  his  throat,  un- 
fortunately hanged  him  almost  instantly. 

Feb.  1804. — Died  suddenly  at  Kingston,  aged  109j» 
George  Gregory,  supposed  to  be  the  last  of  the  crew  of 
the  Centurion  which  circumnavigated  the  world  with 
Lord  Anson.  He  never  had  a  day's  illness  since  he 
went  to  sea,  which  was  in  the  year  1714,when  he  was  im- 
pressed in  the  Downs  out  of  the  Mary  Brig,  belonging 
to  North  Shields. 

A    DKEADFUL    ACCIDENT. 

rlllE. — On  Wednesday,  January  25,  1804,  a  coal-pit 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Renfrew  was  discovered  to  be 
on  fire,  the  flames  bursting  out  with  great  violence  at 
the  mouth  of  the  pit.  Six  unfortunate  men  were  work- 
ing under-ground  at  the  time,  in  reflecting  on  whose 
shocking  situation,  the  mind  flies  for  relief  to  the  hope 
that  their  sufferings  were  not  protracted. — It  is  uncertain 
whether  the  accident  was  occasioned  by  the  explosion 
of  gunpowder,  or  foul  air.  The  fire  continued  to  burn 
for  nearly  two  days,  at  which  time  the  mouth  of  the  pit 
was  covered  up,  in  expectation  of  smothering  the  flame. 

AN 


(     159    ) 

AN    EARTHQUAKE. 

1  HE  following  is  part  of  a  letter  from  the  Hague,  dated 

January  23,  1804: — 

''  A  society  of  musical  amateurs,  on  Friday  last,  gave 

an  Oratorio  at  the  Lutheran  church  here.  On  a  sudden, 
the  chandeliers,  and  other  objects,  suspended  within  the 
church,  were  seen  in  motion,  which  was  attributed  to 
the  effect  of  the  musical  instruments.  But  it  has  since 
been  known,  that,  at  the  same  hour  (seven  in  the  even- 
ing), a  like  phcenomenon  was  observed  at  Rotterdam, 
Haarlem,  Schiedam,  and  Maassluis.  In  the  last  of  these 
cities,  the  chandeliers  of  the  Reformed  Church  were  in 
motion  during  the  time  of  divine  service,  so  as  to  be  fre- 
quently removed  between  two  and  three  feet  from  their 
usual  position.  The  direction  of  this  motion  was  from 
west  to  east.  After  the  motion  had  been  forcibly  stop- 
ped during  ten  mmutes,  it  recommenced,  but  was  not 
quite  so  perceptible.  This  extraordinary  event  so  greatly 
terrified  the  congregation,  that  the  greater  part  took  to 
flight;  and  the  preacher  being  left  nearly  alone,  found 
himself  under  the  necessity  of  abruptly  finishing  his  ser- 
mon. Th<;  cause  of  this  phoenomenon  is  not  yet  ascer- 
tained. It  is  attributed  to  the  shocks  of  an  earthquake. 
It  is  remembered,  that  the  same  thing  took  place  at  the 
time  of  the  great  earthcjuake  at  Lisbon. 

"■  The  shocks  were  also  felt  by  persons  under  the  organ 
gallery;  aiul  by  two  individuals  in  a  cabriolet,  between 
Schiedam  and  Rottcrdcim.  Many  vessels  on  the  Maesc 
and  thf-  Seine  were  moved  by  the  same  shock.  Letters 
from  Bois-le-Duc  state,  that  the  same  day  shocks  were 
felt  in  that  city,  wliirh  could  only  be  attributed  to  an 
(earthquake.  The  brass  chandeliers  in  the  church  of  St. 
John  were  agitated  in  a  very  surprising  manner.  In 
many  kitchens,  several  of  the  utensils  were  overturned." 

T2  7SIIR1- 


(     140     ) 

MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION. 

IN  the  gale  of  Thursda\^  Janiiar}^,  26;,  1804,  whilst  the 
Plantagenet^the  ship  which  blockaded  the  French  fleet  for 
forty-eight  hours,,  was  working  into  Cawsand  Ba}',  the 
main  top-mast  went  over  the  side^  part  of  which  struck 
one  of  the  midshipmen,  who  was  standing  on  the  main 
chains,  and  precipitated  him  into  the  sea,  from  which  he 
w^as  miraculously  preserved  by  -the  force  of  the  wave, 
which  threw  him  back,  and  left  him  senseless  on  the 
deck.  We  are  happy  to  hear,  hovv^ever,  he  soon  re- 
covered. 

PEDESTRIAN    W^^GER. 

X'EBRUARY  10. — On  Friday  a  young  man  of  the  name 
of  Gregory  set  out  from  St.  John's  Street,  to  walk  50  miles 
on  the  Hertfordshire  Road,  which  he  engaged  to  perform 
in  twelve  hours  ;  the  original  bet  was  for  only  tea  gui- 
neas, but  a  considerable  sum  was  sported,  some  supposing 
he  would  accomplish  it  in  a  much  sljorter  time  than  was 
allowed.  He  started  at  six  in  the  morning,  passed  through 
Hatfield  between  nine  and  ten,  and  reached  Welling, 
lwent\'-live  miles  distant,  before  eleven,  where  he  staid  a 
short  time,  and  then  returned.  He  arrived  at  the  place 
from  whence  he  started,  twenty  minutes  past  five  in  the 
afternoon,  apparently  very  little  fatigued. 

A    Pl'.RSON    WALKING    IN    HIS    SLEEP. 

Feb.  ]3,  1S04.— Mr.  S.  Smith,  gardncr,  of  Wheatly, 
near  (Jaiiisbarougli,  returning  from  work,  called  at  Mr. 
Justict's,  atBolo,  where  l.e  took  some  refreshment;  and 
it  being  dark,  was  prevailed  upon  to  take  a  bed.  He 
retired  to  rest  about  eight  o'cloek  ;  at  eleven  he  dreamed 
that  the  house  was  on  fire  ;  and  in  his  alarm,  although  a 
.--.tout  man,  weighing  13  stone,  and  70  years  of  age,  he 

forced 


I 


EXTRAORDINAEY    TALENTS    OF    MR.    STRONG.       141 

forced  his  way  through  the  window  of  his  room,  which 
is  only  13  and  a  half  inches  by  12,  dropped  nine  feet  to 
the  ground,  and  ran  a  considerable  distance,  until  (hav- 
ing nothing  on  but  his  shirt  and  night-cap)  his  feet 
being  so  much  cut,  and  other  parts  of  his  body  so  much 
bruised,  that  the  pain  he  experienced  awoke  him.  His 
astonishment  at  finding  himself  in  such  a  situation  and 
in  such  a  predicament,  may  be  easier  conceived  than 
described.  He  hastened  again  to  bed,  and  is  now  nearly 
recovered  from  the  effects  of  the  singular  adventure. 

A   LARGE    HOG. 

On  Feb.  13,  a  Leicestershire  hog,  remarkable  small 
bone,  the  property  of  Mr.  Thomas  Matthews  of  Rothley, 
wa.s  killed.  The  enormous  weight  was  as  follows  ; — the 
two  sides  595  lbs.  head  37  lbs.  inside  fat  87  and  a  half  lbs. 
total  719  and  a  half  lbs.  ;  the  fore  feet  weighing  only 
5lb.  4  oz. 


On  Feb.  19,  a  Sow  of  the  Chinese  breed  was  slaughtered 
at  South  Coats,  near  Hull,  of  the  weight  and  dimen- 
sions as  follows  : — Length  from  rump  to  the  crown  40 
inches  ;  depth  at  the  shoulder  20  inches  ;  girth  at  breast 
48  inches;  girth  at  loins  45  inches;  girth  at  chops  45 
inches  ;  length  from  the  crown  to  the  nose  10  and  a  quar- 
ter inches ;  length  of  the  ears  4  inches ;  her  eyes  were 
closed  up  with  fat ;  she  was  five  years  old,  had  brought 
157  pigs,  and  weighed   18  stone  when  killed. 

Sin, 

The  following  is  an  account  of  JMr,  Strong.     By  inserting  it  in  your  Maoaziuc, 

will  oblige. 

Sir,  your's,  J.  T. 

JVIR.  Strong  of  Carlisle,  who  was  born  blind,  follows 
the  business  of  a  diaper  weaver.  He  is  at  present  ad- 
vanced in  years;  but  his  mechanical  abilities  are  not  yd 

im- 


142  BAKING    EXPLOITS    OF    MR.    BOIS-RDSE-. 

impaired  to  any  considerable  degree.  In  the  exercise  of 
thescj  besides  making  almost  every  article  of  household 
furniture,  he  has  constructed  various  pieces  of  machinery, 
of  which  is  the  model  of  a  loom,  the  figure  of  a  man 
"working  it :  to  shew  his  strong  propensity  to  produce  by 
his  own  ingenuity  and  labour,  whatever  he  thought 
worthy  of  possessing,  I  shall  add  the  following  cir- 
cumstance :  When  he  was  fifteen  years  of  age,  he  con- 
cealed himself  one  afternoon  in  the  cathedral,  during 
the  time  of  service  :  after  the  congregation  was  gone  and 
the  doors  shut,  he  got  into  the  organ-loft,  and  examined 
every  part  of  the  instrument.  This  had  engaged  his  at- 
tention till  about  midnight,  when  having  satisfied  him- 
self respecting  the  general  construction,  he  proceeded 
to  try  the  tones  of  the  different  stops  and  the  proportion 
they  bore  to  each  other  ;  this  experiment  was  not  to  be 
conducted  in  so  silent  a  manner.  In  short,  the  noise 
alarmed  the  neighbourhood,  and  some  people  went  to  see 
what  was  the  matter,  and  Joseph  was  found  playing  the 
organ.  The  next  day  he  was  taken  before  the  dean,  who 
after  reprimanding  him  for  the  step  he  had  taken  in  or- 
der to  gratify  his  curiosit}'^,  gave  him  leave  to  play  it 
whenever  he  pleased.  In  consequence  of  this,  he  set 
about  making  a  chamber  organ,  which  he  completed 
without  the  assistance  of  any  body.  He  sold  this  instru- 
ment to  a  mecl.anic  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  where  it  is  still  in 
being.  Soon  aiier  this,  he  made  another,  upon  which 
he  nows  plays  both  for  amusement  and  devotion.  Some 
years  ago  he  walked  from  Carlisle  to  London,  to  visit  Mr. 
Stanley,  the  celebrated  organist,  and,  for  the  first  time> 
made  him  a  pair  of  shoes. 

J h  W m. 


J. enclose  for  your  truiy  entcitaining  and  Valuable  Re^ster,  a  well  aulhenti. 
.■atpd  fact,  respecting  a  most  surprising  and  hazardous  enterprise  of  a  French 

Officer 


DARING    EXPLOITS    OF    MR.  BOIS-ROSE.  14S 

"  officer  with  a  handful  of  men,  in  gaining  possession  of  a  fortress  of  considera- 
ble interest  to  the  Frencli  service,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Fourth,  of  that 
nation;  and  though  compared  with  the  many  instances  of  the  successes  of  the 
gallant  soldiers  and  sailors  of  our  own  country,  it  may  sink  by  comparison,  is 
still  from  the  novelty  of  the  plan  adopted,  deemed,  in  my  estinuition,  worthy 
a  place  in  your  scientific  publication.     Who  am  from  its  intrinsic  merit. 

A  Constant  Reader. 

1  HE  manner  in  which  Fescamp  (a  post  and  fortress 
in  the  county  of  Caux  in  Normandy)  was  surprised,  is  so 
remarkable,  that  it  well  deserves  a  particular  recital. 
When  this  fort  was  taken  by  Biron  from  the  league,  in 
the  garrison  that  was  turned  out  of  it,  there  was  a  gen- 
tleman called  Bois-rose,  a  man  of  sense  and  courage, 
who  making  an  exact  observation  of  the  place  he  left,  and 
having  concerted  his  scheme,  contrived  to  get  two 
soldiers,  whom  he  had  bound  to  his  interest,  to  be  received 
into  the  new  garrison  which  was  put  into  Fescamp  by 
the  Royalists.  That  side  of  the  fort  next  the  sea  is 
a  perpendicular  rock  six  hundred  feet  high,  the  bottom 
of  which  for  about  the  height  of  twelve  feet,  is  conti- 
nually washed  by  the  sea,  except  four  or  five  days  in  the 
year,  during  the  utmost  recess  of  the  sea,  when,  for 
the  space  of  three  or  four  hours,  it  leaves  fifteen  or  twenty 
fathom  of  dry  sand  at  the  foot  of  the  rock.  Bois-rose, 
who  found  it  impossible  by  any  other  way  to  surprise  a 
garrison,  who  guarded  with  great  care  a  [dace  lately 
taken,  did  not  doubt  of  accomplishing  his  design,  if  he 
could  enter  by  that  side  which  was  thought  inaccessible  ; 
this  he  endeavoured,  by  the  following  contrivance,  to 
perform. 

H  e  had  agreed  upon  a  signal  with  the  two  soldiers 
whom  he  had  corrupted,  and  one  of  them  waited  for  it 
continually  upon  the  top  of  the  rock,  where  he  posted 
himself  during  the  whole  time  that  it  was  low  water. 
Bois-rose  taking  the  opportunity  of  a  very  dark  night, 

came 


144  DARING  EXPLOITS  OF  MR.    BOIS-ROSE. 

came  with  fifty  resolute  men,  chosen  from  amongst  th^ 
sailors,  in  two  large  boats,  to  the  foot  of  the  rock.     He 
had  provided  himself  with  a  thick  cable  equal  in  length 
to  the  height  of  the  rock,  and  tying  knots  at  equal  dis- 
tances, run    short    sticks  through,    to  serve  to  support 
them  as  they  climbed.     The  soldier  whom  he  had  gained 
having  waited  six  months  for  the  signal,  no  sooner  per- 
ceived it,  than  he  let  down  a  cord  from  the  top  of  the 
precipice,  to  which  those  below  fastened  the  cable,  by 
which  means  it  was  wound  up  to  the  top,  and  made  fast 
to  an  opening  in  the  battlement  with  a  strong  crow  run 
through  an   iron   staple  made  for   that  purpose.     Bois- 
rose  giving  the  lead  to  two  Serjeants,  whose  courage  he 
was  well  convinced  of,  ordered  the  fifty  sailors  to  mount 
the  ladder   in  the   same  manner,  one  after    the  other, 
with  their  weapons  tied  round  their  bodies,  himself  bring- 
ing up  the  rear,  to  take  away  all   hope  of  returning; 
which  indeed  soon  became  impossible,  for  befoi'e  they 
had  ascended  halfway,  the  sea  rising  more  than  six  feet, 
carried   off  their  boats    and  set  their  cable    a  floating. 
The  necessity  of  withdrawing  from  a  difficult  enterprise 
is  not   always   a   security    from    fear,  when  the  danger 
appears   almost   inevitable.     If  the  mind   represents   to 
itself  these  fifty  men,   suspended  between  heaven   and 
earth,  in  the  midst  of  darkness,  trusting  their   safety  to 
a  machine  so  insecure,  that  the  least  want  of  caution,  the 
treachery  of  a   mercenary  soldier,  or  the  slightest  fear, 
might  precipitate  them  into  the  abj'ss  of  the  sea,  or  dash 
them  against  the   rocks ;  add  to  this  the   noise  of  the. 
waves,  the  height  of  the  rock,  their  weariness  and  ex- 
hausted   spirits,   it  will    not  appear    surprising  that  the 
boldest   amongst  them    trembled,  as    in   effect  he    who 
was  foremost  did.     This  seijcant  tellipug,,  the  next  man 
that  he  could  mount  no  higher,  and  that^  |sis  heart  fjuled 
hiui,  Bois-rosc,    to    whom    this    discourse    passed    from 

mouth 


I 


(  7'7^^///r/   •  ///////y^/i    , 

FtviiKUi  i'ii(it//n/  JY,/r//r//t  //ttrofecffio/i  of  h'/i'i'Ii  (hisr/cy  Esq- 


AN  ACCOUNT    OF    MOTHER    SHIPTON.  l45 

mouth  to  mouth,  and  who  perceived  the  truth  of  it  by  their 
advancing  no  higher,  crept  over  the  bodies  of  those  that 
were  before  him,  advising  each  to  be  firm,  and  got  up 
to  the  foremost,  whose  spirits  he  at  first  endeavoured  to 
animate ;  but  finding  that  gentleness  would  not  prevail, 
he  obliged  him  to  mount  by  pricking  him  in  the  back 
with  his  poniard  ;  and  doubtless  if  he  had  not  obeyed 
him,  he  would  have  precipitated  him  into  the  sea.  At 
length,  with  incredible  labour  and  fatigue,  the  vj'hole 
troop  got  to  the  top  of  the  rock,  a  little  before  the  break 
of  day,  and  was  introduced  by  the  two  soldiers  into  the 
castle,  where  they  began  to  slaughter  without  mercy  the 
centinels  and  the  whole  guard :  sleep  delivered  them  up 
an  easy  prey  to  the  enemy,  who  killed  all  that  resisted,  and 
possessed  themselves  of  the  fort. 

Bois-rose  immediately  sent  notice  of  this  amazing  suc- 
cess to  Admiral  Villars,  who  thought  the  government  of 
the  citadel  he  had  so  dearly  bought,  was  the  least  reward 
he  might  expect.  However,  he  heard  that  Villars,  or 
rather  the  commander,  de  Grillon,  had  a  design  to  drive 
him  out  of  it.  Amidst  the  first  transports  of  his  rage  for 
this  injustice,  he  delivered  the  Castle  of  Fescamp  to  the 
king,  who  provided  plenty  of  all  things  necessary  for  its 
security. 


Ursula,  or  Agatha  Sonthiel ;  commonly  called  Mother 
Ship  ton. 

From  a  very  ancient  and  curious  original  picture,  in  the  possession  of  Ralph 
Ousely,  Esq.  of  York,  preserved  in  the  family  of  the  proprietor  for  more 
than  a  century  ;  and  communicated  by  Sir  William  Ousely,  author  of  the 
Oriental  collections,  &c.  &c.  &C. 

A  HIS  celebrated  character,  having  been  so  much  mis- 
represented by  former  writers,  we  have  been  particular  in 
ascertaining,  as  far  as  possible,  an  authentic  memoir  of 
her  life  and  actions  : — She  was  born,  according  to  the  ge- 
neral accounts,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Seventh,  near 
^ol.  H.  u  Knaresborough, 


146  AN    ACCOUNT  OF    MOTHER    SHIPTON. 

Knaresborough,  in  the  county  of  York,  and  baptized  by 
the  Abbot  of  Beverley,  with  the  name  of  "Agatha  Son- 
thiel,"  a  circumstance  which  proves,  by  the  sur-name,  her 
being  of  foreign  extraction  by  her  father's  side  ;  who,  it 
is  most  probable,  came  over  with  the  Bretaigne  associates 
of  the  Earl  of  Richmond,  afterwards  Henry  the  Seventh, 
and  resided,  if  not  settled,  at  Knaresborough.  Very  little 
notice  is,  however,  taken  of  her  father  or  mother,  by  the 
writer  of  her  life  and  prophecies,  nor  is  she  particularly 
remarked  until  her  twenty-fourth  year,  when  she  was  ad- 
dressed in  courtship  by  one  Toby  Shipton,  a  builder  of 
Shipton,  a  village  situate  four  miles  north  of  the  city  of 
York.  This  match  goes  some  way  to  disprove  the  vulgar 
report  of  her  body  being  crooked,  her  face  frightful,  and 
her  whole  appearance  disgusting. 

With  respect  to  her  gift  of  prophecy,  we  have  no  other 
authorities  than  traditionary  revelation,  from  father  to 
son,  as  no  printed  account,  concerning  her  life  and 
actions,  can  be  found  prior  to  the  reign  of  Charles  the 
Second  ;  and  it  is  more  than  probable  that  the  chief  part 
of  the  prophecies  attributed  to  Mother  Shipton,  were 
composed  after  the  restoration ;  and  ingeniously  con- 
trived to  answer  the  equally  ingenious  explanations,  which 
are  annexed  to  every  sixpenny  edition,  extant. 

That  there  did  exist  such  a  person  is  evident  and 
equally  so  that  she  had  in  her  time  a  reputation  as  a  very 
extraordinary  woman  ;  but  it  is  as  certain,  notwithstand- 
ing an  attempt  to  prove  her  a  virtuous  and  religious  cha- 
racter, that  she  was^considered  by  her  contemporaries,  as  a 
mischievous,  if  not  a  diabolical  person,  by  the  representa- 
tion of  the  familiar  introduced  in  her  picture — a  fit  emblem, 
whether  considered  as  monkey  or  fiend,  of  her  wayward 
and  mischievous  propensity. 

A  great  stress  is  laid  on  her  prediction  on  the  famous 
Cardinal  Wolsey,  who  died  at  Leicester,  on  the  road  to 

London, 


AN    ACCOUXT    OP    MOTHER    SHIPTON.  l47 

London,  in  the  year  1530,  at  which  time,  Mother  Ship- 
ton  could  not  have  been  more  than  forty-two  years  of 
age,  and  whatever  she  might  have  predicted  concerning 
his  not  being  able  to  reach  York,  it  is  highly  probable, 
was  rather  in  consequence  of  the  report  of  the  king's  de- 
termining he  should  be  conveyed  to  London,  than  any 
power  or  divination  in  her. 

The  last  prediction  of  Mother  Shipton  was  concerning 
the  time  of  her  own  death,  which,  it  is  said,  she  declared 
to  several  persons,  who  visited  her  in  her  advanced  age. 
And  when  the  time  she  had  prophesied,  approached,  she 
called  her  friends  together,  advised  them  well,  took  a 
•solemn  leave  of  them,  and  laying  herself  down  on  her  bed, 
she  departed  with  much  serenity,  being  upwards  of  se- 
venty-three years  of  age,  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth, 
anno  1561. 

After  her  death,  a  monument  of  stone  was  erected  to 
her  memory,  in  the  high  road,  betwixt  the  village  of 
Clifton  and  Shipton,  about  a  mile  distant  from  the  city 
of  York.  This  monument  represents  a  woman  upon  her 
knees,  with  her  hands  closed  in  a  praying  posture  ;  and  is 
to  be  seen  there  to  the  present  hour. 

The  same  authority  who  preserved  the  invaluable  MSS. 
of  her  authentic  prophecies,  has  saved  from  oblivion  her 
epitaph,  but  which  is  stated  at  this  time  to  be  entirely  ob- 
literated ;  it  was  as  follows  : 

Here  lies  she  who  never  ly'd 
Whose  skill  often  has  been  try'd  ; 
Her  prophecies  shall  still  survive, 
And  ever  keep  her  name  alive. 

We  have  not  attempted  to  swell  the  article  of  Mother 
Shipton  to  an  unnecessary  length,  by  the  insertion  of  the 
prophecies  attributed  to  her ;  as  the  sole  aim  in  this  work 
is  originality  and  authentic  information. 

u  2  8UR 


{  148  ) 

SURPRISING  AFFECTION    IN   TWO  RIVAL   FEMALES. 

X  HE  Church  of  the    Benedictines  at  Erfurt,   in  Upper 
Saxony,   bears  witness,  in  a  splendid  monument,  of  the 
following  circumstance,  thus  related  by  a  recent  traveller  : 
Passing  through  this  city,    says  he,  1  was  induced  to 
visit  the  tomb  of  Louis,  Count  Gleichen,  of  the  house  of 
Schazbourg,  which  gave  an  emperor   to  Germany.     The 
Count  having  been  taken  prisoner  in  a  battle  with  the 
Saracens,  during  the  Holy  War,  he  was  sold  as  a  slave  to 
the  Sultan,  and  suffered    a  long  and  irksome  captivity. 
One  day,  while  he  was  working  in  the  garden,  the  Sul- 
tan's daughter,  who  happened  to  be  present  at  the  time, 
approached  him,  and  asked  him  many  questions.      The 
agreeable  person  of  the  Count,  his  air,  and  his  manner 
so  pleased  the  princess,  that  she  at  length  offered  to  effect 
his  deliverance,  upon  condition  that  he  would  marry  her. 
I  have  a  wife  and  children,  replied  the  Count!    What  ob- 
jection is  that,  said  she  :  it  is  the  custom  of  my  country 
to  have  as  many  wives  as  a  man  may  think  proper  ?    The 
Count  no   longer  hesitated,  but    accepted  the  offer,  and 
pledged  his  word  to  marry  his  deliverer.     She  immedi- 
ately took  her  measures  with  promptness  and  activity  to 
carry  her  plan  into  execution ;  and  they  soon  embarked 
on  board  a  vessel  prepared  to  receive  them.     They  ar- 
rived safely  at  Venice,  where  the  Count  found  one  of  his 
domestics,  who  was  then  travelling  in  search  of  intelli- 
gence concerning  him,  and   who  assured  the  Count,  that 
the  Countess  and  her  children,  were  perfectly  well.     The 
Count  hastened  to  Rome,  and  obtained  permission  of  the 
Pope  to  retain  both  his  wives.     This   took  place  in  the 
year  1240,  under  the  Pontificate  of  Gregory  IX.     If  the 
Holy  Father  thus  shewed  himself  indulgent,  the  Count's 
lawful  wife  was  not  remiss  in  complaisance  to  the  young 
Saracen,  who  had  been  the  means  of  restoring  her  hus- 
band, and  conceived  an   uncommon  degree  of  tenderness 

for 


PROCESSION    OF    A    WINGED    DRAGON.  149 

for  this  rival.  The  princess  also  met  the  advances  of 
the  Countess  with  the  greatest  sensibility,  and  as  she  had 
no  children  herself,  she  tenderly  loved  those  of  the  Coun- 
tess. The  bed  which  was  occupied  by  the  Count  and  his 
two  wives  is  still  shewn  at  Gleichen.  After  their  death 
the  bodies  were  all  deposited  in  one  tomb.  The  follow- 
ing is  the  epitaph  placed  over  them  : 

"  Here  are  interred  the  remains  of  two  rival  females,  who  loved  each 
"  other  as  sisters,  and  had  also  an  invincihle  affection  for  the  same  husband. 
''  One  of  them  abandoned  the  religion  of  IVIahomet  to  follow  her  spouse,  while 
"  the  other  received  her  long-lost  hushand  with  open  arms.  United  by  the 
"  bonds  of  conjugal  love,  all  three  of  them  during  life,  had  but  one  nuptial  bed, 
"  and  after  death  reposed  in  the  same  tomb  !" 


Procession  or  show  of  a  Winged  Dragon^  at  Troyes,  in 
France. 

V_/F  ancient  customs,  though  ever  so  absurd,  it  has  been 
rightly  observed,  that  it  is  both  pleasant  and  useful,  to 
bring  them  to  our  recollection,  whether  they  are  reli- 
gious or  profane  ;  as  these  are  the  best  means  of  judging 
of  the  progress  or  refinement  and  improvements  in 
society. 

The  canons  regular  of  the  Church  St.  Loup,  at  Troyes, 
formerly  carried  in  their  processions  during  Rogation 
week,  a  great  winged  dragon,  which  the  common  people 
called  chair saUe.  This  effigy  of  a  dragon,  was  well  exe- 
cuted in  bronze.  It  opened  its  throat  and  eyes,  flapped 
its  monstrous  wings,  moved  by  springs  and  the  assist- 
ance of  a  rope.  At  this  monster,  it  was  the  practice  of 
the  children  to  throw  whatever  came  to  their  hands,  and 
among  the  rest,  cakes  or  simnels.  At  the  first  procession 
of  this  figure  he  was  ornamented  with  garlands  of  flowers  ; 
and  then  it  was  understood  he  was  to  be  contracted  in 
marriage :  on  the  second  day,  (for  the  procession  lasted 
three  days;)  it  being  then  thought  that  he  was  married  it 
was  decorated  with  ribbands  and  trinkets  :  but  on  the  fol- 
lowing 


150  A    SINGULAR   INSTANCE    OF    TERROR. 

lowing  day  it  was  supposed  to  die  ;  and  it  was  then  brought 
to  the  Place  de  la  Madeleine,  with  its  tail  forwards,  its 
eyes  and  its  wings  totally  immoveable,  and  there  de- 
spoiled of  its  flowers  and  trinkets  by  the  populace.  This 
custom  was  observed  so  late  as  the  year  1728.  The  curate 
of  St.  Pantalion  was  the  first  who  refused  to  countenance 
this  superstitious  proceeding  any  longer,  by  refusing  it. 

AN  INCOMBUSTIBLE  PASTEBOARD. 

XN  the  Literary  Journal  of  1785,  of  Petersburgh,  there 
is  a  new  discovery  mentioned  for  which  the  inventor 
had  obtained  a  premium  from  Catharine.  It  is  a  kind  of 
pasteboard  which  no  fire  can  consume,  nor  water  soften. 
He  proposes  it  as  a  necessary  lining  for  the  wooden  houses 
of  his  country,  and  for  clothing  ships  of  war.  As  to  its 
second  property,  it  is  no  secret  at  present ;  the  former  has 
been  examined  by  a  chemist,  and  found  to  be  nothing 
else  than  a  preparation  of  alum.  This  secret,  however, 
like  the  Telegraph,  had  been  a  very  ancient  one,  and 
used  in  the  time  of  Sylla,  at  the  siege  of  Athens.  The 
words  of  Q.  Claudius  Quadricarius  are  : — "  Sylla  then 
brought  his  forces  to  set  fire  to  a  tower,  which  Archelaus 
had  placed  there  :  he  came,  he  piled  faggots;  he  set  them 
on  fire ;  and  after  an  obstinate  labour,  he  could  not  make 
the  tower  take  fire,  as  Archelaus  had  covered  the  planks 
entirely  with  alum." 

SINGULAR  INSTANCE   OF  THE   EFFECT   OF  TERROR. 

IVJLRS.  JESSOP,  the  wife  of  a  respectable  gentleman  at 
the  east  end  of  the  city  of  Chester,  in  the  year  1792,  by  a 
paralytic  stroke,  lost  the  use  of  her  limbs,  and  the  power 
of  speech.  For  several  years  she  remained  in  this  state, 
when  one  afternoon  all  her  family  being  out,  except  a 
maid-servant  and  a  child,  who  was  blind,  she  ob- 
served a  fire  burst  out  of  a  wooden  building,  which  was 

very 


REMARKABLE    PETRIFACTION.  l6l 

very  near  the  room    she  sat   in A    consciousness  that 

she  could  neither  move  from  her  seat,  nor  c  all  for  help, 
struck  her  with  such  terror,  as  to  have  the  effect  of  an 
electric  shock.  She  made  a  violent  effort— spoke,  reco- 
vered the  use  of  her  limb-,  and  has  remained  in  perfect 
health  ever  since. 

Feb.  1804.  Carolus. 

SURPRISING  INSTINCT  IN  CATS- 

XN  the  island  of  Cyprus,  near  the  promontory  called 
Cat's  Cape,  anciently  Curias,  there  is  a  monastery  of 
Caloyerian  Greeks,  who  have  the  singular  custom  of 
training  a  number  of  cats  for  the  purpose  of  destroying 
the  serpents  which  are  very  numerous  in  that  island. — 
These  animals  are  so  well  instructed  in  the  sport,  that  at 
the  sound  of  the  bell  they  instantly  quit  the  chace,  and  re- 
turn to  the  convent. 

AN  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  PERUVIAN  LANTERN  FLY. 

JL  HE  Cucujus  Peruvianus,  or  Lantern  Fly,  is  an  insect 
of  considerable  size,  and  is  remarkable  for  the  peculiarity 
it  possesses  of  shedding  a  vivid  lustre  during  darkness. 
At  a  distance  it  resembles  a  small  lantern  :  for  this  rea- 
son the  inhabitants,  when  going  a  journey  by  night,  fas- 
ten several  of  them  to  the  end  of  a  stick,  which  enables 
them  to  see  their  way  with  facility. 


REMARKABLE  PETRIFACTION. 

In  the  quicksilver  mines  at  Guiana  Villica,  there  is  a 
fountain  of  hot  water,  which,  after  overrunning  a  piece 
of  ground,  condenses,  and  changes  itself  into  a  kind  of 
rock,  easy  to  be  cut ;  and  after  remaining  some  days  in 
this  state,  is  commonly  used  by  the  inhabitants  in  the 
construction  of  their  houses. 

To 


152  REMARKABLE    PETRIFACTION. 


TO  THE  EDITOR^ 

"  Sir — Having  been  induced  by  your  ready  attention  in  inserting  the 
several  articles  I  have  occasionally  transmitted  for  your  truly  singular  publi- 
cation, to  imagine  similar  communications  would  not  be  unacceptable,  I  have 
inclosed  for  your  consideration  two  circumstantial  and  well  authenticated 
memoirs  of  petrified  substances  discovered,  the  first  in  the  county  of  Kent, 
and  the  other  at  Nottingham,  which  I  have  every  reason  to  think  have  never 
before  been  submitted  to  public  knowledge — and  am  with  best  wishes  for 
the  success  of  your  excellent  publication,  your  well  wisher  and  occasional 
correspondent.  D,  B.  L, 

Nntt'uigham,  March  8th,  1804. 


REMARKABLE    DISCOVERY    OF   A  PETRIFIED    SUBSTANCE. 

X  HE  Parliament  in  1762  having  given  orders  for  a  pow- 
der magazine  to  be  erected  at  Folkstone  in  Kent,  the  fol- 
lowing petrifaction  was  dug  out  of  an  old  burial  ground 
long  before  that  time  disused,  being  taken  out  of  a  grave 
and  presented  to  Roger  North,  Esq.  of  Rougham  in  Nor- 
folk. It  was  thought  by  the  virtuosi  to  be  a  frustrum  or 
piece  of  the  muscular  part  of  a  human  body,  weighing 
about  ten  pounds,  on  one  side  of  which  was  plainly  to  be 
seen  two  bones  lying  half  out  of  the  mass,  one  of  which 
was  about  five  inches  long,  and  was  thought  to  be  the 
tibia  with  its  head  and  part  of  the  shank  or  shin-bone, 
the  other  was  shorter  and  much  less ;  on  the  opposite 
side  appeared  a  flat  piece  of  wood  (seemingly  oak)  though 
strongly  petrified,  which  was  thought  to  be  a  part  of  the 
coffin  it  was  interred  in,  The  whole  mass  of  flesh  as  to 
colour  looked  as  near  as  it  could  be  compared,  to  a  piece  of 
mummy  or  embalmed  flesh,  interspersed  with  a  great  many 
iron-coloured  spots,  and  in  its  shape  resembled  a  great 
piece  of  flesh  rolled  up  in  four  or  five  folds,  and  had  some 
appearance  of  the  marcasite  or  iron  stone.  This  was 
esteemed  the  greater  curiosity,  inasmuch  as  flesh  of  any 
sort  seldom  or  ever  is  known  to  have  undergone  so  strong 

a  petri- 


REMARKABLE    SUBSTANCE    IN    A    HUMAN    BODY.        153 

a   petrifaction,  and    seemed   to   preponderate  even    iron 
itself. 

The  original  cause  of  this  so  strongly  petrified  sub- 
stance, is  not  known;  but  it  is  imagined  some  vitriolic 
juices  strongly  impregnated  with  ferugineous  particles 
falling  upon  that  part  of  the  body  (for  there  was  no  other 
piece  of  the  like  kind  to  be  found)  miglit  probably  be  the 
occasion  of  that  wonderful  and  uncommon  alteration. 

REMARKABLE  SUBSTANCE  DISCOVERED    BELONGING  TO  A 
HUMAN  BODY. 

jOL  very  extraordinary  occurrence  happened  in  the  year 
1792,  in  St.  Mary's  church-yard,  in  the  town  of  Notting- 
ham. It  was  found  necessary  to  improve  the  passage  by 
the  side  of  the  church-yard  leading  to  the  county-hall, 
which  could  not  be  eifected  without  taking  down  some 
houses,  and  the  church-yard  wall,  which  stood  on  the 
south-side  ;  and  the  better  to  widen  the  road  it  was  also 
necessary  to  use  a  part  of  the  church-yard.  The 
ground  being  about  ten  feet  higher  here  than  in 
the  street,  when  the  fence-wall  was  removed  which 
parted  the  church-yard  and  the  street,  there  hap- 
pened one  night  a  heavy  shower  of  rain,  which  washed 
away  a  considerable  portion  of  the  earth  from  the  church- 
yard into  the  street ;  in  consequence  several  coffins  were 
left  bare  of  covering,  and  some  removed,  amongst  which 
was  one  that  contained  the  remains  of  Mr.  William  Moore, 
who  sometime  lived  at  the  sign  of  the  Black  Swan,  near 
the  church,  and  who  had  been  buried  about  twelve  years. 
The  coffin  being  broken,  there  was  found  in  his  remains 
a  concretion  not  unlike  a  pumice  stone,  but  rather  whiter, 
and  as  large  as  the  liver  of  an  ox,  which  was  taken  pos- 
session of  by  Mr.  Walker,  a  respectable  builder  in  Not- 
tingham, under  whose  immediate  inspection  the  fact  hap- 
pened, and  which  he  has  since  divided  among  his 
curious  friends.  Mr.  Moore  was  a  remarkable  man  for 
VOL.  II.  X  having 


154  EXTRAORDINARY    WORKS    OF    ART. 

having  a  large  belly,  which  projected  more  on  one  side 
than  the  other.  He  often  observed  to  his  friends  that 
he  perceived  a  hard  substance  forming  within  him  when 
he  was  only  twenty-two  years  of  age,  which  grew  slowly 
while  he  lived.  He  died  about  the  age  of  seventy.  He 
has  been  also  heard  to  say  that  he  felt  but  little  pain  from 
this  substance  ;  but  found  it  troublesome.  It  may  be  wor- 
thy of  remark,  that  the  ribs  on  that  side  it  grew,  were  much 
bowed  outwards.  Doctors  Hodges,  Nevil,  and  Ford,  had 
examined  him  while  living,  several  times ;  to  the  sur- 
vivor of  whom  he  had  promised  his  body  to  be  opened 
when  dead ;  but  he  happening  to  survive  those  gentle- 
men, his  body  was  interred  without  being  opened.  And 
certain  it  is,  that  nothing  would  have  brought  this  curious 
phenomenon  to  light  had  it  not  been  for  this  extraordi- 
nary and  accidental  occurrence. 

A  MYSTERIOUS  AFFAIR. 


o. 


'n  the  morning  of  the  8th  of  April,  1790,  as  two  ser- 
vant boys  were  lading  water  from  the  river  Trent  at  the 
lower  end  of  the  church-yard.  Burton,  Nottinghamshire, 
they  discovered  several  guineas  lying  near  the  edge  of  the 
current,  which  they  immediately  gathered  up  and  carried 
home.  Many  other  persons  continued  to  search  the  river 
for  several  days ;  and  about  39  guineas  have  been  at 
different  times  discovered  and  taken  care  of.  Although 
the  above  circumstance  was  advertised  in  the  public 
papers  at  the  time,  no  inquiry  has  ever  been  made  after 
this  money,  nor  is  there  any  satisfactory  account  to  be 
given  how  it  came  there. 

EXTRAORDINARY  WORKS  OF  ART. 

An  the  island  of  Salfete,  near  Goa  in  the  Brazils,  are 
vast  recesses  cut  into  the  rock  one  upon  another,  some 
of  which  are  so  large  as  to  form  a  town  of  four  hun- 
dred houses,  and  the  whole  ornamented  with  ter- 
rific 


FLOATING    ISLANDS,  &C.  165 

rific    idols,    besides    elephants,    tigers,    leopards,    lions, 
amazons,  &c. 


N. 


FLOATING  ISLANDS. 


EAR  St.  Omers,  in  Flanders,  there  is  a  large  lake  on 
which  are  many  floating  islands,  for  the  most  part  inha- 
bited, and  which  are  moved  by  means  of  cords  attached 
to  posts  drove  into  the  earth  ;  upon  one  of  the  islands  there 
is  a  church  and  a  convent  of  religious  Bernardins. 


EXTRAORDINARY  FRUIT. 


X  HERE  is  in  several  parts  of  Guiana,  particular  trees 
known  by  the  appellation  of  Totoch,  very  remarkable  for 
the  nature  of  their  fruit,  which  is  so  large,  and  at  the 
same  time  so  hard,  when  ripe,  that  no  one  can  pass  under 
it  without  instant  danger  of  a  fractured  skull. 


In  many  parts  of  Guinea  there  is  a  tree  called  Mignolo, 
the  bark  of  which  being  pierced,  furnishes  an  excellent 
liquor  held  in  very  high  estimation  by  the  inhabitants, 
who  find  it  more  agreeable,  stronger,  and  more  nourish- 
ing than  the  most  exquisite  wines. 

REMARKABLE  PROPERTIES  OF  A   DESERT. 

Xn  the  province  of  Gazo,  in  Negroland,  there  is  a 
sandy  desert  of  such  a  nature,  that  a  number  of  persons 
perish  owing  to  the  driving  of  the  sand  ;  and  what  is  most 
remarkable,  the  bodies  of  such  persons  never  putrify,  but 
remain  as  incorruptible  as  those  of  the  Egyptian  mummies. 

EXTRAORDINARY   DAILY   RENOVATION  OF   FLOWERS. 

X  HERE  is  in  many  parts  of  the  kingdom  of  Decan,  in 
Africa,  a  remarkable  tree  called  the  Nure-tree,  which  is  of 
such  a  nature  that  in  the  morning  it  is  covered  with  red 
fibrous   flowers,  which,  during  the  heat  of  the  day,  fall  to 

X  2  the 


156  REMARKABLE    FISH,    &C. 

the  ground;  it  flowers  afresh  during  the  night,  and  ap- 
pears in  the  morning  entirely  renovated. 


I 


REMARKABLE  FISH. 

N  some  rivers  in  Guiane  there  is  found  a  curious  fish, 
about  the  size  of  a  smelt,  which  has  four  eyes,  two  on 
each  side,  placed  one  above  the  other;  it  is  remarkable 
that  when  swimming,  it  keeps  two  eyes  above,  and  two 
below  the  surface. 


T 


STRANGE  CAUSES  OF  SICKNESS  AND   DEATH. 

HERE  is  in  Peru  a  high  mountain  called  Periacaka ; 
very  few  persons  attempt  to  ascend  to  the  summit  of  it, 
as  those  who  attempt  to  do  so,  are  immediately  seized  with 
a  violent  vomiting,  which  compels  them  to  desist. 

The  desert  of  Punas  in  the  same  country,  travellers  in 
vain  attempt  to  traverse,  the  cause  of  which  is  attributed 
to  several  persons  being  seized  with  a  chillness,  and  in- 
stantly dropping  down  dead  upon  their  entrance  into  this 
dreary  region. 

BOILING  LAKE. 

An  the  valley  of  Tarapaye  there  is  a  hot  lake  of  a  circular 
form  ;  towards  the  middle  the  water  is  perpetually  boiling 
for  the  space  of  twenty  feet  square  ;  and,  when  the  water 
is  extremely  hot,  the  earth  around  it  is  extraordinary  cold. 

Upon  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Oroonoque  is  so  large 
a  cascade,  that  the  noise  the  fall  of  water  causes  is  said  to 
surpass  that  of  1000  bells  ringing  together  at  one  time. 


AN  ARMY  INNOCULATED. 
Mr.  Editor, — A  curious  fact  appears  in  the  journal  of  the  American  Con- 
gress during  the  war  with  Eiiglind,  which  I  think  merits  preservation  in  your 
entertaining  Miscellany  ;  it  is  an  order  by  the  Congress  to  innoeulate  the 
American  army  en  masse,  in  the  most  expeditious  manner.  Here  follows  the 
document  verbatim,  bearing  dale,  August  13, 1777  : 

"Resolved 


A    PETRIFIED    KAM,    &;C.  157 

"  Resolved  that  major-general  Schuyler  shall  send  an 
officer  charged  with  the  acceleration  of  the  march  of  the 
troops  of  Carolina,  to  their  head  quarters.  The  said 
troops  are  to  halt  at  Dumfries,  Colchester,  and  Alexandria, 
in  Virginia,  to  undergo  innoculation.  The  surgeons  which 
have  been  sent  from  Philadelphia  to  Dumfries,  are  ordered 
to  perform  this  operation  with  the  greatest  celerity." 


A  PETRIFIED  RAM. 

J\.  LABOURER  in  a  stone  quarry  in  the  village  of  Pantin 
near  Paris,  having  detached  a  large  block  of  Stone,  found 
in  the  middle  a  skeleton  of  a  ram,  petrified.  Each  part  of 
the  stone  contained  a  perfect  half  of  the  animal,  the  parts 
were  very  distinct.  The  block  was  dug  out  of  the  living 
rock,  at  the  depth  of  30  feet  from  the  summit  of  the 
quarry.  A  petrifaction  so  curious,  was  immediately  de- 
posited in  the  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

This  discovery  was  made  in  the  course  of  the  month  of 
Jan.  1804. 

ENORMOUS  WEN! 

J\  CIRCUMSTANCE  lias  lately  occurred  at  Vienna,  which 
has  excited  the  attention  of  all  the  medical  faculty  in  that 
city.  A  person  who  had  been  afflicted  with  a  wen  of  a 
most  uncommon  size  for  25  years  past,  is  lately  dead  at 
the  age  of  88.  This  excrescence  attained  such  a  magni- 
tude during  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  that  he  was  com- 
pelled to  keep  his  apartment.  The  faculty  thought  this 
case  of  such  consequence,  that  they  obtained  a  model  of 
the  wen  in  wax,  at  the  same  time  anxiously  waiting  for 
the  decease  of  the  patient  to  possess  themselves  of  the 
original.  The  patient  having  heard  of  the  design  they 
had  formed  upon  this  part  of  his  frame,  took  the  precau- 
tion to  make  a  will,  in  which  he  strictly  forbade  the  sepa- 
ration of  it  from  his  remains  after  his  decease.  The  phy- 
sicians, both  of  the  academy  and  the  university,  finding 

themselves 


158  STORMS    AND    HURRICANES    IN    FRANCE. 

themselves  so  far  frustrated  in  their  object  of  obtaining  a 
subject  so  interesting  in  anatomy,  made  without  the 
knowledge  of  each  other,  several  offers  of  money  to  the 
patient,  to  disannul  the  codicil  of  his  will.  He  therefore 
took  money  from  all  the  parties,  and  by  a  new  codicil  had 
it  expressed  that  the  wen  in  question  should  after  his  de- 
cease, become  the  property  of  the  faculty!  This  vague 
expression  in  his  last  testament  had  produced  a  singular 
litigation  between  the  University  and  the  Academy, 
which,  after  some  time  was  amicably  settled  by  an  agree- 
ment that  the  dissection  should  be  made  in  common  by 
both  parties. 

STORMS  AND   HURRICANES    IN  FRANCE. 

JL  he  29th  and  30th  of  Dec.  1803,  were  remarkable  for 
the  tempestuous  state  of  the  weather  at  several  places  in 
France;  at  Nantz,  on  the  29th,  a  most  violent  storm  be- 
gan about  midnight,  and  continued  till  seven  next  morn- 
ing. It  was  thought  there  was  some  shock  of  an  earth- 
quake, and  considerable  damage  was  done. 

At  Chartres,  on  the  following  morning,  the  storm  began 
about  six,  and  lasted  till  noon.  So  many  chimnies,  &c. 
were  blown  down,  that  the  streets  were  almost  rendered 
impassable.  The  lead  upon  the  church  of  Notre-Dame, 
was  torn  off,  and  pieces  from  6  to  1 0  feet  in  length  carried 
into  the  air  like  sheets  of  paper. 

In  the  country  the  damage  was  not  less  considerable  ; 
many  church  steeples  were  blown  down,  and  the  houses 
in  general,  unroofed  or  overthrown  ;  the  trees  broken 
or  torn  up  by  the  roots.  The  night  preceding  the  storm, 
the  barometer  experienced  an  elevation  of  nine ;  but  at 
noon  the  next  day,  it  fell  down  to  three  lines.  At  Paris 
also,  on  the  same  day,  several  persons  got  very  much  hurt 
upon  the  Qaai  des  Augustins,  by  the  fall  of  some  tiles  im- 
prudently heaped  together  upon  the  top  of  a  church  wall, 
then    pulling  down.     A  slate   fell  upon    the   head   of  a 

woman 


TAPESTRY    AT    BAYEUX.  169 

woman  in  the  Rue  St.  Peres,  which  opened  her  skull ;  she 
was  taken  to  the  Hospital  de  la  Charite.  An  old  man 
was  thrown  against  a  stone  stud,  and  remained  stunned 
during  the  whole  of  the  day.  Many  children  were 
thrown  down  upon  the  Pont-Neuf,  in  the  Thuilleries, 
and  in  the  public  squares.  The  canvas  covering  the 
Corn  Market  was  torn  in  many  places.  Twenty-five 
of  the  largest  trees  in  the  Thuilleries  were  either  torn 
up  by  the  roots,  or  broken  by  the  wind.  The  first  in  the 
avenue  parallel  to  the  walk  of  the  Feuillans,  fell  on  the 
marble  groupe,  at  twenty  paces  from  it,  overturned  it,  and 
very  much  damaged  one  of  the  figures.  Four  sentry 
boxes  were  thrown  down,  and  much  broken.  Thick 
ropes  were  placed  from  some  of  the  trees  to  the  others, 
in  the  Thuilleries,  which  probably  has  been  the  means  of 
saving  them. 


Genuine  Account  of  the  Tapestry  at  Bayeux  in  Normandy 
said  to  have  been  worked  by  Matilda,  Queen  to  William 
the  Conqueror. 

JL  HIS  ancient  tapestry  has  lately  formed  a  very  ample 
theme  in  the  French  newspapers,  on  which  account  it 
has  been  surmised,  that  as  some  political  view  was  con- 
nected with  the  object  of  bringing  forward  such  an  obso- 
lete piece  of  history  at  this  particular  juncture,  much 
doubt,  might  be  attached  to  the  whole  circumstance. — 
The  reasons  which  induced  the  French  government  to 
descant  so  freely  upon  this  event,  and  others  which  dis- 
tinguished the  reign  of  William  the  Conqueror,  will  not 
at  present  admit  of  discussion  ;  the  curious  reader,  how- 
ever, is  here  presented  with  a  more  particular  detail  of 
the  origin  of  the  tapestry  in  question,  not  brought  forward 
for  any  party  purpose,  being  collected  by  an  Englisli 
author  of  some  eminence,  several  months  before  it  was  pro- 
bable that  the  First  Consul  thought  of  reviving  the  French 
history  of  this  tapestry: 

"  A  very 


160  THE  INTREPID  FEMALE. 

"  A  very  curious  monument  of  the  art  of  embroidery  at 
the  time  of  the  Norman  conquest,"  says  this  author,  "  ap- 
pears in  the  celebrated  tapestry  at  Bayeux,  which  still 
exists,  and  is  publicly  exhibited  at  stated  periods  in  the 
cathedral  of  that  city.  It  is  a  web  of  linen,  nearly  two 
feet  in  breadth,  and  two  hundred  and  forty-two  in  length, 
embroidered  with  a  history  of  that  memorable  expedition, 
from  the  embassy  of  Harold  to  the  Norman  court  in  1065, 
till  his  death  in  the  following  year.  The  scenes  of  this 
busy  period  are  successively  exhibited,  and  consist  of 
many  hundred  figures  of  men,  horses,  beasts,  birds,  trees, 
houses,  castles,  and  churches,  with  (Latin)  inscriptions 
over  them,  explanatory  of  their  meaning  and  history. 
This  work  is  understood  to  have  been  performed  under  the 
inspection  of  Matilda,  consort  to  William  I.,  and  was  not 
improbably  executed  by  the  hands  of  Englishwomen^ 
whose  superiority  in  performances  of  this  kind,  was  then 
universally  acknowledged." 


THE  INTREPID  FEMALE: 

Or,    surprising    life     and     adventures   of    MARY-ANNE 
TALBOT,  OTHERWISE  JOHN  TAYLOR. 

A  natural  Daughter  of  the  late  Lord  William  Talbot, 
Steward  of  his  Majesty's  Household,  Colonel  of  the 
Glamorganshire  Militia,  &c.  &;c.  &c.  comprehending  a 
Series  of  singular  and  remarkable  Adventures  she  un- 
derwent, in  the  various  Characters  of  a  Foot-boy,  Drum- 
mer, Deserter,  Powder-Monkey,  Sailor,  Prisoner,  &c. 
&c.  &c.  particularly  her  being  wounded  at  the  Siege  of 
Valenciennes  ;  also  in  the  Engagement  of  Lord  Howe, 
on  the  1st  of  June,  1794,  and  of  her  Imprisonment  for 
eighteen  Months  in  France  ;  being  taken  in  an  Expedi- 
tion under  the  Command  of  Sir  Sidney  Smith  :  Nar- 
rated by  herself  to  the  Editor  of  the  Scientific  Museum, 
and  now  first  made  public. 

Since 


THE    INTREPID    FEMALE.  161 

Jc^iNCE  the  publication  of  the  wonderful  lives  and  adven- 
tures of  Robinson  Crusoe,  Moll  Flanders,  Moll  Cutpurse, 
the  German  Princess,  Colonel  Jack,  Duncan  Campbell, 
and  many  other  characters  of  equal  celebrity,  whose  stories, 
from  perhaps  a  single  eccentricity  or  circumstance,  has 
been  spun  with  considerable  interest  as  a  romance  by  the 
prolific  brains  of  celebrated  writers,  and  gained  a  repu- 
tation of  wonderful  contrivance  and  prompt  exertions  to 
persons  who  never  distinguished  themselves  by  more  than 
one  occurrence  ;  yet  with  all  the  foregoing  advantages,  we 
have  nothing  on  record  to  parallel  the  extraordinary  suf- 
ferings and  adventures  of  this  truly  unfortunate  female. 
Born  and  bred  to  elevated  expectations ;  till  the  age  of 
fourteen,  we  find  in  her  no  disposition  to  any  masculine 
propensity  ;  and  but  for  the  premeditated  villany  of 
the  most  seductive  arts,  would,  in  all  probability  have 
passed  through  life,  if  not  in  affluent,  yet  contented  ease. 
We  shall  not,  however,  in  our  observations  anticipate  the 
interest  the  curious  reader  will  feel  in  perusing  her  own 
narrative,  by  detailing  any  opinion  we  are  impressed  with 
on  the  authors  of  her  wrongs  and  sufferings,  but  dismiss 
this  note,  with  the  reasons  which  led  to  a  digression  from 
the  main  story  :  which  briefly  are,  that  the  public  know- 
ledge of  the  hardships  she  has  undergone,  may  induce  the 
libei'ality  of  a  feeling  and  liberal  public,  to  undertake 
something  for  her  benefit,  in  addition  to  her  Majesty's 
bounty  of  201.  per  annum,  in  order  that  she  may  pass  the 
latter  part  of  her  days  in  more  ease  and  tranquillity  than 
those  of  her  early  ones,  as  being  wholly  dependant  on  the 
Royal  Bounty,  the  half-yearly  receipt  of  which  is  antici- 
pated by  an  indispensable  contract  of  debt,  for  daily  sup- 
port ;  and  unless  the  Providence  which  has  hitherto  sup- 
ported her  under  the  most  perilous  circumstances,  should 
still  befriend  lu-r  precarious  situation,  by  inducing  the 
wealthy  and  liberal  to  contribute  towards  her  future  pros- 
voL.  II.  Y  pects, 


162  THB    ADVENTURES    OF 

pects,  in  supporting  a  subscription  suggested  by  the  pub- 
lisher of  her  adventures;  she  must  inevitably  remain — 
the  Child  of  Chance,  and  of  Misfortune  !  Subscriptions 
towards  the  relief  of  Mary-Ann  Talbot  received 
only  by  the  Publisher,  R.  S.  Kirby,  London-house  Yard, 
St.  Pauls. 

[The  veracity  of  every  circumstance  stated,  will  be 
proved  in  the  course  of  the  Narrative.] 

I  WAS  born  to  experience  in  the  extremest  sense  of  the 
word,  the  disagreeables  incident  to  human  nature  ;  and  if 
the  reader  of  the  following  pages  should  judge  harshly 
the  inducements  that  precipitated  me  into  the  early 
part  of  misfortunes  which  have  attended  each  succeeding 
year  of  my  life,  I  have  only  to  supplicate  commiseration 
towards  a  being  bred  in  a  country  village,  and  from  thence 
sent  to  a  boarding-school  180  miles  from  the  metropolis, 
on  leaving  which,  after  nine  years  careful  attention  to  my 
education  and  morals,  I  have  to  date  the  commencement 
of  my  future  troubles. 

I  am  the  youngest  of  sixteen  natural  children,  which 
my  mother  had  by  Lord  William  Talbot,  Baron  of  Hen- 
sol,  Steward  of  his  Majesty's  Household,  and  Colonel  of 
the  Glamorganshire  Militia,  with  whom  she  kept  a  secret 
correspondence  for  several  years.  I  never  could  trace  any 
particular  event  taking  place  at  my  birth,  which  might 
serve  as  a  presage  of  the  singular  adventures  which  I  have 
since  met  with  ;  unless  it  was  in  the  circumstance  of  my 
being  a  surviving  twin,  nor  do  I  know  any  thing  relative  to 
the  juvenile  part  of  my  life,  but  from  the  information  of 
an  only  sister  considerably  elder  than  myself,  and  whom 
indeed  I  had  taken  to  be  my  mother.  From  her  I  learnt 
I  was  born  at  London,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Giles,  on  the 
2d  day  of  Feb.  1778,  in  the  house  now  in  part  occupied 
by  Mr.  Gosling,  the  banker,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields.     The 

hour 


MARY -ANN    TALBOT.  l6S 

hour  which  brought  me  into  the  world  deprived  me  of  the 
fostering  care  of  a  mother,  whose  loss  I  can  never  suHi- 
ciently  regret,  and  in  a  short  time  I  was  sent  to  nurse  at  a 
small  village  called  Worthin,  about  twelve  miles  from 
Shrewsbury,  where  I  remained  until  I  had  attained  my 
fifth  year,  under  the  fostering  care  of  an  excellent  woman, 
without  feeling  the  irreparable  loss  I  had  sustained  in  the 
death  of  the  only  parent  who  might  have  been  my  pro- 
tector and  guide  through  life. 

At  the  expiration  of  my  fifth  year,  I  was  removed, 
(I  know  not  by  whose  orders,  but  rather  imagine  by  some 
friend  of  Lord  Talbot's,  who  died  before  I  left  my  nurse,) 
to  Mrs.  Tapperly's  boarding  school,  Foregate-street, 
Chester,  in  order  to  receive  a  liberal  education.  Here  I 
remained  nine  years,  unacquainted  with  the  vices  of  the 
world,  and  knew  no  misery  but  seeing  children  more  for- 
tunate than  myself,  receiving  the  embraces  of  their 
parents  and  friends.  During  my  residence  at  Mrs.  Tap- 
perly's, I  found  a  kind  protector  in  my  only  surviving 
sister,  who  was  married  to  a  Mr.  Wilson  of  Trevalyn,  in 
the  county  of  Denbigh,  North-Wales. 

In  this  relative  I  found  every  attention  and  care 
expected  from  a  parent,  and  whom,  indeed,  as  I  have 
before  stated,  I  took  to  be  such.  In  her  society  I  enjoyed 
the  only  gleam  of  happiness  I  was  doomed  to  experience, 
from  the  moment  of  my  coming  into  the  world  to  the  pre- 
sent instant ;  and  even  this  was  but  of  short  duration  ;  for 
alas,  in  the  bloom  of  her  youth,  and  the  flower  of  her 
age,  she  unfortunately  fell  a  victim  to  childbirth,  leaving 
me  to  regret,  by  the  same  visitation  of  Providence,  a 
second  parent,  in  the  loss  of  a  sister  and  friend  united, 
and  whom  I  tenderly  loved  ;  and  as  such,  have  never 
ceased  to  lament.  She  told  me  the  name  she  was  known  by 
before  her  marriage,  was  the  Hon.  Miss  Dyer,  being  the 
name  of  the  family  she  was  brought  up  in,  and  possessed  a 

Y  2  fortune 


164  LEAVING    SCHOOL. 

fortune  of  30,0001.  besides  an  income  of  fifteen  hundred 
pounds  per  annum. 

Deprived  thus  of  the  only  relation  and  friend  1  knew  in 
the  world  ;  and  that  at  an  age  too,  when  I  stood  most  in 
need  of  her  advice  and  assistance,  I  felt  a  vacuity  in  ray 
heart,  which  rendered  existence  irksome.  The  care  of 
me  now  devolved  solely  on  a  gentleman  of  the  name  of 
Shuker,  who  resided  at  Newport,  in  the  county  of  Salop, 
who,  within  three  months  after  the  decease  of  my  sister, 
taking  on  himself  the  authority  of  a  guardian,  removed 
me  from  the  school  at  Chester,  and  placed  me  in  his  own 
family  ;  where  I  soon  became  sensible  of  the  loss  I  had 
sustained  in  the  death  of  my  dear  sister,  in  a  more  eminent 
degree  than  ever ;  as  the  severity  of  Mr.  Shuker  seldom 
permitted  me  to  quit  the  room  assigned  me  but  at  meal- 
times, and  seemed  by  the  general  conduct  of  his  man- 
ners, to  inspire  me  with  a  dread  of  his  person,  and 
consequently  to  avoid  as  much  as  possible  any  con- 
versation on  my  circumstances,  or  that  of  my  deceased 
sister.  I  must  confess  I  was  at  a  loss  during  the  period 
I  resided  with  him,  to  assign  any  reason  for  his  conduct 
towards  me  ;  but  have  since  been  so  perfectly  satisfied 
as  to  its  being  a  premeditated  plan  of  his,  to  throw  me 
in  the  way  of  any  person  whatever,  who  would  remove 
from  his  care  a  charge,  that,  for  reasons  only  known  to 
himself,  made  the  sight  of  me  to  him  intolerable. 

I  had  not  been  long  under  the  roof  of  this  inhospitable 
man,  before  he  introduced  me  to  a  Captain  Essex  Bowen 
of  the  82d  regiment  of  foot,  who  I  had  once  before  seen 
at  Chester,  iu  company  with  Mr.  Shuker  ;  and  understood 
from  him,  was  then  on  the  recruiting  service.  This 
was  about  a  week  previous  to  my  quitting  Mrs.  Tapperly'sj 
and  who  now  appeared  to  be  well  acquainted  with  the 
particulars  of  my  birth  and  family. 

From  the   moment  of  his   introduction  to  me  at  Mr. 

Shuker's, 


CONVEYED    TO    LONDON.  165 

Shuker's,  he  paid  me  particular  attention,  which  I  ac- 
counted for  in  consequence  of  Mr.  Shuker's  observing — 
I  was  to  consider  him  as  my  future  guardian,  he  being  ap- 
pointed to  superintend  my  education  abroad  ;  and  requested 
me  to  pay  him  every  possible  regard,  as  the  person  to 
whose  care  I  was  entrusted. 

In  a  few  days  I  quitted  Mr.  Shuker's  in  company  with 
Captain  Bowen,  who,  on  our  departure,  pretended  to  my 
late  guardian,  the  most  inviolable  attachment  to  my 
family  ;  and  assured  him  in  my  hearing,  that  he  would  on 
his  arrival  in  town,  place  me  under  the  care  of  a  female 
friend,  in  order  to  complete  my  education,  and  knowledge 
of  the  world  ;  without  which,  he  declared,  I  should  be 
considered  as  an  alien  by  my  own  family. 

Unexperienced  in  the  ways  of  a  deceitful  world,  my 
youthful  mind  was  elated  at  the  thoughts  of  visiting- 
London,  a  place  which  I  had  heard  so  much  talk  of,  and 
was  highly  delighted  with  the  varying  scenes  which  alter- 
nately presented  themselves  to  my  view  on  the  road, 
though  the  season  of  the  year  was  inauspicious  to  beau- 
tiful prospects,  being  in  January,  1792.  On  our  arrival 
in  the  capital,  which  we  reached  without  any  remarkable 
circumstance,  I  was  conveyed  by  Captain  Bowen  to  the 
Salopian  coffee-house,  Charing-Cross,  kept  at  that  time  by 
a  Mrs.  Wright,  to  whom  1  was  introduced  as  his  charge ; 
and  where  I  soon  after  experienced  a  visible  change  in 
the  manners  of  my  pretented  protector ;  who,  in  a  very 
short  period  put  in  practice  the  villainous  scheme  which 
he  had,  no  doubt,  before  our  arrival  in  town,  premedi- 
tately  resolved  on.  Instead  of  exhibiting  the  least  re- 
morse, or  endeavouring  to  soothe  a  mind,  agitated  by  his 
proceedings,  he  threw  off  the  mask  which  had  hitherto 
concealed  the  villain,  and  placed  in  my  view  the  deter- 
mined rufhan.  Intimidated  by  his  manners,  and  in  the 
knowledge  of  no  friend  near  me,  I  became  every  thing- 
he 


166  EMBARKED  FOR  ST.  DOMINGO. 

he  could  desire  ;  and  so   far  aided   his  purposes  as  to  be- 
come a  willing  instrument  to  my  future  misfortunes. 

I  did  not  remain  long  before  I  was  to  become  the  ob- 
ject of  more  degradation  ;  as,  in  consequence  of  an  order 
from  the  regiment  Captain  Bowen  belonged  to,  he  was 
ordered  to  embark  for  St.  Domingo  ;  and  projecting  far- 
ther plans  on  my  happiness,  for,  conceiving  me  pro- 
perly subjugated  to  his  purpose,  and  remarking  my 
figure  was  extremely  well  calculated  for  the  situation  he 
had  assigned  me,  he  produced  a  complete  suit  of  male 
attire  ;  and  for  the  first  time  made  me  acquainted  with 
the  unmanly  design  he  had  formed,  of  taking  me  with 
him  to  the  West-Indies,  in  the  menial  capacity  of  his 
foot-boy. 

I  had  not  much  time  to  deliberate  how  to  act ;  and  by 
this  time  knowing  his  peremptory  disposition,  in  a  fit  of 
frenzy  and  despair,  I  yielded  to  the  base  proposal,  and 
assumed  the  character  he  had  thought  fit  to  assign  me,  in 
the  name  of  John  Taylor,  which  I  ever  after  retained. 

Thus  equipped,  I  travelled  with  him  to  Falmouth, 
where  soon  after  our  arrival,  we  embarked  on  board  the 
Crown  transport,  Captain  Bishop,  and  set  sail  for  the 
West  Indies  on  the  20th  day  of  March,  1792.  We  had 
not  been  long  on  our  voyage  before  I  began  to  experience 
the  hardships  of  my  situation  :  shipboard  even  to  the  ro- 
bust and  most  daring  of  the  male  sex,  is  at  first  a  very 
unpleasant  dwelling;  and  it  must  naturally  be  supposed, 
was  to  one  like  myself  particularly  disagreeable ;  and  the 
novelty  of  my  new  attire  did  not  exempt  me  from  being 
compelled  to  live  and  mess  with  the  most  menial  of  tbe 
ship's  company,  as  Captain  Bowen  never  suffered  me 
once  after  I  was  on  board  to  eat  with  him,  but  forced  me 
to  put  up  with  what  he  left  at  meal  times. 

Fearful     of     incurring    the    raillery    which    detection 
would   have  occasioned,   I  resolved  to  endure  the  hard- 
ships 


A    STORM    DURING    THE    VOYAGE.  167 

ships  I  suffered  with  patience,  rather  than  discover 
my  sex. 

During  our  voyage  we  encountered  a  most  tremendous 
gale,  which  continued  for  several  days  with  such  fury, 
that  we  were  obliged  to  throw  our  guns  overboard,  in  or- 
der to  lighten  the  ship,  and  were  reduced  to  such  distress, 
as  to  render  it  necessary  for  the  pumps  to  be  kept  at 
work  continually  ;  in  consequence  of  which  every  person 
without  distinction,  (officers  excepted,)  was  obliged  to  as- 
sist in  the  laborious  office.  It  was  in  this  extremity  I  first 
learnt  the  duty  of  a  sailor ;  being  obliged  on  some  ne- 
cessary occasion,  first  to  go  aloft,  which  frequent  use 
rendered  at  last  familiar,  and  by  no  means  irksome. 

In  addition  to  our  affliction,  the  storm  having  driven 
us  several  leagues  out  of  our  latitude,  we  were  compelled 
to  put  ourselves  on  half  allowance  ;  having,  in  our  eager- 
ness to  lighten  the  ship,  thrown  overboard,  besides  the 
guns,  casks  of  water,  bags  of  biscuits,  and  many  articles 
of  indispensable  necessity  to  our  future  comfort  which  we 
after  severely  missed  ;  in  consequence  of  which,  we  were 
compelled  to  put  ourselves  on  the  short  allowance  of  a 
biscuit  per  day  ;  and  for  water  we  were  so  much  distressed, 
as  to  be  wholly  without  for  the  space  of  eight  days,  during 
which  period  we  were  happy  in  consequence  of  some  fa- 
vourable showers,  to  wring  the  rain-water  from  our  watch 
coats,  which,  on  such  occasions,  we  never  failed  to  hand 
out,  to  retain  as  much  as  possible  the  providential  succour 
received.  Nay,  to  such  extremity  were  we  reduced  for 
want  of  this  necessary  article  of  life,  that  I  have  gladly 
flown  to  any  little  settlement  of  water  on  the  deck,  eagerly 
to  apply  my  lips  to  the  boards  to  allay  the  parching  thirst 
I  experienced. 

As  if  the  measure  of  our  troubles  were  not  accom- 
plished, our  main-top-gallant  mast  was  rent  asundei ,  and 
swept  four  men  busily  engaged   at   the  windlass  for  our 

mutual 


168  MADE    A    DRUMMER. 

mutual  preservation,  into  the  sea,  whom  we  never  saw 
more. 

Whether  in  consequence  of  the  agitation  I  underwent, 
in  the  exertion  of  what  I  conceived  now  my  duty,  or  the 
want  of  necessary  provision,  I  know  not;  but  the  sudden 
loss  of  appetite  I  experienced,  threatened  to  bring  on  me 
a  fit  of  illness.  After  the  storm  was  abated,  a  strong  gale 
sprung  up,  and  being  in  favour  of  our  caurse,  we  proceeded 
at  the  rate  of  thirteen  and  fourteen  knots  an  hour. 

We  arrived  at  Port-au-Prince  in  the  island  of  St.  Do- 
mingo, early  in  the  month  of  June;  where,  after  the 
fatigue  and  distress  I  suffered  on  the  voyage,  by  fortunate 
opportunities  of  taking  moderate  rest,  my  health  and 
spirits  were  quickly  restored,  except  a  little  weakness  and 
debility  brought  afterwards  on  by  the  heat  of  the  climate, 
and  occasional  melancholy  reflections  on  my  own  unfor- 
tunate situation  ;  as  during  my  continuance  on  this  island 
I  avoided  as  much  as  possible,  the  sight  and  company  of 
my  destructive  and  abandoned  betrayer. 

Our  stay  at  St.  Domingo  was  but  of  short  duration, 
owing  to  the  arrival  of  a  packet  from  England,  which 
missed  overtaking  us,  with  orders  to  countermand  our  des- 
tination, and  to  join  the  troops  on  the  continent,  under 
the  command  of  his  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  York, 
by  the  gale  before  described.  Here  it  was  I  was  doomed 
to  undergo  another  change  of  character ;  for  Captain 
Bowen,  judging  it  not  convenient  to  continue  me  in  the 
situation  of  his  foot-boy,  proposed  my  being  enrolled  in 
the  regiment  as  a  drummer,  which,  on  my  objecting  to, 
he  threatened  to  have  me  conveyed  up  the  country,  and 
sold  as  a  slave.  From  dread  of  his  really  putting  his 
threat  in  execution,  I  reluctantly  acquiesced  in  his  desire, 
and  was  immediately  equipped  in  the  dress  of  a  drum- 
mer, and  learnt  the  art  of  beating  the  drum  from  the  in- 
structions of  drum-major  Rickardson.     In  pursuance  of 

the 


ARRIVED    IN    FLANDER3.  169 

the  orders  brought  by  the  packet,  we  immediately  em- 
barked on  board  some  transports  appointed  for  that  ser- 
vice; and,  being  favoured  with  a  brisk  gale,  during  the 
best  part  of  cur  voyage,  we  arrived  safely  at  the  place 
of  our  destination,  a  port  on  the  coast  of  Flanders,  the 
name  of  which  I  cannot  well  remember  ;  as,  immediately 
after  our  disembarkation,  we  marched  off  to  join  the  main 
army  at  head  quarters ;  previous  to  reaching  which,!  found 
I  was  to  answer  the  purpose  of  Capt.  Bowen,  as  before,  in 
the  capacity  of  his  drudge  and  foot-boy,  whenever  oppor- 
tunity would  allow  the  attendance  from  my  duty  as 
drummer.  This  mode  of  life  was  by  no  means  congenial 
to  my  feelings;  and,  indeed,  was  in  my  eye  worse  than 
the  situation  I  was  in  while  foot-boy,  only  although  I 
was  more  immediately  compelled  to  endure  the  sight  of 
a  man,  now  rendered  to  me  detestable. 

I  perfectly  remember  one,    among  a  multitude  of  ha- 
rassing excursions,  which  had  nearly  proved  fatal  to  his 
Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  York,  a  part  of  his  army, 
as  well  as  myself.      After  a  long  and  heavy    march  of 
thirty  miles  in  one  day,  without  halting  but  once  for  re- 
freshment, while  pitching  our  tents  and  making  intrench- 
ments,  a  part  of  our  troops,  for  a  time  taking  rest,  were 
surprised  and  surrounded  by  the  enemy,  excepting  a  small 
space    which  led   to  a*i  adjacent  wood,  and  furnished  a 
means  of  retreat   to  a  part  of  the  army,  among  which    I 
was   one,  though    without  other  apparel  than   my  small 
clothes,  which    I    had  not    taken    off.     The    enemy    ob- 
serving our    camp    at  rest,    made    the    attempt   in    the 
middle  of  the  night,  owing  to  which  circumstance  many 
others,  as  well   as  myself,   were  equally    unprepared    in 
point  of  accoutrements,  though  the  most  we  suffered  on 
this  occasion  was  the  alarm,  as  a  large  party  of  Austrians, 
who  had  doubtless  watched  the  motions  of  our  adversa- 
ries, came  timely  to  our  assistance,  and  compelled  the  un- 
VoL.  11.  z  welcome 


170  SIEGE    OP    VALENCIENNES. 

welcome  intruders  to  make  a  precipitate  retreat,  by  which 
we  regained  our  former  station. 

We  continued  to  have  frequent  skirmishes  with  the 
enemy  previous  to  the  grand  object  of  our  royal  com- 
mander, namely,  the  celebrated  siege  of  Valenciennes, 
at  which  place  I  became  subject  to  greater  hardships  than 
any  I  had  hitherto  experienced.  Compelled  to  remain 
among  my  comrades  wherever  duty  called,  in  the  various 
struggles  which  preceded  the  surrender  of  the  place,  an 
eye  witness  to  hundreds  of  friends  and  foes,  indiscri- 
minately falling  around  me ;  where  the  11th  dragoons, 
conspicuous  above  the  rest,  fought  with  their  broad- 
swords hand  to  hand,  over  heaps  of  dead  and  dying 
soldiers,  1  was  shocked  to  see  many  a  brave  fellow  at  first 
but  slightly  wounded,  meet  his  death  by  the  trampling  of 
horses,  spurred  on  by  the  contending  antagonists  ;  during 
these  conflicts,  obliged  to  keep  a  continual  roll  to  drown 
the  cries  and  confusion,  on  the  various  scenes  of  action. 
The  infantry  equally  distinguished  themselves  ;  as,  where- 
ever  the  enemy,  however  superior  in  numbers,  opposed 
their  progress,  they  never  failed  to  meet  their  fate,  on  the 
point  of  the  British  bayonet. 

Towards  the  end  of  this  memorable  siege,  I  received 
two  wounds,  though  fortunately  neither  deep  nor  dan- 
gerous :  the  first  from  a  musquet  ball,  which  glancing  be- 
tween my  breast  and  collar  bone  struck  my  rib  ;  and  the 
other  on  the  small  of  my  back,  from  the  broad  sword  of 
an  Austrian  trooper,  which,  I  imagine  rather  proeeeded 
from  accident  than  design,  the  marks  of  which  two 
wounds  I  still  bear,  though  at  the  same  time  I  carefully 
concealed  them,  from  the  dread  of  their  discovering  my 
sex,  and  effected  a  perfect  cure,  by  the  assistance  of  a  lit- 
tle basilican,  lint,  and  a  few  Dutch  drops.  These  acci- 
dents happened  on  the  same  day  the  Hon.  Mr.  Tolmache 
was  killed  by  a  auisket  ball. 

Soon 


DESERTS    FROM    THE    TOWN.  17l 

Soon  after  Valenciennes  surrendered,  and  we  in  conse- 
quence marched  in  and  took  possession  of  the  town,  and 
found  most  of  the  women  and  children  had  taken  refuge 
in  cellars  and  places  underground.  I  need  scarcely  no- 
tice, every  protection  possible  was  afforded  to  these  un- 
fortunate sufferers.  On  our  arrival  in  the  town  1  learnt 
that  my  persecutor,  Captain  Bowen,  was  no  more,  having 
fallen  in  the  attack;  this  I  was  informed  by  one  of  my 
comrades:  and  though  I  had  every  reason  rather  to  re- 
joice at  such  an  event  than  grieve,  yet  it  was  with  the 
greatest  difficulty  I  could  smother  the  sudden  emotion 
I  experienced  on  the  intelligence,  or  conceal  the  hidden 
character  of  a  woman,  in  shedding  a  tear  on  his  fate,  how- 
ever unworthy.  I  had  no  great  difficulty  in  finding  his 
body;  nor  was  it  thought  strange  I  should  endeavour  to 
seek  him  out,  being  always  in  the  habit  of  attending  on 
him  at  his  tent  when  I  was  off  duty :  I  took  from  his 
pocket  the  key  of  his  desk,  out  of  which  I  took  some 
letters,  which  on  perusing  in  private,  I  found  chiefly  re- 
lating to  myself;  being  the  correspondence  of  my  former 
guardian  Mr.  Shuker  :  these  I  carefully  preserved,  and 
sewed  them  up  under  the  shoulder-straps  of  my  shirt. 

I  now  felt  my  situation  truly  distressing :  left  in  a 
strange  country  without  a  friend  to  consult  with,  or  a  place 
where  I  could  find  an  asylum,  I  suffered  under  the  most 
poignant  grief,  at  the  same  time  labouring  under  an  ex- 
cruciating pain,  and  my  wounds  so  situated,  that  I  durst 
not  reveal  them  without  a  discovery  of  my  sex,  which  I 
ever  carefully  avoided.  I  hazarded  every  thing  to  keep 
inviolable  my  own  secret,  and  committed  the  care  of  my 
wounds  to  my  own  single  endeavour  and  the  hand  of 
time.  Thus  situated,  1  formed  a  resolution  to  desert  from 
a  duty  at  best  imposed  on  me,  and  endeavour  to  return 
to  England.  This  step  I  might  not  have  thought  on,  had 
I  not  discovered  by  Mr.  Shuker's  letters  I  had  been  grossly 

2  2  imposed 


172  ABRIVfiS    AT    LUXEMBURG. 

imposed  on,  as  money  had  been  remitted  to  Captain 
Bowen,  and  my  name  mentioned  in  a  way  which  gave 
rise  to  suspicions  I  had  hitherto  been  a  stranger  to,  and 
to  explain  how  he  had  notwithstanding,  treated  me,  was 
now  ray  purpose  to  reveal.  Having  formed  my  plan,  little 
time  was  necessary  to  put  it  in  execution.  I  set  out  on 
foot  that  morning  for  the  first  place  Providence  might 
point  out,  as  my  deliverance  from  an  enemy's  country ; 
however  inexperienced  I  might  be  in  some  respects  I 
had  the  precaution  to  change  my  drummer's  dress  for 
one  I  had  been  accustomed  to  wear  when  on  board,  and 
during  a  long  part  of  my  journey  I  carefully  avoided  any 
town,  or  place  of  considerable  appearance  ;  always  on  such 
occasions  taking  a  circuitous  rout,  frequently  sleeping  in 
a  tree,  under  a  hay  stack,  and  sometimes  in  places  much 
less  convenient. 

The  diminutive  and  insignificant  figure  which  I  made 
in  my  sailor's  attire,  served  me  among  the  peasantry  of 
the  country  villages,  I  was  under  the  necessity  of  passing, 
to  obtain  refreshment  from  any  straggling  boy  I  could 
meet  with  on  the  skirts  of  the  place,  as  a  passport ;  for  no 
one  thought  it  worth  their  while  to  question  a  person  of  my 
mean  appearance. 

In  this  manner  I  arrived  at  Luxemburg  in  Sep- 
tember, without  meeting  the  least  molestation ;  here 
I  soon  found  my  ignorance  in  political  matters  had  led 
me  into  an  error  of  a  very  awkward  nature ;  and  that 
being  a  town  in  possession  of  the  French,  they  would  not 
suffer  me  to  proceed  farther  on  ray  journey.  Had  I  for- 
tunately taken  the  contrary  route,  I  should  most  probahly 
have  reached  Dunkirk  or  Calais  in  one  third  of  the  time 
it  occupied  me,  in  traversing  that  part  of  the  country ; 
us  I  have  learnt  from  persons  conversant  with  the  miij)s 
of  the  continent,  the  distance  from  Valenciennes  to  either 

of 


ENTERED    ON    BOARD    A    FRENCH    LUGGER.  173 

of  the  last  mentioned  parts,  is  small  in  comparison  to  that 
I  had  inadvertently  taken  to  Luxemburg.     Finding  ray- 
self  thus  situated  and  destitute  of  every  necessary  of  life, 
and  in  the  midst  of  a  country  where  no  one  paid  me  the 
smallest  regard,  I  vras  constrained  through  mere  neces- 
sity, though  sorely  against  my  wish,   to  engage  with  a 
Captain  Le  Sage,  commander    of  a    French  lugger,  on 
board   which    I   embarked  on   the   seventeenth   of  Sep- 
tember, 1793.     Soon  after  which  we  dropped  down  the 
Rhine,  and  sailed  on  a  cruise,  when    1    was  put  to  the 
most  common  drudgery  of  the  vessel ;    but  even  this  I 
could  have  borne  with  patience,  had  not  the  painful  idea 
occurred  to  my  mind,  that  in  this  new  situation,  I  should 
be  doomed  to  raise  ray  arm  against  my  countryraen,  which 
I  learnt  too  late  was  the  purpose  of  Le  Sage,  whom  I  had 
taken  for  a  captain  of  a  merchantman,  but  found  no  other 
than  commander  of  a  kind  of  privateer.     Fortune,  how- 
ever, in  this  one  instance,  proved  kinder  to  me  than  she 
had  hitherto  been    accustomed,  as,  on  this  occasion,  in- 
stead of  falling  in  with  some  of  the  English  merchant- 
men, as   it  was  generally  thought  we  should,    and   the 
ardent  wish  of  Le  Sage,  our  commander;  we,  after  cruis- 
ing about  four  months  without  any  success,  or  meeting 
with  any  thing  worthy    notice,    fell  in  with  the  British 
fleet,  under  the  command  of  Admiral  Lord  Howe,  then  in 
the  Channel. 

On  our  lirst  sight  of  the  British,  Le  Sage  ordered  ever^ 
one  to  their  duty  ;  and  observing  me  to  be  missing,  he 
followed  me  to  where  I  was  concealed  among  the  bal- 
last, to  which  I  had  contrived  access  through  the 
cabin,  in  fear  of  being  obliged  to  act  against  my 
country ;  and  finding  me  pereist  in  an  obstinate  refusal  to 
come  on  deck,  he  beat  me  on  the  back  and  sides  with  a 
rope  in  a  most  inhuman  manner,  and  drove  me  before  liiiu 
up  the  cabin  stairs;  but  when  on  deck  I  absolutely  re- 
fused 


174  TAKEN    BY    LORD    HOWe's    FLEET. 

fused  to  assist  in  defence  of  his  vessel ;  and  he  being  too 
much  occupied  to  think  only  of  me,  left  me  to  my  own 
meditation.  The  British  now  bore  on  us,  and,  after 
a  trifling  resistance  from  the  French,  through  desperation 
only,  we  were  captured,  and  I  considered  as  an  English 
boy  acting  against  my  country,  carried  with  Le  Sage  and 
his  companions  before  Lord  Howe,  on  board  the  Queen 
Charlotte,  to  be  examined. 

Being  examined  by  his  Lordship  on  the  cause  of 
serving  on  board  an  enemy's  ship,  I  briefly  told  him, 
*'  That  being  without  friends  in  England,  I  had  accom- 
panied a  gentleman  to  the  Continent  in  capacity  of  foot- 
boy,  on  whose  death,  I  had  in  the  greatest  distress  reached 
Luxemburg,  in  hopes  of  getting  a  passage  to  my  native 
country,  but  finding  that  impossible,  it  being  at  that 
time  in  possession  of  the  French,  I  was  constrained,  though 
much  against  my  inclination,  to  enter  into  Le  Sage's  ves- 
sel, having  experienced  during  the  short  stay  I  made  in 
the  town,  no  attention  paid  to  my  distress,  chiefly,  as  I 
imagined,  from  being  English ;  and  that  my  determina- 
tion from  the  moment  I  engaged  with  Captain  Le  Sage 
was,  to  desert  the  first  opportunitythat  offered  to  forward 
my  passage  to  England  ;  but  had  I  known  the  intention 
of  Le  Sage  was  to  act  in  an  offensive  manner  against  my 
countrymen,  I  assured  his  Lordship,  I  would  rather  have 
perished  than  been  induced  to  have  set  my  foot  on  board 
his  vessel ;  having,  previous  to  sailing,  taken  him  to  be 
commander  of  a  merchantman,  and  as  such  engaged  with 
him." 

Fortunately,  his  Lordship  did  not  think  of  questioning 
me  concerning  the  place  where  my  late  master  died  ;  as 
in  such  an  event  I  must  have  unquestionably  have  acknow- 
ledged myself  as  a  deserter  from  the  British  forces  at  Va- 
lenciennes, being  in  no  way  prepared  to  resist  such  an  en- 
quiry ;    as  my  readers  will  be  convinced  the  whole  of  my 

answers 


SENT    ON   BOARD    THE    BRUNSWICK.  175 

answers  to  his  Lordship's  questions  were  founded  on  the 
hardships  I  had  experienced,  and  in  no  shape  framed  to 
deceive.  This  statement  joined  no  doubt  to  the  French- 
men's declaring  my  unwillingness  to  act  in  defence  of  the 
lugger,  with  the  beating  I  had  a  little  before  experienced 
from  Le  Sage,  gained  me  a  favourable  dismissal  from 
Lord  Howe,  and  served  as  a  passport  to  a  situation  on 
board  one  of  the  ships  in  his  Lordship's  fleet,  on  board  of 
which  I  was  immediately  sent. 

Elated  with  joy  on  beholding  myself  placed  once  more 
among  my  countrymen ;  as,  after  my  examination  before 
Lord  Howe,  I  was  stationed  on  board  the  Brunswick, 
Captain  John  Hervey,  where  the  story  of  my  adventures, 
with  the  hardships  I  had  suffered,  gained  me  among  the 
seamen  as  many  friends  as  hearers,  particularly  for  those 
I  had  undergone  Avhile  on  board  the  Frenchman.  Our 
object  in  this  cruise  was  to  seek  the  fleet  of  the  enemy,  and 
bring  on  an  engagement.  The  service  allotted  me,  was 
to  serve  at  the  second  gun  on  the  quarter  deck,  and  hand 
cartridge  to  the  men;  or,  to  speak  in  the  seaman's  phrase, 
to  act  in  the  capacity  of  powder  monkey,  I  had  not  however 
been  long  on  board  before  Captain  Hervey,  observing  my 
cleanliness  and  manner  different  from  many  lads  on  board, 
called  me  to  him,  and  questioned  me  as  to  my  friends, 
and  whether  I  had  not  run  away  from  some  school,  to  try 
the  sea  :  finding  by  my  answers  I  had  been  better  brought 
up  and  educated  than  most  in  my  present  situation,  he 
observed,  if  I  would  consider  him  as  a  confidential  friend, 
and  tell  him  the  whole  truth,  1  should  find  a  protector  in 
him,  as  he  had  children  of  his  own,  and  could  not  tell 
what  hardships  they  might  encounter  if  he  was  dead  ;  on 
which  I  told  him  I  had  neither  father  nor  mother  living, 
and  that  oppression  from  the  person  to  whose  care  I  was 
entrusted,  had  first  caused  my  quitting  home;  and  that 
in  short,  I  was    wholly    destitute    of  any  friend    in  the 

world. 


176      ENGAGEMENT  WITH  THE  FRENCH  FLEET. 

world.  He  appeared  concerned  at  my  early  misfortunes 
in  life,  and  promoted  tne  immediately  to  be  his  principal 
cabin  boy,  in  which  capacity  I  continued  to  serve  him  until 
our  fleet  came  within  sight  of  the  enemy. 

Three  months  after  my  coming  on  board  the 
Brunswick,  our  fleet  fell  in  with  that  of  the  French, 
which  brought  on  the  ever  memorable  action  of  the  1st 
of  June;  an  event  which  will  ever  be  remembered  with 
heartfelt  satisfaction  by  the  brave  fellows  who  shared  the 
toils  of  that  auspicious  day,  and  indeed  by  every  lover  of 
our  glorious  constitution  and  country.  I  cannot  enter 
into  a  minute  description  of  the  action,  being  in  the  first 
part  so  busily  engaged,  and  in  the  latter  so  much  wound- 
ed ;  and  shall,  in  consequence,  commit  a  description  of 
the  part  our  gallant  crew  took  in  this  exploit  by  what  I 
afterwards  was  informed  while  lying  under  cure  of  the 
wounds  I  got  while  employed  on  board  a  ship,  the  glory 
of  every  one  who  had  the  felicity  of  belonging  to  her,  I 
mean  *'  the  Brunswick  J' 

This  ship  sustained  a  most  tremendous  conflict,  being 
singly  engaged  for  a  considerable  time  with  three  seventy- 
fours.  One  of  these  she  sent  to  the  bottom ;  another, 
conceiving  her  much  weakened  from  her  exertions,  de- 
termined to  board,  and  manned  her  yards  and  shrouds, 
with  a  view  of  running  up  along-side,  and  flinging  in  all 
her  crew  at  once.  She  observing  this,  with  the  greatest 
intrepidity  and  coolness,  reserved  a  whole  broadside,  and 
waited  her  approach.  The  enemy  now  drew  near,  and  in 
one  discharge  the  Brunswick  brought  every  mast  by  the 
board,  and  scattered  her  crew  like  so  many  mice  upQj^^ 
the  ocean.  The  other  seventy-four  yet  remained,  and 
now  attempted  to  close  with  the  Brunswick,  harassed 
and  enfeebled  by  her  amazing  efforts.  At  this  moment 
the  Ramillies,  commanded  by  Captain  Hervey's  brother, 
came  up,  and  running  in  between  the  Brunswick  and  the 

Frenchman, 


WOUNDED    ON    THE    FIRsjT    OF    JUNE.  177 

Frenchman,  took  the  enemy's  fire,  and  relieved  our  gal- 
lant ship.     So  closely  was  she  at  times  engaged,  that  she 
was  unable  to  haul  up  her  lower  deck  port  lids,  and  was 
therefore  obliged  to  fire  through    them.     Nine   were  in 
consequence  torn  from  her  side ;  and  the  last  broad-side 
she  gave,  every  muzzle  of  her  lower  deckers  touched  the 
copper  of  the  enemy's  bottom.     The  chief  part  of  this  ac- 
tion I  was  spectator  as  well  as  actor  in,  though  strange  to 
add,  was  not  in  the   least  intimidated.     Just  before  the 
coming  up  of  the  Ramilies,  I  received   a  severe  wound 
above  the  ankle  of  my  left  leg,  by   a  grape  shot,    that 
struck  on  the    aftermost  brace    of    the    gun,  which  re- 
bounding on  the  deck,  lodged  in  my  leg ;  notwithstand- 
ing which  I   attempted  to    rise   three  times,  but  without 
effect,  and  on  the   last  effort  part  of  the  bone  projected 
through  the  skin  in  such  a  manner  as  wholly  to  prevent 
my  standing,  if  I  had  been  able  to  rise ;  in  addition,  to 
complete  the    misfortune,  I  received  another  wound  by 
a  musket  ball,  that  went  completely  through  my   thigh, 
a  little  above  the  knee  of  the  same  leg,  and  lay  in  this 
crippled  state  till  the  engagement  was  over  ;  every  person 
on  board  not  wounded,  being  too  much  occupied  to  yield 
me  the  least  assistance.     I  remained  in   this  situation  the 
rest    of   the  action  ;  but    at    length  was  conveyed,  with 
many  other  wounded,  to  the  cock-pit ;  where  the  surgeon, 
after  making  me  suffer  the  most  excruciating  pain,  could 
not  extract  the  grape-shot  from  above  ray  ankle,  so  com- 
pletely was    it   lodged,  and  surrounded   by  the  swelling 
which  soon    took  place,    and    prevented    his   endeavour, 
through  fear  of  injuring  the  tendons,  among  which  he 
declared  it  lay. 

Our  ship  being  so  much  shattered,  it  was  deemed  neces- 
sary she  should  be  put  in  port  to  undergo  repairs  ;  in  con- 
sequence   of   which    we  were  towed    into  Spithead  soon 
after  the  action  :  but  the  severity  of  my  wounds  obliged 
Vol.   II.  A  A  me 


178        ENTERED  ON  BOARD  THE  VESUVIUS. 

me  to  keep  close  to  my  berth,  and  was  thus  deprived  of 
the  gratifying  pleasure  of  being  hailed  with  those  of  my 
gallant  messmates,  who,  on  their  arrival  at  Spithead, 
were  greeted  with  the  loudest  acclamations  of  applause, 
by  their  grateful  countrymen.  With  the  first  convenient 
opportunity,  I  was  conveyed  to  Haslar  hospital,  at  Gos- 
port,  and  placed  under  the  care  of  surgeon  Dodd,  as  out- 
patient, there  not  being  sutficient  room,  from  the  number 
of  wounded  seamen,  to  admit  me  into  the  hospital :  dur- 
ing the  time  I  lay  under  his  hands,  I  lodged  at  No.  2, 
Rieraes  Alley,  Gosport,  and  supported  myself  with  money 
I  had  received  from  Captain  Hervey  prior  to  the  engage- 
ment. After  four  months  attendance,  and  obtaining  a 
partial  cure,  as  surgeon  Dodd,  though  the  utmost  of  his 
skill  was  exerted,  could  not  extract  the  ball,  it  having 
lodged  among  the  tendons,  as  before  stated  ;  to  have  cut 
among  which,  he  said,  would  make  me  a  cripple  for 
life. 

At  length,  little  remaining  but  the  scars  which  I  shall 
carry  to  my  grave,  and  having  obtained  in  a  great  mea- 
sure the  use  of  my  leg,  I  was  discharged  from  the  hospi- 
tal, and  soon  after  entered  on  board  the  Vesuvius  bomb. 
Captain  Toralinson,  then  belonging  to  the  squadron  un- 
der the  command  of  Sir  Sydney  Smith,  lying  at  Spithead. 
and  immediately  commenced  a  cruise,  in  hopes  of  making 
prizes ;  but  after  some  weeks  cruising  on  the  French 
coast  without  success,  we  steered  for  the  Mediterranean, 
and,  on  our  arrival  at  Gibraltar,  came  to  an  anchor, 
where  we  continued  for  three  days  ;  during  that  time  we 
received  an  order  to  join  the  squadron  under  Sir  Sidney 
Smith,  on  which  we  immediately  weighed,  and  pro- 
ceeded according  to  the  directions  received.  Nothing 
worth  notice  occurred  until  we  fell  in  with  Sir  Sydney 
and  the  ships  under  his  command,  in  company  of  which 
we  proceeded  to  Havre  de  Grace,  where  we  were   soon 

after 


TAKEN    PRISONER    AND    CONFINED,  179 

after  separated  in  a  gale  ;  and  continuing  on  the  French 
coast  with  intent  to  rejoin  Sir  Sydney,  fell  in  with  two  pri- 
vateers near  Dunkirk  ;  from  whom,  observing  their  supe- 
rior force,  Captain  Tomlinson  endeavoured  to  make  sail. 
The  Frenchman  observing  his  determination,  crowded 
all  the  sail  he  could  make,  in  chase ;  and  we  instantly 
commenced  a  running  fire,  which  continued  seven  hours; 
at  the  end  of  which  their  superior  weight  of  metal 
brought  us  to,  and  were  in  consequence  immediately 
boarded.  What  became  of  Captain  Tomlinson,  the  ves- 
sel, and  part  of  the  crew,  I  know  not,  as  myself,  and 
William  Richards,  a  young  midshipman,  (in  which  ca- 
pacity I  also  acted  on  board  the  Vesuvius)  were  separated 
from  the  rest,  and  carried  on  board  one  of  the  two  pri- 
vateers that  captured  us ;  we  imagined  the  rest  were  con- 
veyed on  board  the  other ;  but  I  have  since  reason  to  think 
the  Vesuvius  was  recaptured,  as  she  now  continues  in  the 
British  service. 

When  on  board  the  privateer,  who  had  taken  us  pri- 
soners, we  were  deprived  of  our  dirks,  and  conveyed  to 
Dunkirk,  where  we  were  lodged  in  the  prison  of  St.  Clair, 
in  Church-street,  which  had  a  little  before  belonged  to 
the  nuns  of  St.  Clair,  some  of  whom,  since  the  revolution, 
have  settled  in  England.  Here  I  experienced  the  hard- 
ships of  a  French  prison  for  the  tedious  space  of  eighteen 
months ;  in  the  course  of  which  time  Richards  and  my- 
self projected  a  plan  for  our  escape,  by  getting  to  the  top 
of  the  prison,  in  order  to  jump  off;  but  being  observed 
by  a  centinel  on  duty,  we  were  both  confined  in  separate 
dungeons,  where  it  was  so  dark,  I  never  saw  daylight, 
during  the  whole  time,  of  eleven  weeks  ;  and  the  only  al- 
lowance I  had,  was  bread  and  water,  let  down  to  me  from 
the  top  of  the  cell.  My  bed  consisted  only  of  a  little  straw, 
not  more  than  half  a  truss,  which  I  never  had  changed. 
For  two  days   I  was  so  ill  in   this  dreadful  place  that  I 

A  A  2  was 


180  EXCHANGED    AND    RELEASED. 

was  unable  to  stir  from  my  wretched  bed  of  straw,  to 
reach  the  miserable  allowance;  which,  in  consequence, 
was  drawn  up  in  the  same  state  it  was  the  day  before 
let  down.  The  next  morning  a  person,  who,  I  suppose, 
was  the  keeper  of  the  place,  came  into  the  dungeon  with- 
out a  light,  (which  way  he  came  I  knew  not,  but  suppose 
by  a  private  door,  through  which  I  afterwards  passed 
to  be  released)  and  called  out  to  me,  "  Are  you  dead ;"  to 
which  I  was  only  able  to  reply,  by  requesting  a  little 
water,  being  parched  almost  to  death  by  thirst,  resulting 
from  the  fever  which  preyed  on  me  :  he  told  me  he  had 
none,  and  left  me  in  a  brutal  manner,  without  offering 
the  least  relief.  Nature  quickly  restored  me  to  health, 
and  1  sought  the  bread  and  water  with  as  eager  an  incli- 
nation as  a  glutton  would  seek  a  feast.  About  five  weeks 
after  my  illness,  an  exchange  of  prisoners  taking  place,  1 
obtained  my  liberty,  but  did  not  see  any  thing  of  Richards 
till  after  my  arrival  in  England,  where  I  met  him  by 
chance,  near  Covent-Garden. 

During  my  residence  in  the  prison  of  St.  Clair,  I  ob- 
served among  the  rest  of  the  prisoners,  a  very  ingenious 
man,  a  German,  who  employed  his  time,  and  obtained 
more  comforts  in  this  place,  than  most  others,  by  working 
gold  wire  in  a  particular  manner,  and  which  he  disposed 
of,  in  the  various  shapes  of  bracelets,  rings,  and  orna- 
mental chains  for  ladies  dresses.  This  man  seemed  fearful 
I  should  learn  his  method  of  workmanship,  and  was 
angry  whenever  I  particularly  noticed  him  at  his  work; 
notwithstanding,  I  contrived  by  frequent  sight  of  the 
method  he  used,  to  bring  the  secret  with  me  to  England. 

I  was  extremely  weak,  though  in  excellent  spirits,  on 
my  deliverance  from  prison,  but  could  scarcely  bear  the 
light  for  some  days  afterwards,  it  having  an  effect  on  my 
eye^,  as  everything  round  me  was  chalk.  1  had  thoughts 
of  returning  to  England  by  the  means  of  those  who  ef- 
fected 


ENGAGES    IN    A    VOYAGE    TO    NEW-YORK.  181 

fected  my  release,  but  was  diverted  from  this  measure  by 
the  following  circumstance : 

Following  my  fellow  prisoners  just  released,  and  from 
the  pain  in  my  leg,  being  considerably  behind  them,  it 
was  my  chance  to  overhear  the  conversation  of  a  gentle- 
man making  inquiries  in  English,  of  some  seafaring  men 
(by  appearance,)  in  Church-street,  near  the  markef,  re- 
specting any  lad  they  knew,  willing  to  make  a  voyage  to 
America,  in  quality  of  ship's  steward.  I  immediately 
accosted  him,  and  preferred  my  service,  being  des- 
titute of  necessaries,  and  prefering  such  a  situation, 
if  1  could  obtain  it,  to  a  return  to  my  native  country, 
among  the  rest  of  my  countrymen  lately  exchanged. 
The  gentleman  immediately  asking  me  my  present 
situation  at  Dunkirk,  which  I  briefly  explained  ;  in  con- 
sequence of  which  I  accompanied  him  back  to  the  prison 
of  St.  Clair,  where  finding  by  the  keepers  of  the  prison 
I  had  given  him  a  true  relation,  he  engaged  me  in  the 
above  capacity  to  perform  the  voyage  to  New-York, 
and  from  thence  to  England  (which  he  informed  me 
would  be  his  next  voyage)  for  501.  and  all  I  could  make, 
at  the  same  time  advancing  me  sufficient  cash  in  part,  to 
fit  me  out:  his  name  was  Captain  John  Field,  of  the 
Ariel,  merchantman,  New-York,  on  board  which  vessel  I 
directly  embarked  ;  and  during  our  short  stay  at  Dunkirk, 
was  employed  in  correcting  the  ship's  books,  paying  the 
men,  victualling  the  ship,  and  taking  in  the  cargo.  Our 
vessel  was  chiefly  laden  with  bale-goods,  among  which 
was  French-lace  to  the  value  of  50001.  We  set  sail  for 
New- York,  in  the  montli  of  Aug.  1796,  and  arrived  after 
a  successful  and  expeditious  voyage  of  not  more  than  a 
month,  at  the  place  of  our  destination,  which,  on  going  on 
shore  I  mistook  for  London,  and  particularly  remarked 
a  church,  so  like  the  one  in  Co  vent-garden,  that  I  abso- 
lutely mistook  it  to  be  that  church.  I  was  detained  little 
more  than  a  fortnight  at  New-York,  and  was  chiefly  em- 
ployed 


182  THE  captain's  niece  in  love. 

ployed  in  taking  an  account  of  the  goods  delivered  to  the 
respective  owners,  after  which  duty,  I  accepted  an  invita- 
tion to  accompany  my  Captain  in  an  excursion  to  Provi- 
dence State,  in  Rhode  Island,  where  his  family  resided. 
During  this  journey,  and  indeed  the  whole  of  the  voyage, 
I  was  considered  rather  as  a  friend  and  companion,  by 
Captain  Field,  than  a  person  in  his  pay,  and  under  his 
command. 

On  our  arrival  at  Rhode  Island,  we  found  Captain 
Field's  family  in  good  health  ;  it  consisted  of  his  wife, 
four  children,  and  a  niece.  Here  I  spent  the  most  agree- 
able fortnight  of  my  life,  as  the  Captain  neither  paid  nor 
received  any  visits,  but  I  made  one  of  the  party :  Mrs. 
Field  also  appeared  equally  attached  to  me,  which  made 
the  short  time  I  continued  among  this  worthy  family,  ap- 
pear to  me  but  as  a  dream,  so  few  and  transient  were  my 
days  of  happiness.  Among  other  visits,  we  made  one  to 
Mr.  Field,  the  Captain's  father,  a  very  agreeable  and 
worthy  gentleman.  The  only  circumstance  of  an  unplea- 
sant nature  that  occurred  during  my  stay  in  America,  was 
the  great  partiality  the  Captain's  niece  had  to  my  company, 
and  which  proceeded  to  such  an  extent,  as  to  make  me  the 
offer  of  her  hand  in  marriage.  I  made  several  excuses, 
but  could  not  divert  her  attention  from  what  she  proposed. 
Mrs.  Field  at  length  being  acquainted  with  the  circum- 
stance, made  my  youth  and  inexperience  in  the  world,  a 
great  objection  ;  but  neither  my  excuses,  nor  Mrs.  Field's 
request,  had  any  weight,  opposed  to  the  young  lady's  in- 
clination, which  she  endeavoured  to  accomplish  to  the 
last  hour  of  my  residence  at  Rhode  Island.  She  re- 
quested before  Mrs.  Field,  that  I  would  make  her  a  pre- 
sent of  my  picture  ;  for  which  purpose  I  sat  for  a  minia- 
ture at  New  York,  in  the  full  uniform  dress  of  an  Ame- 
rican officer — for  this  picture  I  paid  eighteen  dollars. 
The  time  of  our  departure  for  England  being   arrived,  1 

reluctantly 


ARRIVF,:^    IN    KNOLANI).  183 

rcliicl.'uilly  took  my  leave  of  Mr^*.  ImcUI,  and  family;  l»uL 
had  scarcely  proceeded  two  miles  on  the  way  to  New- 
\  ork,  before  I  was  summoned  back,  being  overtaken  by 
a  servant,  wlio  informed  the  Captain  and  myself,  wo 
must  come  back,  as  the  young;  lady  was  in  strong  fits. 
We  retui'ncd,  and  found  her  still  in  a  fit,  out  of  which, 
with  great  difficulty  we  recovered  her;  and  I  by  making 
her  a  promise  of  a  speedy  return  fi-om  England,  with 
great  reluctance  on  her  part,  took  my  final  departure. 

Our  stay  at  New-York  was  but  short ;  the  mate,  in  the 
absence  of  Captain  Field  and  myself,  having  taken  chai'ge 
of  the  cargo  consigned  to  England,  and  obtained  the  ne- 
cessary invoices  of  the  goods;  chiefiy  manufactured  cot- 
ion,  and  camblets.  This,  had  I  icmained  on  board, 
would  have  been  pai't  of  my  duty  ;  but  through  indul- 
gence from  the  captain,  was  performed  by  another.  We 
proceeded  on  our  voyage  to  England  witli  a  favourable 
wind,  and  arrived  at  Cowes,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  wilh- 
out  meeting  with  any  thing  particular  on  the  wa}'.  Our 
provisions  falling  short,  we  took  in  some  fresh,  and  after 
waiting  three  days  for  a  convoy,  j)roceeded  to  the  river 
Thames,  where  we  safely  cast  anchor  on  the  20th  of  No- 
vember, 1796,  and  cam(»  to  a  mooring  in  the  tier  off 
( 'hurch-hole,  llotherhithe.  Wo  delivered  our  carao, 
and  had  been  some  days  taking  in  a  fiesh  one,  Caj)tain 
Field  not  thinking  of  staying  longer  in  J'2ngland  than  ab- 
solutely necessary  for  taking  in  an  outward  bountl  cai-go  ; 
and  the  many  acts  of  IViondshi])  1  had  exjierienccd  from 
this  gentleman,  delerniiiied  me  i%  accompany  him  in 
any  voyage  he  might  undertake;  particularly  as  he  had 
often  inl'ormed  me  if  I  continued  with  him  a  voyage  or 
two  more,  he  would  resign  the  command  of  the  vessel  to 
me;  it  Ijeing  his  inlentlon  to  retire  from  the  sea  service 
in  a  slioit  time,     lie  told  n)e  he  had  an  idea  of  making  a 

tradiuii 


184  BOUNDS     AN     IMTIUIDI-.U. 

trading  voyage  up  the  Mediterranean,  and  commissioned 
me  to  purchase  some  maps,  charts,  Sec.  necessary  for  such 
an  undertaking,  which  I  in  consequence  bought  (at 
Faden's,  who  tljen  resided  at  the  corner  of  St.  Martin's 
Lane,  Strand,)  by  his  direction. 

Being  short  of  men  to  work  the  ship,  the  Captain  had 
engaged  two  fresh  hands,  who  came  on  board  the  after- 
noon of  the  samo   day,  myself  being  the  only  officer  on 
board  ;   I  took  the  description  of  their  persons,  and  entered 
their  names  on  the   ship's  books,  being  employed  at  the 
same  time  in  seltlins^-  my  accounts  in  the  cabin,  and  loose 
cash,    with   some   bank-notes    lying  on   the  desk.     After 
giving  them  orders  to  assist  in  swabbing   the  decks  the 
first  thing  in  the  morning,  I  dismissed  them.     Soon  after 
twelve  o'clock  at  night,  I  was  awakened  by  a  violent  noise 
at  the  \ippcr  cabin  door,  with  a  crash,  as  if  some  part  of  it 
had  given  way.     Alarmed  at  the   moment,  I  searched  for 
a     tinder-box,    to    strike    a   light  ;    hut    through     hurry, 
could  not    lay  my  hand  on    it,  as    almost    at    the  same 
instant   I    catched    hold    of  a    brace     of    pistols,    which 
hung  on   the   side  of  the   cabin   tire-place ;  these  to  my 
great  surprize  1  found  unloaded.     A  second   attempt  of  a 
more  violent  nature  than  the  iirst,  being  made  at  the  inner 
<loor,  1  recollected  a  sword  which  hung  over  the  captain's 
birth,  which  suddenly   I   took  down  :  at  the   instant  the 
cabin    door    had  given  way,  by  a  wrench  from  an  iron 
ci'ow,  or  some  such  ijistrument,  1   knowing  the" situation 
of  the  door,  with   the  sword  in  my  haml  made  towards  it, 
and  immediately  made  a  thrust  that  I  knew  must  wound 
deep,  from  the  difficulty    I    found  in   drawing  it  back:   I 
heard  neither  groan,   or  noise ;    but  found  the   intruder, 
wlioover  he  was,  retired.      I   now  sought   the  tinder-box, 
and  struck  a  light,  secured  the  door,  and   sat  up  the   re- 
ujainderof  the  niirht.     The  fust  thinir  in  the  mornini>- the 
men  observed  a  cpiantily  of  blood  on  the  deck,  in  a  track 

from 


iMPHF.SSEn.  185 

from  the  cabin  dour,  whicli  lliey  noticed    us   being   broke, 
and  asked  me  if  any  thing   particular  had    hajjpened  ;  to 
which  I  made  no  reply;  but  on  finding  Mac  Gregory,  one 
of  the  new  engaged  hands,  to   be   absent,  1  inquired  alter 
him,  and  was  informed  he   was  unwell  from  an  accident 
he  had  met  with  the  night  before  in  getting  into  his  birth. 
I  made  no  other   inquiries;  but  waited   until   the  captain 
should  come  on  board,  which  he  did  about  eleven  o'clock 
the  same   morning;  and  on  entering  the  cabin,  noticed 
the  shattered  condition  of  the  door.     When    I   informed 
him   of  the    particulars,    adding,   the    man   I  suspected, 
Mac  Gregory,  still  remained   in  the  ship,   the  captain  in- 
stantly ordered  him  to  be  brought  forward,  when  his  thigh 
was  discovered  to  be  dreadfully  swelled,  and  the  marks  of 
the  wound  shewed  a  sword  or  some  such  weapon  to  have 
passed  through  his  thigh,      lie  could   make  no  defence  to 
my  accusation  of  his  attempt  to  rob  the  cabin,  and  break- 
ing the  door.     Captain  Field  finding  his  wound  danger- 
ous, sent  him  to  St.  Thomas's  hospital,  where  he  escajied 
jyrosecution,  by  the  ship's  sailing  before  he  could  obtain 
a  cure. 

A  few  days  after  this  atiair,  the  mate  John  Jones  (a  na- 
tive of  New-Providence)  and  myself,  agreed  on  a  little 
excursion  on  shore,  previous  to  our  leaving  England,  to 
which  purpose  we  put  on  a  plain  seaman's  dress,  knowing 
the  prejudice  of  most  of  the  lower  people  about  Wapping, 
against  officers  of  any  description,  whom  in  general  they 
consider  as  little  better  than  spies  on  their  actions.  But 
while  about  to  land  at  St.  Catharij|e's,  we  were  attacke  I 
by  a  press-gang,  wiiom  we  resolutely  opj)osed  ;  I  in  my 
defence  taking  up  one  of  tiie  skullers  of  the  boat,  with 
which  I  struck  one  or  two  who  attempted  to  secure  me.  In 
this  contest  I  received  a  wound  on  my  head  by  a  cutlass, 
a  large  seam  from  which  remains  to  the  present  hour. 
After  a  lonj;  str(]f;s;le,  durin^r  which  I  was   tumbled  out  of 

Vol.   II.  B  B  the 


18G  DISCHARGED    FKOM    THE    TENDER. 

the  bout  up  to  my  arui-pits  in  water,  the  mate  and  liiy- 
self  were  both  secured  ;  fortunately  lor  him,  he  had  his 
warrant  as  an  American  officer  about  him,  which  procured 
his  discharge,  when  taken  on  board  the  tender.  On  my 
examination  taking  place,  not  prepared  for  such  an  event, 
I  had  inadvertently  left  my  protection  as  an  American  on 
board  the  Ai'iel,  behind  me.  This  circumstance,  with  the 
treachery  of  Jones,  who  informed  the  regulating  cap- 
tain I  was  an  Englishman,  thereby  thinking  to  get  rid  of 
a  dangerous  rival,  (he  being  particularly  attached  to  the 
niece  of  Captain  Field,  but  had  lost  all  hope  of  success 
with  her,  by  her  known  partiality  for  me)  and  moreover 
stated  I  was  the  best  seaman  on  board  their  vessel.  This 
declaration,  joined  with  the  want  of  the  certificate  1  had 
left  in  the  Ariel,  occasioned  njy  detention  on  board  the 
tender  for  three  days  and  nights.  In  this  situation  my 
indignation  at  the  treachery  of  Jones,  agitated  me  beyond 
any  thing  I  had  hitherto  suifered  ;  and  I  thought  on  va- 
rious schemes,  but  without  putting  any  in  practice,  to 
effect  my  deliverance.  At  length,  there  being  a  sufficient 
number  of  impresed  men  collected  to  clear  the  tender 
for  the  reception,  of  others,  myself,  with  the  rest  of 
the  men  confined  were  brought  upon  deck,  in  order 
to  be  sent  to  difierent  ships.  Finding  I  had  nothing 
to  prevent  this,  but  a  disclosure  of  what  I  had  so  long 
kept  witiiin  niy  own  breast,  1  accosted  the  inspecting 
officers,  and  told  ihem  I  was  unfit  to  sei've  his  INkijesty  in 
the  way  of  njy  fellow-sufiei'ers,  being  a  female.  On  this 
assertion  they  both  appeared  greatly  surprised  ;  and  at 
first  thought  I  had  fabricated  a  stoi'y  to  be  discharged, 
and  sent  me  to  the  surgeon,  whom  I  soon  convinced  of 
the  truth  of  my  assertion.  The  officers  upbraided  each 
other  with  ignorance  at  not  discovering  before  my  being 
a  woman,  and  readily  gave  me  a  discharge. 

Resolved  never  to  go  on  board  IJ!..'  Ariel,  after  'he  dis- 
closure 


APPLIES    TO    THK    NAVY     PAY    OFFICE.  187 

closure  of  my  sex,  1  wrote  to  Captain  Field,  without  men- 
tioning the  way  in  whicii  1  obtained  a  discharge  from  the 
tender,  only  requesting  he  would  meet  me  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible at  a  house  the  corner  of  Tower  Street,  Tower  Hill  ; 
he  being  on  board  at  the  time,  my  letter  had  not  been  dis- 
patched long,  before  he  gave  me  the  meeting,  and  was 
astonished,  at  my  disclosing  tu  him  the  manner  in  whicli 
I  obtained  my  liberty.  It  was  some  time  before  I  could 
convince  him  I  was  really  a  woman  ;  having  for  such  a 
length  of  time  known  me  experience  hardships  so  oppo- 
site the  delicacy  of  the  fenjale  sex.  He  endeavoured  to 
prevail  on  me  to  accompany  him  in  his  intended  voyage, 
but  no  argument  could  induce  me  (after  acknowledging 
former  favours  received)  to  accompany  him,  nor  indeed  for 
the  present  to  think  of  the  sea-service,  in  any  way  what- 
ever. Finding  his  applications  fruitless,  he  honourably 
paid  me  every  shilling  due  on  our  engagement,  and  be- 
side made  me  a  very  handsome  present.  After  this  in- 
terview I  saw  him  but  twice,  nothing  material  passing 
between  us,  except  his  earnest  desire  of  my  disguising  my 
sex,  and  resuming  my  former  situation,  which  he  could 
never  prevail  on  me  to  accede  to. 

With  money  in  my  pocket,  I  was  undetermined  how  to 
act,  but  for  the  present  took  a  lodging  in  East-Smithheld, 
and  during  my  residence  here,  made  several  applications 
at  the  Navy-pay-office,  Somerset  House,  for  money  due 
to  me,  for  service  on  boai'd  the  JJrunswick,  and  the  Vesu- 
vius bomb,  from  which  1  was  taken  by  the  French,  exclu- 
sive of  prize-money  I  was  entifledAto,  by  captures  on  the 
first  of  June;  at  length  I  was  dii'ected  to  apply  respect- 
ing the  prize-money  to  the  Agent,  No.  4,  Arundell-street, 
Strand,  where  I  immediately  went,  and  was  desired  to 
call  another  time  ;  being  vexed  at  tlie  disappointment,  I 
returned  to  Somerset  House  ;  where,  through  many  dis- 
appointments, I  made  u>e  of  language  which  gave  offence 

B  n  2  to 


188  KXAMINl'l)    AT    BOW-STKEET. 

to  some  of  the  gentlemen,  and  was  immediately  conveyed 
to  Bow-street,  on    the  31st  of    December,  179G.     Here 
I   underwent  a  lon^  examination,  which  lasted  till   near 
twelve   o'clock,    before    the    sitting    magistrate,  now  Sir 
Ilicliard  Ford,  to  whom  I  produced  my  discharge  from 
the  tender,  and  other  documents  to  prove  the    sutierings 
and  hardships   I   had  undergone,  so  much  to  his  satisfac- 
tion, tiiat  I  obtained   a  discharge,  and  was   requested  to 
attend    the    Monday    following  at    two  o'clock,  which   I 
did,  and  found  there  several  magistrates  assembled,  where 
I  underwent  a  long  j)rivate  examination,  the  consequence 
was,  a   subscription   was  immediately  made,   and   by  the 
recommendation  of  some  gentlemen  present.  I  was  placed 
in  a  lodging  at  the  house  of  Mrs.  Jones,  Falcon   Court, 
Shoe  Lane,  with  a  strict   injunction,  if  possible,  to  break 
me  of  the  masculine  habit  I  was  so  much  used  to,     I  re- 
ceived twelve  shillings  a  week  for  a  support  till    I    could 
get  the  money  due   to  me  from  Government.     Tlie  above 
sum  was  regularly  paid  me  from   the  above  subscription, 
by  a  Mr.  Pritcliard  of  New-Inn,  who  was  present  at  my 
last  examination,  and  to  whom  Mrs.  Jones  was  laundress- 
1  had  not  yet  changed  my  seaman's  attire;  but  during 
the   stay  I  made   with    Mrs.  Jones,  I  resumed  the   dress 
of  my  own  sex,  though  at  times  I  could  not  so  far  forget 
my  seafaring  habits,  but  frequently   dressed   myself,  and 
took  excursions  as  a  sailor.     In  less  than  a  month,  I  re- 
ceived the  greater  part  of  the   money  due  to  me  fpom  the 
Navy-pay-office,  which    I  cheerfully  participated  in    the 
family  of  Mrs.  Jones;  who,   notwithstanding,  treated  me 
in  an  ungrateful   manner,  misrepresenting  me  to  the  gen- 
tlemen who  had  raised   the  subscription,  as  a  person  on 
whom  their  bounty   was  mis[)laced,  and  being  inclined  to 
uiascuUne  propensities,  more  than  what  became  a  female ; 
such  as  smoking,  drinking  grog,  (fcc.  though  I   never  took 
any   of  the  latter,  but  she   was   always  invited  to  a  part, 

and 


PETITIONS    THE    DUKE    OF    YORK.  199 

and  of  which  I  never  found  her  backward  in  taking  a  good 
allowance.  Whenever  I  dressed  myself  as  a  sailor,  I 
sought  the  company  of  some  messmates  I  had  known  on 
board  the  Brunswick,  and  as  long  as  my  money  lasted, 
spent  it  in  company  with  the  brave  fellows  at  the  Coach 
and  Horses,  opposite  Somerset  House,  a  place  where  they 
mostly  frequented. 

I  removed  from  Mrs.  Jones's  to  Chichester  Rents, 
Chancery  Lane,  and  lodged  with  a  very  decent  woman, 
named  Higgins,  where  the  grape-shot  which  had  re- 
mained in  my  leg  from  the  time  of  our  engagement  in  the 
Brunswick,  June  1794,  worked  itself  out  in  Feb.  1797 — 
the  reason,  I  imagine  proceeded  from  the  wounds  break- 
ing out  afresh,  in  consequence  of  my  too  free  use  of  spi- 
rituous liquors,  since  my  residence  on  shore.  I  kept  the 
ball  by  me  for  sometime,  to  which  there  adhered  a  quan- 
tity of  flesh ;  but  was  obliged  at  last  to  throw  it  in  the 
fire,  from  the  offensive  smell  of  the  flesh,  which  soon  putri- 
fied  ;  my  leg,  notwithstanding  the  ball  was  out,  continued 
so  bad,  that  I  applied  for  admission  to  St.  Bartholomew's 
hospital,  and  went  in  as  a  female,  though  I  frequently 
wore,  while  under  cure,  my  sailor's  dress,  and  in  conse- 
quence was  taken  as  a  man  in  the  woman's  ward,  by 
strangers.  I  remained  in  Watt's  ward,  under  surgeon 
Blake,  four  months,  and  during  the  time  had  several  pieces 
of  shattered  bone  taken  from  my  leg ;  and  at  length  it 
being  to  all  appearance  well,  I  was  accordingly  dis- 
charged. The  cure,  however,  did  not  prove  of  any 
long  duration,  the  bone  being  very  much  injured,  and  my 
blood  continuing  in  a  bad  state,  it  soon  broke  out  again. 
In  this  situation,  without  any  place  of  refuge,  or  means 
of  subsistence,  I  was  advised  to  petition  his  Royal  Hio-h- 
ness  the  Duke  of  York  for  relief;  and  accordingly  ap- 
plied to  a  gentleman,  who  drew  up  a  petition,  stating  the 
various  hardships  I  had  undergone  by  sea  and   land,  and 

go 


190  EMPLOYED  BY  A  JEWELLER. 

got  it  signed  by  her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  Devonshire, 
and  Sir  William  Pulteney;  I  left  it  at  the  Horse  Guards 
with  Captain  Nowell,  secretary  to  his  Royal  Highness. 
In  less  than  a  fortnight,  I  called  at  the  Horse  Guards, 
and  received  from  Captain  Nowell  five  guineas,  with  my 
petition  signed  by  his  Royal  Highness,  as  well  as  her 
Royal  Highness  the  Duchess  of  York,  and  directions, 
when  I  called,  that  I  should  present  it  to  her  Majesty.  I 
afterwards  got  it  signed  by  Sir  James  Pulteney  ;  and 
through  Mr.  Dundas,  meant  to  have  presented  it  to  her 
Majesty ;  I  taking  the  opportunity  of  a  court  day  to  give  it 
to  him  for  that  purpose,  as  he  was  passing  to  the  royal 
apartments ;  he  remarking  it  was  not  intended  for  him,  I 
told  him  no — but  I  wished  him  to  present  it  to  her  Majesty 
from  myself,  and  accordingly  left  it  with  him. 

Not  hearing  any  thing  in  consequence  of  my  petition, 
and  the  money  I  had  received  from  his  Royal  Highness 
the  Duke  of  York,  being  expended,  I,  for  my  present 
support,  thought  if  I  could  obtain  a  machine  similar  to 
the  one  I  observed  the  German  use  in  the  prison  of  St. 
Clair,  with  which  he  manufactured  the  gold  wire,  I  might 
obtain  a  comfortable  subsistence  ;  and  for  that  purpose 
I  called  on  Mr,  Loyer,  a  jeweller  in  Denmark-street,  St. 
Giles's,  in  order,  if  possible,  to  get  a  machine  from  my  de- 
scription, made.  Mr.  Loyer,  from  my  instructions,  soon 
produced  an  instrument  that  every  way  answered  the  pur- 
pose ;  and  having  informed  him  of  the  purpose  to  which 
it  was  intended,  he  informed  me,  if  I  would  manufacture 
it  in  his  house,  he  had  no  doubt  he  could  from  his  con- 
nection, dispose  of  enough  to  keep  me  constantly  em- 
ployed. I  made  no  objection  to  his  proposal,  and  worked 
gold  wire  in  various  shapes,  so  much  to  his  satisfac- 
tion, that  I  continued  in  his  employ  some  time,  Mr. 
Loyer  keeping  a  number  of  persons  employed,  myself, 
as  well   as  others,  worked    together;  among  whom  was 

a 


Jl 


Admission  to  st,  George's  hospital.         191 

a  German,  named  Hieronimo,  who,  observing  the  manner 
in  which  I  worked,  afterwards  practised  it  as  part  of  his 
profession,  and  worked  on  the  same,  during  the  time  I 
continued  in  Mr.  Loyer's  employ.  Finding  the  money 
received  not  adequate  to  support  me  in  a  proper  manner, 
my  wounded  leg  getting  so  bad  as  to  put  me  to  consider- 
able inconvenience,  I  applied  to  Mr.  Loyer  for  an  ad- 
vancement of  price,  which,  he  objecting  to,  knowing  he 
had  Hieronimo  to  work  it  if  I  left  him,  we  parted  ; 
before  which,  being  jealous  I  should  learn  every  thing  in 
the  jewellery  business,  having  been  able  to  work  in  more 
branches  than  the  one  he  engaged  me  for,  he  removed  me 
for  some  time  previous  to  my  quitting  him,  to  a  separate 
apartment  from  the  shop,  where  I  worked  by  myself. 

On  my  quitting  Mr.  Loyer's,  my  leg  getting  worse,  I 
gained  admission  to  St.  George's  hospital,  and  experi- 
enced a  tedious  confinement  of  seven  months.  Being 
carefully  attended  by  surgeons  Keate  and  Grifiiths ;  and 
while  thus  situated,  was  enabled  to  enjoy  many  comforts 
which  this  charitable  institution  does  not  supply,  from  the 
benevolent  attention  of  Mrs.  Emma  Raynes,  a  lady  to 
whom  I  shall  ever  confess  an  obligation ;  as,  immedi- 
ately on  my  obtaining  a  discharge  from  the  hospital,  she 
provided  me  with  a  decent  lodging  in  Tottenham  Court 
Road,  and  supported  me  for  a  considerable  time  at  her 
own  expence,  though  I  had  no  other  claim  to  her  pro- 
tection than  my  necessitous  condition  prompted  her  at- 
tention to.  Previous  to  my  finding  a  friend  in  this  lady, 
it  was  judged  by  several  in  the  hospital,  from  the  low 
state  I  was  reduced  to,  (my  bones  coming  almost  through 
the  skin)  I  should  not  get  over  the  illness  under  which  I 
laboured,  from  the  pain  of  my  wounded  limb,  and  I  pro- 
cured some  little  necessaries  from  a  subscription  made  by 
the  young  gentlemen,  pupils,   who  attend   the  hospital  ; 

one 


192      RELIEVED  BY  THE  DUKE  OF  NORFOLK. 

one  of  whom,  named  Saife,  (I  imagine)  in  joke,  offered 
me  half  a  crown  a  week  while  I  lived,  to  have  my  body 
when  dead  :  however  he  might  mean  it,  I  knew  not,  but 
it  produced  such  an  aversion  to  physic  in  me,  that  while 
I  remained  under  cure,  I  would  take  no  more  medicine, 
fearing  it  would  hasten  my  death  ;  and  I  remarked,  my 
wound  healed  faster  than  before.  Weary  of  the  hospital, 
I  solicited  a  discharge,  though  my  leg  was  by  no  means 
well ;  and  through  the  kindness  of  Mrs.  Raynes,  had 
every  necessary  provided  for  my  use.  Unwilling  to  re- 
main a  burthen  on  the  generosity  of  this  lady,  longer  than 
I  could  possibly  help  myself,  I  came  to  a  resolution  of 
making  my  sufferings  known  to  some  persons  of  distinc- 
tion, (having  heard  nothing  relative  to  the  petition  I  had 
left  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Dundas,  to  be  presented  to  her 
Majesty.)  I  wrote  immediately  to  his  grace  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  whose  humane  and  charitable  disposition  is  too 
well  known,  for  me  to  enlarge  on.  The  result  of  my 
application  was  successful,  as  I  received  a  very  handsome 
present  from  his  grace,  to  whom  I  was  introduced,  after 
waiting  some  time  in  the  library. 

This  seasonable  relief  was  to  me  of  the  greatest  service, 
though  in  part  it  placed  me  under  a  very  embarrassing  cir- 
cumstance. Fearing  my  little  fund  would  be  exhausted 
before  I  could  get  another  supply,  I  endeavoured,  as  far  as 
my  circumstances  would  admit,  to  make  as  decent  an  ap- 
pearance as  possible,  that  I  might  more  readily  appear  be- 
fore the  illustrious  personages  who  had  recommended  the 
presentation  of  ray  petition  to  her  Majesty,  and  to  ob- 
tain, if  possible,  a  knowledge,  whether  it  had  been  pre- 
sented by  Mr.  Dundas,  or  not.  At  this  time  I  had  re- 
moved from  the  lodging  provided  me  by  Mrs.  Raynes  to 
another  near  Rathbone  Place  ;  and  having  at  times,  pre- 
vious to  my  arrival,  wore  a  little  powder  in  my  hair,  when- 
ever 


INFORMED    AGAINST    FOR    WEARING    POWDER.  193 

ever  I  had  occasion  to  call  at  the  houses  of  Noble  per- 
sons, to  whom  I  had  made  ray  case  known,  I  was  inform- 
ed  against  as  an  unqualified  person  having  no  license, 
through  the  malice  of  my  last  landlady's  sister,  and  re- 
received  a  summons  to  attend  the  Commissioners  of  the 
Stamp  Office,  from  the  solicitor   Mr.    Escourt,  in  Feb. 
1799, —to    answer    the    accusation;    under    this    situa- 
tion, without  money  or  a  fiiend  to  come  forward  on  my 
behalf,  I  attended  on   the  day  mentioned  in  the  notice 
I  had  received,  and  set  up  in  my  defence  to  the  accusa- 
tion, that  I  had  never  worn  powder  as  an  article  of  di'ess 
though  I  had  frequently  made  use  of  it  in  defence  of  my 
King  and  Country  ;  this   assertion  from  a  female  excited 
the  curiosity  of  the  Commissioners ;  who  questioned  me, 
under  what  circumstance,  I  could  make  use  of  powder 
in  the  way  understood  from  my  speech,  when  I  related 
the  several  incidents  of  my  life,  in  the  land,  as  well  as 
sea  service,  likewise  my  examination  at  Bow  Street,  after 
applying  for  my  pay  at  the  Navy  Office.     On  concluding 
my  defence,  and    remarking  the  distress  of  my  present 
situation,  the  Commissioners,  and  other  gentlemen  pre- 
sent, made    a    handsome    collection,    and  presented  me 
with  it,  to  the  extreme  mortification  of  the  informer,  who 
rather  expected    a  share  of  the  penalty  she  supposed  I 
should  be  under  the  necessity  of  paying,  than  that  her 
spite  against  me  should  turn  out  so  much  to  my  advan- 
tage;  on  the  contrary,  my  late  landlady  her  sister,  ex- 
pressed   herself  greatly    pleased    with  the  fortunate  turn 
in  my  favour;  and  her  sincerity  I  did   not  doubt,  from 
the  many  little  kindnesses  I  had  before  experienced  from 
her.     Mr.  Escourt,  the   gentleman  from  whom  I  received 
the  notice   to   atteud   on  the   Commissioners,  gave   me   a 
letter  to  Evan  Nepean,  Ejq.ofthe  Admiralty,  on  what 
subject  I  knew  not,  but  rather  suppose  to  be  in   relation 
to  myself;  which  though  I  delivered  at  tlie   Admiralty 
Vol.  II.  c    c  Office, 


194  WENT   TO    0ATLAND9. 

Office,  I  never  heard  anything  of  after.  To  avoid  as 
much  as  possible  future  disagreeables,  and  to  obtain  a 
sum  which  might  enable  me  to  establish  myself  in  a  little 
comfort,  I  thought  on  the  petition  I  had  long  since  left 
in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Dundas ;  and  as  it  was  originally 
recommended  to  be  presented  to  her  Majesty,  by  the 
message  I  had  received  from  his  E,oyal  Highness  the 
Duke  of  York,  I  resolved  to  wait  on  his  Highness  at 
Oatlands,  to  inform  him  I  had  never  received  an  answer 
to  his  royal  recommendation  ;  on  my  arrival  at  Oatlands, 
I  sent  in  my  name  and  business,  by  one  of  the  attendants 
on  his  Royal  Highness — and  received  in  answer  a  gui- 
nea, and  a  message  that  his  Royal  Highness  would  make 
an  immediate  enquiry  concerning  where  the  petition 
lay ;  and  as  I  had  left  a  direction  where  I  lodged  in 
town,  a  few  days  after  I  received  a  quantity  of  female 
apparel  from  Oatlands — sent  as  I  imagine  by  order  of 
her  Royal  Highness  the  Duchess  of  York. 

It  will  naturally  strike  many  of  my  readers,  the  long 
silence  I  have  kept  with  regard  to  Mr.  Shuker,  particu- 
larly as  he  was  the  only  person,  who  could  have  inform- 
ed me  of  many  circumstances  relative  to  my  family,  and 
interests ;  I  need  not  offer  as  an  excuse  for  my  negligence 
in  this  particular,  "  that  I  had  been  so  much  occupied 
by  a  variety  of  circumstances,  each  following  the  other, 
with  a  rapidity,  as  wholly  to  prevent,  had  it  been  my 
intention,  an  earlier  seeking  his  explanation."  I  had 
in  a  great  measure  been  prevented  applying  to  Mr.  Shu- 
ker before,  in  consequence  of  Messrs.  Winter  and  Hay, 
of  Long  Acre,  through  the  recommendation  of  Justice 
Bond,  having  taken  the  trouble  of  writing  to  Mr.  Wilson 
of  Trevallyn,  several  times,  for  the  particulars  rela- 
tive to  my  birth  and  expectations  ,•  but  as  he  never 
obtained  an  answer  to  either  of  the  letters  sent,  I 
thought  it  best  to  apply  to  Mr.  Shuker  in  person.  Du- 
ring the  doubt    I    remained    under    with  respect  to  the 

succes 


VISITS    MR.    SHUKER.  195 

success  of  my  petition,   I  determined  to  pay  this  gentle- 
man a  visit,  and    went    to    Shrewsbury,    by   the    Mail  5 
and  put  up  at  the  Talbot,  kept  at  that  time  by  Mr.  Purs- 
low,  1  then  proceeded  to  Newport,  Mr.  Shuker's  residence, 
in  a  return  post  chaise;  but  finding  a  difficulty  of  being  in- 
troduced to  him  as  a  female,  not  ch using  to  send  in  my 
name,  but  that  a  lady  wished  to  speak  with  him,  which 
not  succeeding   to  my  expectation,   I  returned  to  Shrews- 
bury, and  procured  an   Ensign's  uniform  of  a  person  in 
Dog  Lane,  who  dealt  in  clothes  from  London  ;  not  wish- 
ing  to    change   my    dress    at    Mr.    Purslow's,  where    I 
was  known,   I   went  to  the  Raven   Inn,  in  Raven  Street, 
where  I  changed  my  female  attire,  for  the    one  I  had 
procured  the  loan  of — in  which    dress    I  walked  to  the 
Elephant  and  Castle,  in    Mardol,    and    hiring    a  horse, 
rode  back  to  Newport.     When  I  called  at  Mr.  Shuker's 
house,  I  sent  a  message  in  by  a  servant,  that  a  gentle- 
man wished  to  speak  with    Mr.    Shuker,  and  in  return 
received  an  answer  to  send  in  my  name  and  business ; 
to  which  I  replied,  I  waited  on  him    knowing  Captain 
Bowen  of  the  82d  regiment,    and  had  something  parti- 
cular to  communicate  ;  on  which  I  was  immediately  intro- 
duced to   him,  and  though  labouring    under   considera- 
ble agitation,  I  asked  him  if  he  knew  a  Miss  Talbot,  or 
could    inform    me    what  had   become    of  her :    he  said 
he  had  known  her  well,  but   that  she  had  died  abroad 
in  the  year  1793,  of  which  he  was  well  informed  by  let- 
ters in  his  possession,    I    told    him  I  doubted  tiie  fact, 
and    wished    to   see    the    letters    mentioned,    which    he 
evaded  ;     I  then     asked    him   if    she     had     any     par- 
ticular mark,  or  that  he  should  know  her  well  enough 
to  swear  to  her  person,  if  he  was  to  see  her ;  he  replied 
he  could   identify  her  among  a   thousand,   that   she  was 
a  twin,  and  had  a  deficiency  on  the  left  side  of  her  fore- 
head ;    I  immediately  put  my  hair  aside,  and  pointed   my 

c  c  2  finger 


196  MR.  shuker's  sudden  death. 

finger  to  the  part  of  my  forehead  he  had  described, 
and  briskly  drawing  my  sword,  declared  he  was  my 
prisoner,  and  should  account  to  me  for  the  defici- 
ency of  what  I  supposed  he  had  defrauded  me.  I 
informed  him  that  I  was  Miss  Talbot,  and  had  visited 
him,  for  the  express  purpose  of  obtaining  the  property 
he  had  certainly  deprived  me  of,  knowing,  that  when  I 
was  intrusted  to  his  care,  he  had  a  sufficient  indemnifi- 
cation for  what  trouble  or  expence  he  might  be  put  to, 
and  had  no  doubt  something  considerable  in  trust  for 
my  use ;  he  appeared  surprised  and  confounded,  and 
uttering  he  was  a  ruined  man  repeatedly,  he  trem- 
bled much,  and  abruptly  quilted  the  room  ;  I  was 
myself  greatly  agitated,  but  conceiving  myself  so 
much  injured,  I  immediately  went  to  Shrewsbury  in 
order  to  take  a  lawyer's  advice  how  1  should  proceed, 
and  applied  to  a  Mr.  Locksdale,  who  unfortunately  was 
from  home;  getting  no  satisfactory  intelligence,  I  return- 
ed to  Newport  with  a  determination,  if  possible,  to  get 
from  Mr.  Shuker,  an  information  of  my  family,  connec- 
tions, and  expectations.  When  I  arrived  at  Newport,  I 
learnt  to  my  great  disappointment,  that  Mr.  Shuker  had 
suddenly  retired  from  his  house,  and  in  less  than  three 
days  from  the  time,  was  found  dead  in  his  bed  at  a 
place  called  Longford,  near  Newport,  without  any  pre- 
vious appearance  of  illness.  Thus  frustrated  in  gaining 
the  intelligence  I  so  much  needed,  1  left  the  place  in 
great  distress  of  mind,  with  a  scanty  pittance  in  my 
pocket,  which  wholly  prevented  my  proceeding  to  Mr. 
Wilson's,  at  Trevallyn,  which  I  otherwise  should  have 
done,  though  his  wilful  neglect  in  answering  the  letters 
sent  by  Messrs.  Winter  and  Hay,  left  me  in  great 
doubt  as  to  the  reception  he  might  have  given  me. 
I  now  took  the  road  to  London,  where  I  soon  ar- 
rived, without  any  other  prospect  than  the  uncertain 
hope  of  a  better  success  with  my  petition,  and  thinking 

some 


IMPOSTOR    DETECTED.  197 

some  money  was  still  due  to  me  for  pay,  I  applied  to 
Lord  Spencer,  then  first  Lord  of  the  Admiralty,  and  saw 
his  Lordship,  who  presented  me  with  a  guinea,  and  it 
being  in  the  morning,  ordered  me  some  refreshment ; 
when  I  had  an  excellent  breakfast  prepared  in  an  adjoin- 
ing room. 

My  existence  chiefly  depended  now,  on  the  liberality  of 
many  Noble  and  generous  persons,  to  whom  I  was  neces- 
sitated to  make  my  case  known,  and  the  frequent  walks 
I  was  obliged  to  take  in  the  course  of  the  days  I  was  so 
employed,  caused  the  wounds  of  my  leg  to  break  out 
again,  as  wholly  to  deprive  me  of  walking,  many 
pieces  of  the  shattered  bone  occasionally  coming  out  of 
my  leg ;  to  remedy  this,  1  got  admitted  into  Middlesex 
hospital,  and  about  a  fortnight  after  my  admission,  I 
received  a  message  from  Justice  Bond,  to  attend,  if  pos- 
sible at  Bow  Street,  to  confront  a  female,  who,  in  the 
dress  of  a  Light  Horseman  had  taken  the  name  of  John 
Taylor,  and  represented  herself  in  a  way  to  be  mistaken 
for  me.  I  accompanied  the  person  who  brought  me  the 
letter  to  Bow  Street,  and  saw  a  fine  looking  woman 
about  five  feet  ten  inches  high,  whom  Mr.  Bond  desired 
me  to  question  as  to  the  situation  she  had  occupied  on 
board  the  Brunswick,  where  she  reported  herself  to  have 
been  wounded ;  a  very  few  questions  brought  her  to  a 
confession,  that  she  was  not  the  person  she  had  pretended, 
and  not  giving  a  satisfactory  account  of  herself,  was  com- 
mitted to  the  House  of  Correction  for  three  months, 
as  a  vagrant.  William  Richards,  my  fellow-prisoner 
in  France,  chancing  to  pass  in  Bow  Street,  I  called  to 
him  from  the  coach,  and  he  went  with  me  into  the  Office 
and  offered  to  make  oath  as  to  my  identity  ;  but  Mr. 
Bond  informed  him  he  was  sufl&ciently  satisfied  who  was 
the  impostor.  Several  persons  in  the  Office  told  me  this 
woman   had  been  imposing  on  the  public  in  my  name 

for 


198  TRIAL    AT    CLERKENWELL. 

for  some  time  past,  and  congratulated  me  on  her  detec- 
tion. 

On  my  return  from  Bow  Street,  while  getting  out  of 
the  coach  at  the  door  of  my  lodging,  where  I  called  pre- 
vious to  my  return  to  the  hospital,  I  was  followed  into  the 
passage  by  a  hair-dresser,  named  Spraggs,  of  Cleveland 
Street,  who  mistaking  me  for  a  lodger  in  the  same 
house,  with  whom  he  had  a  dispute,  respecting  a  wig  she 
had  of  him,  struck  me  a  violent  blow,  which  brought  me 
to  the  ground,  and  cut  my  head  in  a  shocking  manner, 
and  materially  hurt  my  wounded  leg  by  kicking  me  in 
the  passage  ;  I  afterwards  learnt  the  cause  of  his  vio- 
lence was.  That  he  had  sold  a  wig  to  a  lady,  and  that 
she  was  prevented  paying  him,  by  the  assertion  of  another 
hair-dresser,  that  the  wig  was  not  his  property  to  sell, 
but  belonged  to  him,  a  Mr.  Kennedy.  Mr.  Spraggs  in 
consequence,  when  he  applied  for  payment,  learnt  the 
particulars ;  and  not  getting  the  money  he  expected, 
brought  an  action  in  the  Marshalsea  Court,  but  was  non- 
suited by  not  attending  to  prove  the  wig  his  property. 
Thus  disappointed,  he  took  the  above  method  of  revenge, 
and  in  rage  mistook  the  person ;  my  friends  advised  me 
to  get  a  warrant  for  the  assault,  and  I  immediately  re- 
turned to  Bow  Street,  where  a  warrant  was  granted  me. 
Spraggs,  however,  kept  out  of  the  way  for  several  days, 
but  at  last  it  was  served  on  him,  and  he  was  obliged  to 
find  bail  for  his  appearance  at  the  Quarter  Sessions, 
Clerkenwell  Green ; — by  returning  to  Bow  Street,  on 
the  day  I  left  the  hospital,  I  could  not  return  there  that 
night,  and  was  obliged  to  wait  till  the  regular  day  of 
taking  in  patients,  before  I  could  regain  my  former  place 
in  the  hospital.  When  the  trial  came  on  at  Clerkenwell, 
I  was  still  in  the  hospital,  but  knowing  the  time  it  was 
to  come  on,  I  requested  leave  of  absence  from  Surgeon 
Miners,    which    I   obtained,  and  attended     three     days 

before 


HER    majesty's    BOUNTY.  199 

before  my  cause  came  on  ;  Mr.    Sylvester,  the  present 
Recorder  of  London  pleaded  my  cause,  without  taking 
the  least  gratuity  ;    on    the   contrary,  when  I  attended 
him  to  state  to  him  the  case,  he  made  me  a  handsome 
present.     Very  little   defence  was    attempted   in  behalf 
of  Spraggs,  who  was   found  guilty  of  the   assault,  and 
sentenced   to  pay  me  101.  for  the  injury   he  had  done. 
This   trial  over  I   returned  to  Middlesex  hospital,   and 
through  the    skill  and  attention  of   Surgeon  Miners,   I 
was  once  more  enabled  to  use  my  wounded  leg,  though 
by  no  means  given  to  understand  I  had  obtained  a  radi- 
cal cure.     Soon  after  quitting  the  hospital,  I  received  a 
notice  to  attend  at  the  War  Office,  where  I  received  a 
letter  directed  to  Lord  Morton,  at  Buckingham  House  ; 
struck  at  once  that  it  related  to  the  petition  I  had  left 
for  her  Majesty's  sight,  and  which  I  imagined  his  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  York  had  sought  after,  agreeable 
to  the  message  I  received  at  Oatlands,    I  went   to  Buck- 
ingham House,  and  saying  I  had  a  letter  from  the  War 
Office  for  Lord  Morton,  was  directly  introduced   to  his 
Lordship,  who,  on  reading  the   letter,   informed   me  it 
related    to  my  petition,  and   conducted    me    to   another 
apartment,  where  I  saw  a  lady  seated,  whose  hand  Lord 
Morton  desired  me  to  kiss;  after  which,  I  returned  with 
his  Lordship  to  the  apartment  I   was  first  introduced  to, 
and  received  five  guineas  from  his  Lordship's  hands,  on 
quitting  Buckingham  House. 

The  Lady  whose  hand  I  kissed,  did  not  ask  me  a  ques- 
tion, nor  speak  a  word :  I  imagined  it  might  be  her  Ma- 
jesty, though  Lord  Morton  had  not  mentioned  any 
thino;  concerning;  her  title  or  rank ;  but  I  was  soon  after 
confirmed  in  my  opinion  by  recognizing  in  the  sight  of 
her  Majesty  in  public,  the  lady  whose  hand  I  had  the 
honour  of  kissing  at  Buckingham  House.  Lord  Morton 
directed  me  to  apply  to  the  War-office,  where  I  was  in- 
formed 


200  FORTUNATE    PRESERVATION    OF    MY    LIMB. 

formed  I  must  attend  on  a  future  day,  in  my  sailor's 
dress,  to  receive  a  half-year's  payment  of  her  Majesty's 
bounty,  which  I  afterwards  did,  in  the  name  of  John 
Taylor,  though  my  name  on  the  War-office  book  stood 
Taylor,  John.     This  was  in  August,  1799. 

On  my  quitting  Middlesex  Hospital,  Surgeon  Miners 
informed  me,  my  leg  was  not  in  a  state  to  bear  much 
walking,  and  the  obligation  I  was  under  to  attend  in 
person,  on  many  occasions,  brought  on  the  complaint 
in  my  leg  as  bad  as  ever;  and  I  was  recommended  by 
John  Bond,  Esq.,  a  Magistrate,  of  Hendon,  in  Middle- 
sex, to  go  into  Middlesex  Hospital  a  second  time ; 
Surgeon  Miners  was  at  Mr.  Bond's  at  the  time  I  was 
thus  advised,  and  told  me  I  must  in  all  probability  have 
my  leg  amputated  :  with  this  impression  on  my  mind  I 
entered  the  hospital  a  second  time,  and  only  escaped 
from  thence  without  the  loss  of  a  limb,  by  a  singular 
though  in  the  first  part,  unfortunate  circumstance : — I 
had,  previous  to  going  into  the  hospital,  taken  under  my 
care  a  motherless  child  of  about  three  years  of  age, 
which  when  out  of  my  power  now  to  attend,  was  pro- 
tected by  two  young  ladies,  who  soon  after  having  an 
engagement  to  dine  on  board  the  Sophia,  a  West  India- 
man,  lying  oiF  Hermitage  Stairs,  unfortunately  took 
their  little  charge  on  the  party,  who,  not  being  suffi- 
ciently attended  to,  fell  overboard  and  was  drowned. 
The  intelligence  no  sooner  reached  me  at  the  hospital,  than 
frantic  at  the  loss  of  the  child,  although  my  leg  was  sur- 
rounded with  bandages  in  order  for  amputation,  I  the  next 
morning  by  seven  o'clock,  October  24,  1799,  quitted  the 
hospital,  after  taking  off  the  screw  bandage,  and 
walked  to  Hermitage  Stairs,  in  such  distraction  of  mind, 
that  I  felt  neither  pain  nor  impediment  in  my  leg  the 
whole  way.  But  on  my  arrival  where  the  ship  lay,  1 
could  gain    no    information  of  the  body,   and  though  I 

offered 


A    FALSE    PARAGRAPH.  209 

offered  every  thing  in  my  power  as  a  reward  to  find  it — 
but  without  effect,  as  the  child  was  never  after  seen  ; 
it  was  afterwards  suggested,  and  on  reasonable  grounds, 
that  the  child  was  not  drowned,  but  carried  to  the  West 
Indies  ;  as  a  black  boy  on  board,  as  well  as  he  could  be 
understood,  gave  me  to  understand  the  child  was  not 
drowned,  but  carried  away.  His  name  was  George  La- 
Gon  Grifiin,  and  heir  to  a  considerable  estate  in  Shrop- 
shire ;  as  I  was  informed  by  his  father,  Mr.  George 
Griffin,  a  Carver  and  Gilder,  burnt  out  in  February, 
1804,  at  No.  16,  Charing  Cross,  who  entrusted  me  with 
the  care  of  the  child  ;  being  himself  under  a  pecuniary 
embarrassment,  and  in  confinement  at  that  time,  by  a  bill 
he  had  accepted  for  a  friend. 

A  few  days  after  my  leaving  Middlesex  Hospital  a 
second  time,  the  following  paragraph  appeared  in  the 
Morning  Herald  of  November  1st,  1799 : — "  There  is  at 
present  in  the  Middlesex  Hospital,  a  young  and  delicate 
female,  who  calls  herself  Miss  T — lb — t,  and  who  is  said 
to  be  related  to  some  families  of  distinction ;  her  story 
is  very  singular  ;  at  an  early  period  of  her  life,  having 
been  deprived,  through  the  villany  of  a  trustee,  of  a  sum 
of  money  bequeathed  her  by  a  deceased  relation  of  high 
rank,  she  followed  the  fortunes  of  a  young  Naval  Of- 
ficer to  whom  she  was  attached,  and  personated  a  com- 
mon sailor  before  the  mast:  during  a  cruise  in  the  North 
Seas,  in  consequence  of  a  lover's  quarrel,  she  quitted 
her  ship,  and  assumed  for  a  time  the  military  character; 
but  her  passion  for  the  sea  prevailing,  she  returned  to 
her  favourite  element,  and  did  good  service,  and  receiv- 
ed a  severe  wound  on  board  Earl  St.  Vincent's  ship,  on 
the  glorious  14th  of  February  ;  and  again  bled  in  the 
cause  of  her  country,  in  the  engagement  off  Camper- 
down  ;  on  this  occasion  her  knee  was  so  shattered,  that  an 
amputation  is  likely  to  ensue.  This  spirited  female,  we 
Vol.  n.  D  D  understand, 


210  ENTERS    MARY-LE-BONE    INFIRMARY. 

understand,  receives  a  pension  of  20/.  from  an  Illustri- 
ous Lady,  which  is  about  to  be  doubled."  By  whom  this 
paragraph  was  inserted  in  the  paper,  I  know  not ;  but 
the  reader  will  easily  discover  it  could  be  no  person  who 
really  knew  my  story,  having  quitted  Middlesex  hospi- 
tal some  time  before ;  the  only  part  that  resembles  truth, 
is  of  her  Majesty's  Bounty,  which  had  not  yet  reached 
me  ;  though  in  that  particular  the  writer  has  been  pleased 
to  announce  what  I  should  be  happy  to  receive. 

I  had  not  left  Middlesex  Hospital  more  than  a  fort- 
night, before  I  experienced  new  trouble  and  inconveni- 
ence in  my  leg;  which  previous  to  my  so  sudden  de- 
parture, by  the  melancholy  loss  of  the  unfortunate 
child,  had  been  doomed  to  amputation,  by  the  universal 
opinion  of  the  surgeons ;  and  to  the  general  conversation 
on  this  subject,  I  attribute  the  spurious  account  of  my 
adventures,  which  found  its  way  to  the  Morning  Herald. 
As  I  did  not  wait  for  a  discharge  from  Middlesex  Hospi- 
tal, I  felt  a  reluctance  to  apply  there  again  for  relief,  but 
applied  to  the  St.  Mary-le-bone  Infirmary,  where  I  ob- 
tained an  order,  and  was  of  course  admitted : — here  I 
continued  almost  four  months  ;  and  after  many  pieces 
of  the  shattered  bone  had  been  extracted,  and  the  flesh 
by  continued  rest,  a  little  grown  over,  I  consulted  with 
Mr.  Phillips,  the  principal  Surgeon,  whether  I  was  not 
in  a  situation  to  quit  the  Infirmary  ;  he  told  me  that  with 
care,  and  the  use  of  bandages  he  would  give  me,  I  might 
do  as  well  out  as  where  I  was,  but  desired  I  would  walk 
as  little  as  possible,  while  I  found  the  least  pain,  as  it 
would  retard  the  healing  of  the  flesh  round  the  bone  :  and 
having  obtained  the  bandages  of  Mr.  Waller  the  House 
Surgeon,  I  immediately  thought  of  quitting  the  Infirmary; 
but  having  made  myself  useful  towards  the  latter  part  of 
the  time  I  was  there,  in  keeping  account  of  clothes,  and 
marking  a  variety  of  articles,  for  the  use  of  the  Infirmary 

and 


ROBBED    OF    ALL    I    POSSESSED.  211 

and  Parish;  Dr.  Hooper,  the  principal  of  the  House,  objec- 
ted to  my  departure,  which  notwithstanding  I  insisted 
on,  and  in  consequence  came  away  ;  and  as  Dr.  Hooper 
said  he  would  report  me  to  the  Board,  I  told  him  I  would 
save  him  the  trouble,  and  went  the  following  Friday, 
and  stated  the  whole  affair  myself,  which  being  satisfac- 
tory to  the  Gentlemen  present,  I  received  two  guineas, 
and  well  pleased  left  the  place.  One  of  the  gentlemen 
said,  he  knew  Mrs.  Tapperly,  of  Chester,  well,  and  that 
he  had  a  daughter  under  her  care,  during  the  time  I  was 
with  her,  adding  that  he  knew  I  was  related  to  the  family 
whose  name  I  bore,  and  following  me  out,  made  me  a 
present  of  a  guinea,  and  I  have  since,  whenever  he  met 
me,  experienced  some  mark  of  his  liberality. 

Having  engaged  a  lodging  in  that  neighbourhood,  I 
removed  the  whole  of  my  wearing  apparel,  which  in  all 
situations  I  had  hitherto  taken  the  utmost  care  of,  to  this 
place.  But  as  if  I  was  to  be  stripped  and  persecuted  through 
life,  one  morning  while  in  bed,  I  was  robbed  of  every 
article  I  possessed  in  the  world,  and  but  for  the  kindness 
of  some  ladies  at  the  next  house,  should  have  been  with- 
out an  article  to  wear:  a  woman  who  lived  with  a  trum- 
peter of  the  Dragoon  Guards,  was  soon  after  taken  up 
on  suspicion  of  robbing  another  person,  and  having  in 
her  possession  a  great  quantity  of  false  keys,  and  dupli- 
cates of  property  in  pawn  ;  I  attended  her  examination 
at  Marlborough  Street,  and  discovered  several  of  the 
duplicates  to  describe  my  property  !  I  was  desired  to  at- 
tend on  her  trial,  as  a  witness,  though  in  applying  to 
the  pawnbrokers  where  she  had  pledged  them,  I  was 
informed  the  same  was  taken  away  by  an  affidavit  of 
the  loss  of  the  duplicates  ;  she  was,  however,  found  guilty 
of  the  robbery  taken  up  for,  and  sentenced  to  be  trans- 
ported for  seven  years. 

A  little  time  after  this  affair,  I  received  a  half  year's 
D  D  2  payment 


212  TURNS    ACTRESS. 

payment  of  her  Majesty's  bounty,  and  not  forgetting  my 
former  frolics,  of  which  I  was  not  yet  entirely  cured,  I 
went  out  in  company  of  a  person  I  knew,  in  male  attire  ; 
after  walking  some  time,  it  was  proposed  to  take  a 
tankard  of  porter,  and  we  went  into  a  public  house  the 
corner  of  Berwick  Street,  Oxford  Road ;  while  drink- 
ing, I  was  accosted  by  a  Recruiting  Serjeant  of  the  21st 
regiment  of  Light  Dragoons,  whose  name  I  understood 
was  Jones,  who,  thinking  from  my  appearance  and  con- 
versation, I  was  a  fit  subject  for  his  purpose,  used  every 
endeavour,  by  praising  the  life  of  a  horse  soldier,  of 
inveigling  me  to  enlist ;  finding  the  attempt  fruitless, 
and  doubting  to  effect  it  by  persuasion,  he  had  recourse 
to  artifice,  and  proposed  tossing  with  me  for  a  pot  of 
porter,  taking  a  guinea  from  his  pocket  and  tossing  it  on 
the  table,  thinking  I  might  take  it  up ;  but  perceiving 
the  drift  of  his  intention,  I  gave  him  to  understand,  I 
was  not  so  easily  to  be  taken  in ;  my  friend  also  joining 
me,  a  dispute  was  likely  to  ensue,  but  instantly  leaving 
the  house,  he  followed  us  the  distance  of  several  streets, 
and  seemed  very  reluctantly  to  give  up  the  pursuit. 

Many  professions  struck  my  imagination  to  take  up  as 
a  livelihood,  but  none  appeared  more  congenial  to  my 
mind  than  the  theatrical  line,  to  which  I  was  ever  par- 
ticularly attached  ;  knowing  a  person  belonging  to  the 
Thespian  Society,  held  in  Toltenham-court-road,  I  got 
introduced  to  perform  a  character,  and  attempted  that 
of  Floranthe,  in  the  Mountaineers,  which  I  got  through 
with  considerable  applause  ;  Mr.  Talbot,  afterwards  of 
Drury  Lane  Theatre,  performed  the  part  of  Octavian, 
and  Miss  Mortimer  of  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  played 
Agnes ;  I  afterwards  performed  the  parts  of  Adeline,  in 
the  Battle  of  Hexham  ;  Lady  Helen,  in  the  Children  in 
the  Wood  ;  Juliet,  in  Romeo  and  Juliet ;  Irene,  in  Barba- 
rossa;  Thyra,   in  Athelston;  the  Queen,  in  Richard  the 

Third ; 


RECEIVES   A   STRANGE    ORDER   FOR   MONEY,  213 

Third ;  Mrs.  Scout  in  the  Village  Lawyer,  and  Jack 
Hawser  in  Banyan  Day  :  finding  this  pursuit,  however, 
more  pleasant  than  profitable,  I  was  compelled  to  give  it 
up,  and  solicit  assistance  towards  my  support,  from 
several  respectable  persons  to  whom  I  had  made  my  ad- 
ventures and  sufferings  known. 

A  remarkable  circumstance  which  I  cannot  by  any 
means  omit,  as  it  had  nearly  involved  me  in  a  situation, 
more  dangerous  than  any  I  had  hitherto  encountered ; 
about  the  time  my  adventures  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  first  characters  in  the  kingdom,  I  had  received  several 
sums  of  money  from  persons,  who  at  the  time,  did  not 
discover  to  whom  I  was  obliged,  and  one  evening  a  gen- 
tleman called  at  my  lodgings,  and  on  being  introduced 
to  my  apartments,  asked  me  if  I  was  the  person  who 
had  sufi'ered  so  many  hardships  abroad  ?  I  replied  in 
the  afiEirmative ;  when  he  informed  me  Colonel  Gerrit 
Fisher,  of  the  9th  regiment  of  foot,  had  been  particularly 
inquiring  concerning  me,  and  he  had  no  doubt  it  would 
produce  something  considerable  to  my  advantage ;  he 
shortly  took  his  leave,  and  about  a  month  after,  called 
in  my  absence,  and  left  with  Mrs.  Cornish,  who  kept 
a  shop  at  No.  14,  Suffolk  Street,  at  which  house  I 
lodged,  an  order  signed  by  Colonel  Fisher,  on  Messrs. 
Cox  and  Co.,  Craig's  Court,  Charing  Cross,  for  nine 
guineas,  saying  at  the  same  time,  it  was  the  amount  of 
money  received  in  subscription  for  my  use,  by  Colonel 
Fisher;  he  also  left  a  complimentary  note,  in  which  he 
stiled  himself  Captain  Grant,  and  was  accompanied  by  a 
person  who  was  introduced  to  me  to  be  a  servant  of  Colonel 
Fisher's  and  confirmed  what  Grant  said  :  this  order  came 
as  I  then  thought,  providentially  to  my  aid,  but  it  being 
holiday  time,  I  waited  a  few  days,  after  which  in  com- 
pany with  Mrs.  Cornish,  I  presented  it  for  payment  as 
directed,  but  was    informed  Colonel    Fisher  was  out  of 

town. 


Sl4  NEARLY    PROSECUTED    FOR    FORaERY. 

town,  and  they  could  not  pay  it ;  very  much  disappointed, 
I  returned  home,  and  as  I  did  not  hear  when  the  Colonel 
was  expected  in  town,  it  was  a  considerable  time  after 
that  I  thought  of  calling  on  him  respecting  the  trans- 
action, which  at  length  I  did,  at  his  house,  No.  5,  Man- 
chester Square,  Feb,  2d,  1802,-  on  saying  I  wished  to 
speak  with  Colonel  Fisher  on  business,  he  came  into  the 
passage,  and  understanding  in  part  what  I  had  to  say, 
introduced  me  into  the  parlour,  where  I  saw  a  lady 
seated,  who  I  afterwards  found  was  the  Colonel's  lady, 
I  now  presented  him  with  the  note,  and  asked  him  if  it 
was  his  hand  writing,  on  reading  it  over,  he  asked  me 
how  I  came  by  if,  when  I  told  him  it  was  left  at  my  apart- 
ments by  a  gentleman,  who  said  it  was  the  amount  of 
what  Colonel  Fisher  had  raised  in  subscription  for  me  ; 
the  Colonel  requested  a  description  of  the  gentleman's 
person,  and  gave  me  a  pen  and  ink  to  write  it  down,  on 
which  I  first  described  the  gentleman  who  had  called, 
and  reported  Colonel  Fisher's  interesting  himself  on  my 
account,  and  was  about  to  write  the  particulars  down, 
when  Mrs.  Fisher  prevented  me,  by  saying  to  the  Colonel, 
"  It  surely  must  be  Gardiner,"  to  which  he  made  no  re- 
ply, but  putting  the  order  in  his  waistcoat  pocket,  said 
he  would  take  care  of  it,  though  he  did  not  give  me  a 
shilling;  a  few  days  after,  he  called  at  my  lodgings,  and 
seeing  Mrs.  Cornish,  asked  her  who,  and  what  I  was, 
and  whether  she  did  not  think  I  had  forged  the  order  ? 
Mrs.  Cornish  then  related  the  same  particulars  of  my 
possessing  the  order,  as  I  had  before  informed  him.  He 
then  left  the  house,  telling  Mrs.  Cornish  if  she  had  not 
given  a  good  account  of  the  way  the  draught  was  left,  he 
should  have  prosecuted  us  both  for  a  forgery. — I  after- 
wards called  at  his  house,  and  sending  up  my  name,  was 
told  by  a  servant,  my  business  required  no  answer,  since 
when,  I  have  never  heard  any  thing  of  him  or  his  order. 

Whether 


SENT  TO  NEWGATE  FOR  DEBT.  215 

Whether  or  not  the  order  was  of  Colonel  Fisher's  hand- 
writing, or  a  trick  played  on  me  by  the  man  who  styled 
himself  Captain  Grant,  I  never  could  learn,  but  as  the 
clerks  of  Cox  and  Co.  must  have  been  acquainted  with  the 
hand-writing  of  the  Colonel,  and  never  attempted  to  stop 
it,  or  say  it  was  a  forgery,  I  cannot  bring  myself  to  think 
it  was  so  ;  nor  did  the  Colonel  himself  say  to  me  it  was  not 
his  writing,  only  questioned  me  how  I  came  by  it. 

With  the  certainty  of  my  income  from  her  Majesty's 
bounty,  I  removed  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Whitecha- 
pel,  sometime  previous  to  my  waiting  on  Colonel  Fisher; 
and  having  been  ever  more  remiss  in  my  own  accounts 
than  those  of  others,  the  landlady  where  I  had  taken  my 
abode,  brought  me  in  a  bill  for  lodging,  &c.  amounting  to 
1 IZ.  3s.  Qd.  which  being  incapable  of  paying,  I  was  ar- 
rested at  her  suit  in  the  court  of  Exchequer,  and  after 
remaining  at  a  lock-up  house,  in  Carey  Street,  Lincoln's- 
Inn-fields,  a  week,  and  being  sufficiently  tired  of  the 
expence.  I  was  removed  to  Newgate,  though  not  before 
I  had  been  enabled  by  a  friend  to  offer  down  six  guineas 
in  part  of  the  debt,  which  was  rejected;  a  new  scene  in 
life  now  opened  to  my  view,  and  finding  many  of  my  fel- 
low prisoners  of  a  congenial  temper  with  my  own,  I  fre- 
quently joined  in  parties  of  conviviality  hardly  to  be 
credited  in  this  place;  these  pleasures,  however,  were 
confined  to  a  certain  time,  as  my  station  in  the  women's 
ward,  compelled  a  separation  by  ten  o'clock,  at  which 
hour,  the  wards  are  separately  locked. 

At  one  of  these  meetings  I  was  very  near  being  turned 
out  of  the  prison,  as  a  stranger;  having  accepted  the 
office  of  president  on  a  club-night,  I  equipped  myself  in 
a  suit  of  men's  clothes,  and  took  the  chair ;  after  passing  a 
few  pleasant  hours  in  the  midst  of  our  singing,  smoking, 
and  drinking,  the  time  of  separation  arrived  ;  when  re- 
turning 


2l6  RELEASED    FROM    PRISON. 

returning  to  the  women's  side,  I  was  followed  in  by  Mr. 
White,  the  principal  turnkey,  who  asked  my  business, 
and  mistaking  me  for  a  stranger,  visiting  some  of  the 
prisoners,  conducted  me  into  the  lobby  in  order  to  turn 
me  out;  but  on  my  remonstrance  that  I  was  a  prisoner, 
and  telling  my  name,  he  threatened  to  send  me  to  the 
felons'  side  for  attempting  an  escape  in  disguise,  to  which 
purpose  he  went  and  informed  Mr.  Kirby,  the  keeper, 
who  shortly  after  coming  into  the  lobby,  I  explained  to 
him  the  whole  of  the  transaction,  adding,  that  having 
been  used  to  a  male  dress  in  the  defence  of  my  country,  I 
thought  I  was  sufficiently  entitled  to  wear  the  same 
whenever  I  thought  proper ;  at  the  same  time  shewing 
him  the  wounds  1  had  received  ;  he  directed  Mr.  White 
to  conduct  me  to  the  women's  side  as  usual,  and  in  a 
day  or  two  after,  sent  for  me  to  relate  to  him  the  whole 
of  my  adventures,  with  which  he  seemed  so  well  pleased, 
that  he  sent  for  me  two  or  three  times  after  when  he 
had  company,  from  whom  I  received  some  handsome 
presents. 

I  was  advised  to  petition  the  Society  for  relief  of  per- 
sons confined  for  small  debts,  and  having  obtained  the 
form  of  a  letter  I  should  send,  got  it  conveyed,  with 
respectable  vouchers  as  to  the  truth  of  my  memorial : 
five  pounds  was  sent  to  Mr.  Kirby  for  the  purpose  of 
settling  the  debt,  but  if  the  plaintiff  refused  that  sum, 
it  was  to  be  returned  to  that  charitable  institution.  Mrs. 
Nicklin,  was,  however,  too  good  a  judge  to  refuse  so  good 
an  ofier,  and  accordingly  took  the  money,  which  was 
given  to  her  friend  Mr.  Edmonds,  on  bringing  my  dis- 
charge ;  his  expences  must  have  swallowed  the  greatest 
part  of  the  above  sum  ;  and  my  landlady  was  well  off 
in  not  being  troubled  herself  by  her  own  attorney,  which 
must    have    been  the  case,  if  she  had  refused  the  sum 

offered, 


DISCOVERY    OF    MY    MOTHER'S    MINIATURE.  2l7 

offered,  as  I  was  determined  to  have  sued  her  as   soon  as 
I  could,  for  the  sixpences. 

My  time  in  Newgate  was  rendered  more  comfortable 
than  I  had  any  reason  to  ex,pect,  from  the  constant  at- 
tention of  a  female  Avho  had  lived  with  me  some  time 
previous  to  my  being  arrested,  for  when  no  longer  in  my 
power  to  support  her  in  a  way  I  had  been  accustomed, 
instead  of  quitting  me,  she  remained  in  the  prison,  and  by 
needle  work  she  obtained,  contributed  greatly  to  my 
support,  she  has  continued  with  me  ever  since,  and  re- 
mains a  constant  friend  in  every  change  I  have  since 
experienced. 

By  an  accidental  mistake  in  arranging  the  notes  I  had 
made  in  the  course  of  my.  narrative,  the  annexed  circum- 
stances appear  out  of  the  order  they  should  have  been 
inserted  ;  in  order  to  rectify,  as  far  as  possible,  the  de- 
fect, I  have  referred  back  to  the  leading  occurrences, 
with  which  they  are  connected  : 

"  When  I  was  about  nine  years  of  age,  my  sister  took 
me  from  Chester,  to  Trevalyn,  on  a  visit  for  a  few  days ; 
I  had  taken  her  to  be  my  mother ;  and  whenever  speak- 
ing to  her,  called  her  as  such:  one  day  while  in  her  own 
room,  she  opened  a  kind  of  cabinet,  and  taking  a  minia- 
ture of  a  lady  from  a  drawer,  I  asked  her  who  it  was? 
she  burst  into  tears,  and  told  me  she  was  not  my  mother  ; 
but  that  lady  was,  represented  in  the  picture ;  whose 
daughter  she  also  was,  and  my  only  surviving  sister;  and 
would  endeavour  to  discharge  the  duty  of  both  in  her- 
self towards  me.  The  miniature  represented  a  female  of 
a  small  size  and  a  very  delicate  appearance,  with  a  re- 
markable blue  spot  on  the  forehead  between  the  eyes ; 
which  though  I  never  saw  afterwards,  is  so  strongly 
imprinted  on  my  mind,  that  nothing  has  been  able  to 
erase  it  from  my  memory  :  my  sister  was  so  much  agitated 
on  the   occasion,  as  not  to  have  told    me  my  mothei-'s 

Vol.  II.  E  E  name 


218  LASHED    TO    THE    JIB-BOOM. 

name  and  family,  of  which  I  remain  in  ignorance  to  the 
present  hour ;  though  I  have  been  informed  of  a  family 
to  whom  my  mother  belonged,  whose  name  I  do  not 
think  proper  to  make  use  of,  not  having  as  I  think,  suffi- 
cient authority  to  assert  as  proof." 

"  While  on  board  the  Vesuvius,  we  encountered  a  most 
tremendous  storm,  in  which  I  was  employed  on  an  occa- 
sion that  I  can  never  think  of,  without  reflecting,  how 
much  hardship  in  youth,  a  human  being  can  sustain ; — 
it  was   necessary  for  some  one  on  board,   to  go  to  the 
jib-boom,   to  catch  the  jib-sheet,  which  in  the  gale  had 
got  loose;  the    continual  lungeing  of  the  ship  rendered 
this   duty  particularly  hazardous,  and  not  a  seaman  on 
board,  but  rejected  this  office  ;   I  acting  on  board   in   the 
capacity  of  Midshipman,  though   I  never   received  pay 
on  board  this  ship,  but  as  a  common  man  :    I   mention 
this  circumstance  only,  that   it  was  not    my    particular 
duty  to  have  undertaken  the  task,  which  on  the  refusal 
of  several  who  were  asked,  and  the  preservation  of  us  all 
depending  on  this  exertion,  I  voluntarily  undertook  the 
charge  :  on  reaching  the  jib-boom,  I  was  under  the  neces- 
sity of  lashing  myself  fast  to  it;   for  the  ship  every  mi- 
nute making  a  fresh  lunge,  without  such  a  precaution   I 
should  inevitably  have  been    washed   away,  the   surges 
continually  breaking  over  me,  and  I  suffered  an  uninter- 
rupted   wash  and    fatigue   for  six  hours,    before  I  could 
quit  the  post    I   had  so  willingly  occupied  ;    but   danger 
over,  a   sailor  has  little  thought  of  reflections :   and  my 
messmates  who  had  witnessed  the   perilous  danger  I  was 
placed  in,  passed  it  off  in  a  joke,  "  that  I  had  only  been 
sipping  sea-hroth  ;"    but  it  was  broth  of  a  quality  that 
though  most  seamen  relish,  yet  few  I  imagine  would  like 
to  take   in  the  quantity  I  was  compelled." 

"  The  following  anecdote,  roused  reflections  which  led 
me  to  seek  a  regular  employment,  and  caused   my  appli- 
cation 


LUCKY    ESCAPE.  219 

cation  to    Mr.  Loyer,    by    whom    I    was  afterwards  en- 
gaged. 

*'  With  the  money  I  had  received  from  Captain  Field, 
of  the  Ariel,  I  frequented  the  theatres,  and  houses  about 
Covent  Garden,  where  I  became  known  to  persons  of 
every  description  as  a  good  companion  ;  among  others, 
I  had  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Haines,  the  well 
known  highwayman,  who  some  time  after  was  hung  in 
chainSj  on  Hounslow  Heath,  for  shooting  one  of  the 
Bow  Street  Officers,  who  was  about  to  apprehend  him. 
This  man  I  did  not  know  followed  so  dangerous  an  oc- 
cupation  ;  but  one  evening,  when  my  cash  was  nearly 
exhausted,  I  met  him  at  a  well  known  house  in  Covent 
Garden,  known  by  the  name  of  the  Finish ;  being  out  of 
spirits,  he  questioned  me  as  to  the  cause  ;  I  told  him,  I 
had  lived  so  freely  since  I  came  on  shore,  that  my  cash 
was  quite  exhausted,  and  I  was  racking  my  imagination 
to  get  a  fresh  supply.      He  clapped   his   hand   on    my 

shoulder  and  exclaimed,    "  D n  it,   my  fine    fellow, 

I'll  put  you  up  to  the  best  way  in  the  world  to  get  the 
supply  you  stand  in  need  of ;" — we  left  the  house,  and 
while  walking,  he  proposed  I  should  join  him,  on  an 
excursion  to  take  a  purse  on  the  road ;  and  observing  my 
sailor's  habit  was  not  calculated  to  the  occasion,  furnished 
me  with  money  to  buy  Buckskin  small  clothes,  &c.  neces- 
sary for  the  purpose.  The  road  we  were  to  take  was  not 
settled,  but  our  meeting  was  fixed  for  the  next  night; 
I  got  the  Buckskin  small  clothes  at  Ford's,  in  the  Strand, 
and  a  pair  of  boots  from  Newcoinb,  in  Pall  Mall.  At 
the  hour  appointed,  I  met  Haines  at  a  livery  stable  be- 
hind the  New  Church  in  the  Strand,  and  found  him  in 
company  with  six  more  persons,  all  of  whom  1  under- 
stood had  met  on  the  same  business,  though  intending 
to  take  different  roads  ;  1  was  to  accompany  Haines,  who 
furnished  me  with   a  pair  of  pistols,   which    he  told   me 

E  K  2  cost 


220  MADE    AN   ODD-FELLOW. 

cost  three  guineas  ;  when  everything  was  ready  for  our 
departure,  a  sudden  recollection  of  the  danger  and  dis- 
honour of  this  undertaking,  providentially  came  to  my 
aid ;  and  I  informed  Haines  how  very  reluctant  I  was  to 
break  an  engagement,  or  my  word  in  any  particular,  yet 
when  I  considered  the  consequence  of  the  business  in 
hand,  I  could  not  think  of  accompanying  him,  however 
far  I  had  gone  on  the  occasion ;  at  the  same  time  re- 
marked, it  was  not  the  danger  of  the  enterprise  I  dreaded, 
but  the  certain  shame  attached  to  a  dishonourable  ac- 
tion ;  the  principles  of  a  state  of  warfare  I  should  not 
mind,  but  never  deliberately  would  act  the  part  of  a  Pirate. 
He  endeavoured  to  divert  my  resolution,  and  seemed 
very  mad  and  inclined  to  quarrel,  which  I  think  was 
only  stopped,  by  a  knowledge  of  the  situation  he  stood 
in  ;  I  left  the  place  congratulating  myself  on  so  narrow 
an  escape,  without  further  opposition  ;  though  I  saw 
Haines  afterwards,  he  never  took  the  least  notice  of  the 
affair,  and  I  took  care  for  the  future  what  company  I  got 
connected  with." 

"  About  the  time  of  my  working  at  Mr.  Loyer's,  I  got 
acquainted  in  my  male  dress,  with  a  person  that  in- 
formed me  he  was  Vice-grand  at  a  Lodge  of  Odd  Fellows, 
held  at  the  Harlequin,  near  the  stage  door  of  Drury 
Lane  Theatre ;  this  person  discovering  in  me,  a  convivi- 
ality, agreeable  to  such  an  undertaking,  proposed  my 
becoming  one  of  their  members ;  and  as  there  was  a 
meeting  of  their  Lodge  that  evening,  he  said  he  would 
propose  me  as  a  new  member,  I  readily  accepting  his 
offer,  we  adjourned  to  the  place,  where  I  went  through 
the  whole  of  the  forms  used  on  such  occasion,  and  be- 
came a  free  member  of  the  society  of  Odd  Fellows, 
Lodge  21.  Neither  the  person  who  introduced  me,  nor 
any  of  the  members  knowing  my  sex.  It  is  the  boast  of 
masonry,  that  they  never  had  more  than  one  female  be- 
longing 


LANDS    ON    THE    MUSQUITO    SHORE.  221 

longing  to  their  institution  (namely  Queen  Elizabeth;)  and 
I  think  I  may  fairly  challenge  any  lodge  of  Odd  Fellows, 
to  produce  another  female  member:  it  being  generally 
thought,  there  is  not  a  female  in  England  (myself  excepted) 
belonging  to  this  society. 

"  I  omitted  to  relate  while  on  board  the  Crown  trans- 
port, Captain  Bishop ;  on  our  voyage  to  St.  Domingo 
after  the  storm  we  sufiPered  in,  for  want  of  provisions  and 
water,  we  put  in  for  repairs,  up  the  windward  passage, 
on  the  Musquito  shore,  and  on  one  of  the  islands  that 
distinguish  (he  place,  this  boatswain  and  part  of  the 
ship's  company,  seven  in  number,  of  which  I  was  one, 
went  on  shore  to  forage,  and  perceiving  a  bear,  which 
the  boatswain  said  was  of  the  Hyena  kind,  approaching 
us  in  a  retrograde  position,  he  fired  at  it  when  near  us, 
and  killed  it;  having  been  so  long  kept  on  scanty  allow- 
ance, we  immediately  opened  our  prize,  and  took  out 
the  heart,  for  fresh  provision,  the  hams  we  conveyed  on 
board,  and  committed  them  to  the  pickle  tub  for  curing ; 
before  quitting  the  island,  we  proceeded  farther  on  the 
search  after  water,  and  fell  in  with  a  party  of  the  barba- 
rous natives,  who  make  a  practice  of  scalping  the  unfor- 
tunate victims  that  fall  into  their  hands;  these  people 
approaching  us  in  a  menacing  manner,  we  fired  on  them, 
and  killed  one,  on  which  the  remainder  fled  with  preci- 
pitation towards  the  sea  ;  on  coming  up  to  the  dead  man, 
we  found  he  was  naked,  except  a  whisp  round  his  body, 
like  a  hay-band,  his  hair  was  long,  black,  and  strong  as 
horse-hair,  and  in  height  about  six  feet,  and  proportion- 
ably  lusty;  he  was  armed  with  a  tomahawk,  or  scalping 
hatchet,  with  which  every  one  of  his  companions  that 
fled  were  each  furnished,  and  no  more  clad  than  their 
deceased  friend.  These  weapons  hung  dangling  to  their 
hay-band   like    girdles,  which  we    observed    from    some 

of 


222  ATTENDS    THE    PROCESSION    TO    ST.    PAUL's. 

of  the  party  not  having  taken  them  in  their  hand  for  use ; 
these  people  were  of  a  tawny  complexion. 

"  At  the  time  of  my  employ  by  Mr.  Loyer,  I  put  on  my 
seaman's  dress  and  accompanied  the  procession,  when 
their  Majesties  went  to  St.  Paul's,  and  the  different  co- 
lours of  the  enemy,  went  to  be  hung  up  in  St.  Paul's 
Church,  as  trophies  of  the  victories  obtained  over  their 
enemies  by  Howe,  St.  Vincent, and  Duncan  ;  I  made  part 
of  Lord  Howe's  attendants  with  his  colours,  and  rode  on 
the  car,  the  chains  of  the  bracelets  her  Majesty  wore 
on  the  occasion  were  made  by  me,  at  Mr.  Loyer's,  by 
order  from  Messrs.  Gray  and  Constable,  jewellers  of  Sack- 
ville  Street,  Picadilly. 

"  It  was  my  intention,  to  insert  the  whole  of  the  letters 
and  family  papers  relative  to  my  adventures,  but  have 
been  deprived  giving  any  at  present,  by  an  unforeseen 
accident,  but  shall  be  published  in  this  work,  as  soon  as 
ever  recovered.  The  ensuing  statement  being  the  only 
cause  of  delay,  will,  I  trust,  be  a  sufficient  excuse  to  every 
candid  reader,  by  the  difficulties  I  labour  under;  no  other 
cause  would  have  delayecl  their  publication. 

"  Soon  after  I  quitted  Newgate  my  troubles  began  again  ; 
a  Mr.  E — ,  not  far  from  Pump  Court  in  the  Temple,  em- 
ployed me  to  wash,  mend,  &c.  he  becoming  indebted 
to  me  thirty-eight  pounds  for  that,  and  money,  I  had 
pledged  my  wearing  apparel  to  lend  him,  though  I  have 
reason  to  think  he  is  a  man  of  property,  I  was  under  the 
necessity  of  arresting  him  to  recover  the  same.  I  had 
received  five  pounds,  and  a  letter  from  him  at  the  same 
time,  saying,  "  he  would  settle  with  me  honourably  ;''  not 
keeping  his  word  was  the  cause  of  the  arrest,  and  being 
at  this  time  in  the  greatest  distress  through  his  proceed- 
ings, and  the  want  of  money  and  clothes,  I  took  lodgings 
at  the  house  of  Mr.  Joseph  Bradley,  No.   19,  Little  St. 

Mary- 


DEPRITED    OF    MY    PAPERS.  223 

Mary-le-bone  Street,  who  is  butler,  and  has  been  for 
many  years  to  a  gentleman  in  Gloucester  Place,  Hyde 
Park  Corner :  being  in  arrear  for  one  week's  rent,  five 
shillings  and  sixpence,  Mrs.  Bradley,  his  wife,  stopped 
not  only  my  trunk,  containing  the  whole  of  my  letters 
and  papers,  but  some  needle-work  I  had  to  do  for  ano- 
ther person,  which  had  she  suffered  me  to  carry  home, 
would  have  nearly  paid  her  demand ;  I  summoned  her 
for  the  work  to  Marlborough  Street,  but  the  Magistrate 
saying,  they  had  a  right  to  stop  all  they  could  lay  their 
hands  on,  I  was  advised  to  arrest  Mr.  Bradley  in  an  ac- 
tion of  trover,  as  being  deprived  of  the  work,  which 
they  still  hold,  with  my  family  letters  and   papers,  which 

would    have    proved  my  debt  against  Mr.   E ;    this 

advice  I  followed,  and  Mr.  Bradley  was  arrested.    In  the 

mean  time,  Mr.  E took  the  opportunity  of  entering 

a  non  pros  to  my  action ;  by  not  having  it  in  my  power 
to  produce  the  papers  necessary  to  prove  the  debt,  which 
will  compel  me  to  enter  a  fresh  process  against  him,  as 
soon  as  I  can  recover  my  papers,  when  his  must  appear. 
"I  employed  Mr.  Worley,  an  attorney  at  No.  25,  in 
Well's  Street,  Oxford  Road,  who  directly  sued  out  a  writ 
against  Bradley,  which  by  some  means  was  not  served 
on  him  that  term  ;  before  the  next,  he  was  arrested  at 
my  suit,  and  gave  bail  to  Mr.  Weekly  the  officer,  for  his 
appearance,  which  was  entered  at  the  commencement  of 
the  term,  in  order  to  go  to  trial ;  my  attorney,  Mr.  Wor- 
ley, on  whom  I  called  several  times,  informed  me,  he 
would  let  me  know,  when  I  should  be  wanted  to  attend, 
and  in  the  mean  time  said,  if  I  would  procure  two  pounds, 
he  would  establish  me  as  a  pauper,  that  I  might  proceed, 
without  a  necessity  for  more  money.  The  above  sum  a 
gentleman  advanced  me  for  the  purpose  Mr.  Worley  had 
asked  it,  and  on  my  paying  it  into  his  hands,  said,  he 
would  immediately  proceed  in  the  cause,  and  told  me  it 

would 


224  UNCERTAINTY    OF   THK    LAW. 

would  come  on,  the  present  term.  The  money  I  gave 
him  on  Wednesday,  April  11th,  1804,  and  called  by  his 
appointment  on  Friday  the  13th  ;  not  seeing  him,  I  called 
the  next  day  with  no  better  success ;  as  he  told  me  it 
certainly  would  come  on  the  present  term,  I  became 
extremely  anxious  to  see  him,  and  called  on  Monday 
the  16th,  still  I  could  not  meet  with  him,  and  continued 
till  twelve  o'clock  at  night  in  the  neighbourhood,  calling 
at  his  house  four  times  during  that  period  ;  the  only 
answer  I  could  get,  veas,  he  had  not  been  at  home  that 
day ;  the  next  morning,  April  the  17th,  I  called  and  saw 
him,  when  he  told  me  my  action  had  suffered  a  non-pros 
on  the  7th  of  March,  though  I  have  repeatedly  seen  him 
before  and  since  that  time,  he  never  informed  me  of  the 
circumstance  till  that  moment,  by  which  I  was  deprived 
going  to  trial ;  greatly  shocked  and  disappointed,  I  told 
him,  I  should  inform  the  gentleman  from  whom  I  had  re- 
ceived the  money,  the  whole  of  the  transaction  ;  on  which 
he  waited  on  Mr.  Worley,  and  was  informed,  the  money  I 
had  given  him,  he  had  carried  to  my  account.  Thus  situ- 
ated, with  only  part  of  my  letters  in  my  own  possession,  it 
is  out  of  ray  power  to  give  them  at  present,  but  having 
the  promise  of  a  friend  to  see  me  righted,  Mr.  Bradley, 
unless  inclined  to  give  my  papers  up,  must  be  served  with 
another  process  to  compel  him. 

"  Nothing  but  troubles  and  misfortunes  for  the  two  last 
years  of  my  life,  having  occurred,  and  followed  me,  step 
by  step,  I  have  only  to  apologize  to  my  readers,  for  any 
deviation  from  the  paths  of  propriety,  which  only  to 
ray  feelings,  could  have  happened  by  the  greatest  neces- 
sity, and  the  deepest  distress,  and  I  trust  I  shall  gain  their 
pity,  rather  than  censure,  when  I  assert,  had  I  been 
brought  up  in  a  workhouse,  or  any  other  situation  to 
have  gained  my  bread  in  the  most  humble  manner,  I 
should  have  preferred  it,   to  the  number   of  misfortunes 

and 


AN    ASTHMA    CURED    BY    A    MUSKET    BALL.  225 

and  difficulties,  I  have  been  doomed  to  encounter,  as  my 
wounds  and  other  afflictions  have  rendered  me  incapable 
of  almost  every  exertion  to  get  a  livelihood. 

Having  described  as  minutely  as  possible,  the  leading 
circumstances  of  my  adventures,  I  submit  the  vrhole  to 
the  decision  of  my  readers,  with  a  solemn  assurance,  that 
in  no  particular  have  I  advanced  any  thing  but  matters 
of  fact ;  which,  if  they  should  in  any  way  serve  as  a 
lesson  to  future  guardians  and  those  under  their  care,  in 
avoiding  the  troubles  I  have  experienced,  will  answer  one 
end  to  which  they  were  made  public  by  their  unfortunate 
sufferer, 

Mary  Ann  Talbot. 


ERRATA. 

For  «'  Lord  Talbot,"  read,  "  Earl  Talbot,"  created  1761 , 
For  "  Mr.  Shuker,"  read  "  Sucker." 


TO  THE  EDITOR  OF  THE  SCIENTIFIC  MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
I  inclose  for  insertion,  (if  deemed  wortby  of  place)  in  your  truly  original  Mu- 
seum, a  few  articles  for  your  approbation  ;  in  selecting  any  of  which  suited 
to  your  publication,  you  will  gratify   the    endeavours  of  your  occasional 
correspondent, 

April,  1804.  A. 

A  VIOLENT  ASTHMA  CURED  BY  A  MUSKET  BALL. 

W  illiam  Masters,  Esq.,  who  died  in  March,  1799, 
was  a  Colonel  under  the  old  Duke  of  Cumberland  ;  and 
in  one  of  the  engagements  was  shot  through  the  lungs  by 
a  musket-ball,  which  entirely  cured  him  of  a  violent  asth- 
ma.—The  Duke  used  to  say,  when  any  of  his  officers  la- 
boured under  that  disorder,  that  they  must  get  shot  through 
the  lungs  like  Masters. 

Vol.  II.  F  F  a  shep- 


(     226     ) 

A  SHEPHERD'S    BOY  HANGED  BY  HIS  WHIP. 

Xn  November  1798,  as  John  Clench,  a  Sheep-boy  to  Mr. 
Frost,  of  Kelvendon,  Essex,  was  descending  from  a  tree 
in  which  he  had  climbed  to  cut  a  branch  in  order  to  stop 
a  gap,  his  whip  which  he,  in  his  accustomed  manner,  had 
slung  round  his  neck  when  within  six  inches  of  the  ground 
caught  between  the  boughs,  and  suspended  him.  In  this 
manner  he  was  found  hanging  and  quite  dead. 

A  BOY  HANGED  IN  A  TOWEL. 

An  July,  1798,  as  the  servant-boy  of  the  Rev.  John  Prior, 
at  Ashby  de  la  Zouch  was  wiping  himself  with  a  rolled 
towel  in  the  back  kitchen,  he  unfortunately  slipped  down 
a  step,  by  which  means  his  neck  became  so  much  entan- 
gled in  the  towel,  that  it  was  immediately  dislocated  ;  and 
he  was  soon  after  discovered  by  the  family  entirely  life- 
less— proper  means  were  instantly  used  to  recover  him, 
but  without  effect. 

A   WOMAN    DELIVERED  OF   SIX  CHILDREN. 


I 


N  January,  1798,  the  wife  of  Pierre  Francois  Duissans, 
in  the  Commune  of  Verchocq,  I'Department  du  pas  de 
Calais,  was  delivered,  before  she  had  gone  her  full  time, 
of  six  children,  three  boys  and  three  girls  ;  they  were  all 
alive  at  the  time  of  their  birth,  but  died  soon  after. 


A   WONDERFUL  DISCOVERY   OF  THE  SKELETON  OF  A  MAN 
IN  A  TREE. 

X  HE  beginning  of  April,  1804,  as  some  boys  were  seek- 
ing after  owls  for  their  amusement,  they  discovered  at  the 
bottom  of  a  hollow  tree,  in  the  parish  of  Blockley,  in 
Worcestershire,  close  by  the  side  of  a  brook  which  divides 
the  counties  of  Worcester  and  Gloucester,  the  entire  ske- 
leton of  apparently  a  stout  and  tall  man,  the  skull  being 

very 


ATROCIOUS    MURDERERS. 


227 


very  large,  and  the  leg  and  thigh  bones  of  great  length  ; 
in  the  shoes  (which  were  in  a  dry  and  hard  state,)  were 
found  the  bones  of  the  toes,  and  the  nails  in  tlie  shoes 
were  so  decayed,  as  on  being  touched,  to  fall  off,  and 
with  the  fingers  were  easily  pulverised.  It  is  difficult  to 
conjecture  how  the  body  came  there ;  but  from  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  tree  and  other  circumstances,  the  proba- 
bility seems  to  be,  that  the  deceased  secreted  himself  in 
the  tree,  which  is  hollow  from  the  top  to  the  bottom,  from 
whence  he  could  not  afterwards  extricate  himself;  and  as 
the  shoe  of  the  right  foot  was  considerably  turned  up,  and 
retained  strong  marks  of  the  pressure  of  the  buckle,  it 
may  be  inferred  from  thence,  that  efforts  had  been  made 
by  the  unfortunate  man  to  release  himself  from  so  deplo- 
rable a  situation. 

ATROCIOUS   MURDERERS. 


N. 


OTWiTHSTANDiNG  the  boastcd  accuracy  of  the  French 
police,  enormities  of  almost  every  description  are  daily 
and  hourly  committed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  their 
commissaries,  with  impunity.  Before  the  revolution  in 
that  country,  it  is  a  fact  well  established, — that  never  a 
street  robbery  was  committed  in  Paris,  but  it  was  ac- 
companied by  a  murder  ;  that  the  practice  is  not  dis- 
continued under  the  all-wise  administration  of  Buona- 
parte, we  may  readily  conjecture  by  the  recent  informa- 
tion of  the  following  shocking  relation  : 

On  the  6th  of  March,  1804,  a  gentleman  was  accosted 
in  the  street  St.  Martin,  at  Paris,  by  a  beautiful  little 
girl,  about  six  years  of  age.  She  was  covered  witii  rags, 
and  told  him,  that  her  mother  was  dying  of  want  in  the 
fifth  floor  of  a  house  in  the  same  street,  and  that  for  her- 
self, she  had  not  ate  a  morsel  for  forty-eight  hours. 
Touched  with  compassion,  the  gentleman  said  he  would 
follow  her  home,  and  if  he  found  her  story  true,  relieve 
F  F  2  her 


228  ATROCIOUS    MURDERERS. 

her  and  her  mother. — On  entering  the  room,  he  saw  a 
woman  laying  on  a  bed  laid  on  straw,  instead  of  a  mat- 
trass.  Her  looks  and  voice  seemed  to  confirm  the  story 
of  the  child.  In  taking  his  purse  from  his  pocket,  it  fell 
down  by  accident  on  the  floor ;  stooping  to  take  it  up, 
he  saw  clearly  a  man  under  the  bed.  Alarmed,  but 
without  losing  his  presence  of  mind,  he  said — "  Good 
woman,  here  are  four  crowns ;  I  have  no  more  about 
me  ;  but  let  your  child  accompany  me  home,  I  will  give 
her  twenty  more."  Instead  of  returning  to  his  lodgings, 
he  took  the  child  to  a  police  commissary  ;  where,  after 
some  examination,  she  acknowledged,  that  the  person 
under  the  bed  was  her  father,  and  that,  within  the  last 
fortnight,  during  which  they  had  lodged  in  the  street  St. 
Martin,  six  persons  had  been  stabbed  by  him,  plundered 
and  stripped  ;  that  two  corpses  had  been  carried  out  by 
him  after  dark,  some  nights  before,  and  thrown  into  the 
river;  but  that  four  corpses  yet  remained  in  the  closet 
behind  the  bed. — The  police  commissary,  with  the  gentle- 
men, and  some  gens-d'armes,  went  immediately  to  the 
house,  but  they  found  nothing  but  the  four  corpses  in 
the  closet.  The  man  and  woman  were  gone,  and  have 
not  yet  been  heard  of. — In  consequence  of  the  discovery 
made  by  the  child,  six  former  lodgings  of  this  cruel 
couple  have  been  traced,  where,  according  to  her  report, 
and  several  other  circumstances  within  the  knowledge  of 
the  police,  during  the  last  winter,  no  less  than  twenty-two 
persons  of  both  sexes,  are  supposed  to  have  been  mur- 
dered by  them.  It  was  the  custom  of  the  woman,  as 
from  gratitude,  to  take  hold  of  her  benefactor's  hands, 
and  draw  them  to  her  lips  as  she  lay  in  bed,  when  the 
man  stole  behind,  and  stabbed  them  through  their  backs. 
— Mad.  Murat  has  taken  the  child  under  her  protection, 
and  pays  for  her  education. 

A  n 


A 


(     229     ) 

An  extraordinary  Movement  of  the  Earth,  near  Colehrooh, 
in  Shropshire. 

MOST  remarkable  incident  happened  near  Colebrook, 
On  Thursday  morning,  Ma}'  27,   1773,  about  four  o'clock. 
About  4000  yards  from   the    river  Severn  stood   a    house, 
where  a  family  dwelt ;  the  man  got  up  about  three  o'clock, 
and   heard  a   rumbling  noise,  and   felt  the  ground  shake 
under   him  ;  on  which  he  called    up  his  family.     They 
perceived  the  ground  begin  to  move,  but  knew  not  which 
way  to    run  ;  however,  the  people  took  to  their  heels,  and 
just  as  they  had  got  to  an  adjacent  wood,  the  ground  they 
had  left  separated  from  that  on  which  they  stood.     They 
first  observed   a  small  crack  in  the  ground  about  four  or 
five  inches  wide,  and  a  field  that  was  sown  with  oats  to 
heave  up  and  roll   about  like  waves  of  water ;  the  trees 
moved  as  if  blown  Avith  wind,  but  the  air  was  calm  and 
serene  ;  the  river  Severn  (in  which  at  that  time  was  a  con- 
siderable flood)  was  agitated  very  much,  and  the  current 
seemed  to  run  upwaids-     They  perceived  a  great  crack 
run  very  quick  up  the  ground   from  the  river.     Immedi- 
ately about  30  acres  of  land,  with   the  edges  and  trees 
standing  (except    a   few   that  were   overturned),    moved 
with  great  force  and  swiftness  towards  the  Severn,  attended 
with  great   and  uncommon  noise,  compared  to   a    large 
flock  of  sheep  running  swiftly.      That    part  of   the   land 
next   the   river   was  a  small  wood,  under  two  acres,  in 
which  grew  twenty  large  oaks  ;  a  few  of  them  were  thrown 
down,  and  as  many  more  were  undermined  and  overturn- 
ed ;   some  left  leaning,   the  rest  upright,  as  if  never  dis- 
turbed.    The   wood   was   pushed  with  such  velocity  into 
the  channel  of  the  Severn  (which  at  that  time  was  remark- 
ably  deep)  that  it  Torced  the   water  in  great  columns  a 
considerable  height,   like    mighty    fountains,   and    drove 
the  bed    of  the  river  before  it  on  the  opposite  shore  many 

feet 


230  THE    THREE    BRETHREN    OAK-TREE,    &C. 

feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water,  where  it  lodged,  as 
did  one  side  of  the  wood ;  the  current  being  instantly 
stopped,  occasioned  a  great  inundation  above,  and  so 
sudden  a  fall  below,  that  many  fish  were  left  on  dry  land, 
and  several  barges  were  heeled  over,  and  when  the  stream 
came  down,  were  sunk,  but  none  were  damaged  above. 
The  river  soon  took  its  course  over  a  large  meadow  that 
was  opposite  the  small  wood,  and  in  three  days  wore  a 
navigable  channel  through  the  meadow.  A  turnpike 
road  was  moved  more  than  thirty  yards  from  its  former 
situation,  and  to  all  appearance  rendered  for  ever  impas- 
sable. A  barn  was  carried  about  the  same  distance,  and 
left  as  a  heap  of  rubbish  in  a  large  chasm ;  the  house  re- 
ceived but  little  damage.  A  hedge  which  was  joined  to 
the  garden,  was  removed  about  50  yards.  A  great  part 
of  the  land  was  in  confused  heaps,  full  of  cracks  from 
four  inches  to  more  than  a  yard  wide.  Several  very  long 
and  deep  chasms  were  formed  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
land,  from  14  to  upwards  of  30  yards  wide,  in  which 
were  many  pyramids  of  earth  standing,  with  the  green 
turf  remaining  on  the  tops  of  some  of  them.  Hollows 
were  raised  into  mounts,  and  mounts  reduced  into  hol- 
lows. Less  than  a  quarter  of  an  hour  completed  this 
dreadful  scene. 

THE  THREE  BRETHREN  OAK-TREE. 

Standing  in  Whinfield  Forest,  in  the  County  of  West- 
morland. 

X  HE  above  appellation,  by  which  this  singular  Tree  is 
so  eminently  distinguished  from  among  its  neighbours 
in  the  forest,  is  from  the  circumstance  of  its  affinity  with 
two  neighbouring  trees,  of  considerable  magnitude  which 
grew  near  it,  but  by  no  means  comparable  to  this  in 
height  and  dimensions;  for  the  drawing  and  description 
of  this  wonderful   work   of  nature,  we   are  indebted  for 

the 


i 


'^y/t/    /h'j/r/r/'//f/^Jmr/r    (  'f/A' 


{>iU> 


in  Whinfipld  Forreft. 


PaimAriil  yr  JiV-i  /ir  'l  .<Sin-  /if/i./.- 1  /■'.•/»/#}«/..'<  /  •. .  // 


THE    THREE    BRETHREN    OAK-TREE,    &C.  231 

the   information  to  Mr.  William  Todd,  of  Moor-houses, 
in  the  aforesaid  county. 

Whinfield  Forest  is  the  property  of  the  Earls  of  Thanet. 
This  most  surprising  large  oak  tree,  as  represented  in 
our  plate,  has  stood  in  this  forest  near  two  hundred  and 
seventy  years,  by  the  nearest  computation  of  the  neigh- 
bouring   inhabitants   in  that  country;   it    is    supposed   to 
have  derived  its  name  from  three  other   trees  which  for- 
merly stood   near  this  place,  which  being  all  of  so  won- 
derful a  size,  and   nearly  resembling  one  another,  were 
therefore  called  the  Three   Brethren  Trees. — The  circum- 
ference of  this  (which  is   supposed  the  most  wonderful  of 
the    three)  measures    14  yards,  or  42  feet,  being  nearly 
of  this   thickness   to    the    height   of   15   feet    from    the 
root,  from  thence  to  the  branches  it  diminishes  propor- 
tionably  ;  as  to  the  true  height  thereof  it  is  a  little  un- 
certain to   account  for,    especially   as  the  top  part,   (to- 
gether with   most  of  the   principal  branches)  have  been 
broke   off  many  years ;    but    to    the  nearest   estimation 
possible,  according  to  my  observation,  it  appears  to  be 
at  least  50  feet,  or  nearly;  as  to  the  circumference  at  the 
top  (as  it  now  remains)  it  may,  in  respect  to  that  propor- 
tion, be  supposed  to  have  been  10  feet  higher,  exclusive 
of   the    several  tall   branches,  which  consequently  have 
been  thereto  belonging. — Thus  it  appears  that  the  true 
height,  as  near  as  possible,   may  be    said  to   have  been 
60  feet  in   solid  timber,  which  in  respect  to  so  wonderful 
a  thickness  is  also  equally  admirable. — The  spreading  or 
side   branches  are  also  mostly  decayed  and  broken  off, 
yet  what    is    very    surprising  of  those  which  remain  (al- 
though but  stumps)  there  is  one  which  is  observed   at  the 
Spring  season    to    shoot  forth    and    bear  leaves.— If    it 
were  possible  an  acorn  of  this  most  wonderful  tree  could 
be   produced,  it  certainly   would  deserve   a    place  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  might  equally  be  admired  as  a  cu- 
riosity 


232  THE    THREE    BRETHREN    OAK-TREE,  &C. 

riosity  not  the  least  inferior  to  any  one  contained  therein. 
— Having  thus  particularly  described  the  outside  situa- 
tion of  this  famous  tree,  I  shall  without  doubt  more 
surprize  the  reader  in  giving  the  inside  description ; 
and,  as  near  reality  as  possible,  is  as  follows  : — On  the 
north-east  side,  next  that  of  Temple  Sowerby,  is  a  large 
entrance  cut  and  broke  out,  in  form  of  a  door-way, 
where  people  either  walk  in  on  foot,  or  ride  in  on  horse- 
back, which,  though  however  impossible  this  may  appear 
in  respect  to  a  ti-ee,  the  truth  of  it  is  well  known  to  those 
persons  who  have  had  the  curiosity  to  behold  it,  several  of 
which  are  now  in  London,  and  other  parts  of  England,  &c. 
As  to  the  inward  prospect,  it  is  rather  dismal  than  other- 
wise, representing,  as  it  were,  part  of  some  ruinous  castle 
or  ancient  tower,  being  so  much  inwardly  decayed  as  even 
reduced  almost  to  a  shell  ;  near  the  top,  in  the  cavities 
within,  are  several  of  those  animals  called  bats,  and  the 
martins  resort  also  thither  in  great  numbers;  the  lower 
part  is  most  wonderfully  spacious,  and  will  easily  admit, 
as  before  observed,  of  a  horse  and  man  therein  to  turn 
about  at  pleasure  ;  it  is  also  a  very  convenient  receptacle 
for  the  deer  in  stormy  weather,  which  in  this  forest  are 
many  in  number,  and  esteemed  not  inferior  to  any  in 
England. — Thus  have  I  given  both  the  true  and  original 
description  of  this  most  wonderful  Three  Brethren  Tree, 
which  has  so  many  years  been  the  admiration  of  the 
Northern  inhabitants,  even  for  several  former  generations. 
Adjoining  to  the  west  side  of  this  forest  is  Clifton- Moor, 
on  which  place  his  royal  highness  the  Duke  of  Cumber- 
land most  gloriously  defeated  the  rebel  arm}',  in  the  year 
1746,  restored  an  universal  peace  throughout  the  coun- 
try ;  and  seated  the  Brunswick  family  in  security  on  the 
throne,  which  we  trust  they  will  hold  to  the  end  of 
time. 

THE 


233 


THE  ANCIENT  CRIES  OF  LONDON; 
Or  the  common  daily  cries  in  and  about  the  Metropolis. 

XN  the  reign  of  Charles  the  Second,  almost  every  article 
of  life  and  use,  were  carried  about  the  streets  of  London, 
by  itinerant  venders,  vrho  accompanied  each  article  they 
sold  with  a  peculiar  cry :  this  set  of  people  attracted  the 
attention  of  Marcellus  Laroon,  an  eminent  painter  of 
that  time,  who  made  nearly  one  hundred  fine  drawings, 
which  were  engraved  and  published  by  Pierce  Tempest, 
and  the  following  descriptive  poem,  was  doubtless  made 
by  a  wit  of  the  time  to  accompany  them  ;  though  inserted 
in  another  work,  which  is  now  equally  scarce  with  the 
cries  themselves,  a  set  of  which  has  lately  been  sold  for 
seven  guineas  : — 

We  daily  cryes,  about  the  streets  may  hear 

According  to  the  season  of  the  year, 

Some  Welfleet  oysters  call,  others  do  cry 

Fine  Chelsea  cockles,  or  white  muscles  buy ; 

Great  Mackrel,  five  a  groat  some  cry  about, 

Dainty  fresh  salmon,  does  another  shout; 

Buy  my  fine  dish  of  dainty  eels  cryes  one 

Some  soles  and  flounders  in  another  tone ; 

Butter  and  eggs  some  cry,  some  Hampshire  honey, 

Others  do  call  for  brass  or  broken  money. 

Have  ye  any  old  suits,  or  coats  or  hats, 

Another  says  como  buy  my  dainty  sprats. 

Box,  or  horn  combs  of  ivory,  or  sissers, 

Tobacco-boxes,  knives,  rasors,  or  twissers  : 

Who  buys  my  bak'd  oxe-cheek,  here  in  my  pot 

Plump,  fresh  and  fat,  well  stew'd  and  piping  hot ; 

Dy'd  lin  for  aprons,  vinegar  some  cryes. 

Some  hot  bak'd  wardens,  others  puddin  pyes  : 

Vol.  IL  o  g  Buy 


234  THE   ANTIENT   CRIE9    OF    LQWDON. 

Buy  a  Jack  line  or  an  hair  line,  cryes  some, 
New  books,  new  books,  then  doth  another  come  ; 
French  beans  and  parsley,  some  cry,  if  ye  mind. 
And  others,  have  ye  any  knives  to  grind ; 
Some  ropes  of  onions,  cry  about  the  town, 
Some  pepins,  and  pearmains  up  street  and  down. 
Hot  codlins,  hot,  the  best  that  e'er  you  see 
Who  buys  these  dainty  hot  codlins  of  me ; 
Turneps  and  Sandwich  carrots,  one  man  calls, 
Green  bastings  in  my  cart,  another  brawls  ; 
Come  buy  a  steel,  or  a  tinder  box,  cryes  some. 
Old  boots  or  shoes,  says  one,  come  buy  my  broom. 
Maids  ha'ye  any  kitchen  stuff,  I  pray. 
Buy  long  thread  laces  does  another  say  ; 
New  almanacks  some  cry,  at  th'  times  o'the'  year, 
Then  others  singing  ballads  you  may  hear ; 
Some  carry  painted-clothes,  on  little  poles, 
By  which  it's  known  that  such  men  do  catch  moles, 
Others  in  clothes,  well  painted  rats  hava  aiilj, 
Which  notifies  rat-catching  is  their  trade : 
Have  ye  any  work  for  a  cooper  here, 
Old  brass  to  mend,  then  tincles  one  in  th'  rear  ; 
Some  nettle  cheeses  cry,  and  some  new  milk. 
Others  sattin  and  velvet,  or  old  silk. 
Then  ends  of  gold  or  silver,  cryes  a  lass. 
Another  curds  and  cream,  as  she  does  pass ; 
With  traps  for  rats  and  mice,  do  some  appear. 
Two  hundred  a  penny,  card  matches  here  ; 
Ripe  cherries,  ripe,  come  buy  my  early  cherries, 
Who  buys  my  currans  or  large  ripe  goose-berries, 
A  rubbing  brush,  a  bottle  brush,  or  grater. 
Fine  sparrow-grass,  then  cryes  another  creature  ; 
Here's  dainty  cowcumbers,  who  buys  to  pickle, 
Another  then  with  colly-flowers  does  stickle. 


Ripe 


THE   ANCIENT    CRIES    OF    LONDON.  235 

Ripe  rass-berries  about,  does  some  then  sing, 

Fine  young  straw-berries  does  another  bring; 

Fresh  nettle-tops,  or  elder-buds,  come  buy, 

Then  water  cresses  and  brook-lime,  they  cry. 

Any  old  iron  here  to  sell,  cryes  one. 

And  some  maids  ha'  ye  any  marrow  bone ; 

Ripe  Muske  mellons,  or  apricots,  some  cry, 

Fine  civil  oranges  or  lemmons  buy. 

Old  chairsto  mend,  then  cryes  a  ragged  fellow, 

Come  buy  a  door  matt  does  another  bellow; 

Buy  a  cock  or  a  gelding  does  one  come, 

Come  buy  my  dainty  singing  bird  says  some, 

Some  dainty  fine  holly  and  ivy  sayes, 

Then  curious  fine  rosemary  and  bayes. 

Some  pens  and  ink  would  sell  to  all  they  meet, 

And  others  small  coal  cry  about  the  street ; 

Pity  the  poor  prisoners,  some  with  baskets  go, 

And  others  cry  come  see  my  rara  show  : 

Anon,  a  poor  wretch  comes  crying  behind, 

With  dog  and  bell  pray  pity  the  poor  blind  ; 

Who  buys  these  figgs  and  raisins,  new  of  mine, 

Come  buy  my  bowl  of  wheat,  fine  oatcakes,  fine  : 

Hot  mutton  pyes,  cryes  one  along  the  street, 

Who  buys  my  mutton  pyes,  fresh,  hot,  and  sweet; 

Buy  marking  stone  one  cryes,  with's  smutty  face. 

Another  says  come  buy  my  fine  bone  lace; 

Buy  a  cloth  or  thrum  mop,  you  maids  and  lasses, 

Another  cryes  who  buyes  my  drinking  glasses. 

A  lattice  for  a  window,  who  will  buy, 

Great  faggots,  five  for  sixpence  does  some  cry  ; 

Have  ye  any  old  glass  for  to  renew. 

Some  cry  bellows  to  mend,  or  bowls  to  sew; 

Some  silk  or  ferrit  ribbon  for  shoe  strings. 

With  London  pins,  and  tape,  and  other  things, 

G  G  2  Have 


236         MASANIELLO,    THE   EISHERjMAN    OF    NAPLES. 

Have  ye  any  corns  upon  your  feet  or  toes, 
Buy  a  fox-tail,  or  whiske,  another  goes  ; 
Some  walk  about,  and  old  silk  stockings  cry, 
Some  ask  if  socks,  or  quilted  caps  you'l  buy; 
And  thus  they  trot  about  and  bawl  each  day, 
For  the  love  they  bear  Lady  Pecunia, 
For  her  they'l  sit  up  late,  and  early  rise, 
She  does  appear  so  glorious  in  their  eyes  : 
Think  all  pains  well  bestow'd,  nothing  too  much, 
Their  zealous  dotage  to  this  idol's  such. 
Money's  the  only  she,  all  men  admire, 
Both  poor  and  rich  this  lady  do  desire  ; 
And  those  that  her  do  want,  they  are  forlorn, 
If  she's  not  there,  they're  every  fellow's  scorn ; 
We  may  conclude,  when  we've  said  what  we  can, 
Tis  money  at  all  limes,  does  make  a  man. 

THOMAS  ANELLO, 

Commonly  called  Masaniello,  the  Fisherman  of  Naples. 

v_/F  therevolutions  in  countries  and  empires,  few  have 
claimed  more  interest  or  excited  so  much  attention,  as 
those  in  Naples  and  England,  which  took  place,  the  first 
in  1647,  at  Naples,  by  a  poor  fisherman,  and  in  England, 
by  a  set  of  fanatics,  the  head  of  whom  was  Oliver  Crom- 
well, in  the  year  1648.  When  this  grand  dissembler,  by 
a  mock  trial,  brought  his  Sovereign's  head  to  the  block, 
very  different  causes  served  in  either  country  to  foment 
rebellion  :  in  Naples,  it  was  brought  about  through  the 
great  burthens  and  oppressions  of  the  people  ;  in  our  own 
country  by  a  dispute  as  to  the  mode  of  worship  in  our 
churches,  which  the  Puritans  imagined,  favoured  too 
much  of  Popery,  particularly  as  the  altar  was  removed 
a  little  before  this  time,  from  the  middle  of  the  church 
to  the  east  end,  and  in  some  cases,  more  richly  ornament- 
ed 


)J(>J/Uf>U>    ,      ^//l///f> 


( ciniui'nlu    itillcd 


CC  IJajstuuc/lo  Tislicrman  of  Naples. 


MA9ANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES.  237 

ed  than  agreeable  to  this  description  of  people.  Archbi- 
shop Laud,  on  the  contrary,  as  strongly  opposed  their 
desires,  and  caused  some  to  be  severely  censured  in  the 
star  chamber,  whereby  Prynne,  Burton,  Bastwick  and 
Leighton  lost  their  ears  in  the  pillory,  and  were  fined  in 
an  amount  equal  to  imprisonment  for  life:  this  severity 
drew  on  Laud  a  number  of  enemies,  which  ended  in  the 
loss  of  his  head,  and  was  in  a  few  years  after  followed  by 
that  of  his  royal  master. 

But  if  these  transactions  filled  the  mind  with  horror, 
how  much  more  so  does  the  depredations  and  murders 
daily  and  hourly  committed  in  France,  excite  our  sur- 
prize and  indignation :  for  not  content  with  the  blood- 
shed of  their  own  country,  the  revolutionary  principles 
extend  to  that  of  others  ;  thus  Germany,  Holland,  Swit- 
zerland, Italy  and  Egypt  sufficiently  testify :  and  when 
driven  with  dismay  and  disgrace  from  the  latter  country 
by  the  valour  of  the  British  forces,  like  the  description  of 
vermin,  who  for  want  of  other  food  prey  on  themselves, 
have  invented  sham  plots  and  diabolical  measures,  to  gra- 
tify the  sanguinary  appetite  of  a  carnivorous  usurper 
and  tyrant,  whose  despotism  we  cannot  but  think  will  be 
of  but  short  duration.  For  intoxicated  by  power,  like 
the  unfortunate  Masaniello,  (a  much  less  censurable  cha- 
racter) he  will  not  be  content  till  his  extravagant  fancy 
draws  a  similar  fate  on  his  devoted  head. 


Thomas  Anello,  by  construction  called  Masaniello, 
was  born  in  the  year  1623,  and  at  the  time  he  attracted 
thenoticeand  conversation  of  the  world,  was  about  twen- 
ty-four years  of  age:  this  man  dwelt  in  the  corner  of  the 
great  market-place  at  Naples  :  and  it  strangely  happened, 
that  under  one  of  his  windows  were  fixed  the  arms,  and 
the  name  of  Charles  V.  of  a  very  ancient  standing.  This 
monarch  had  granted  a  charter  of  privileges  to  the  people 

of 


236  MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES. 

of  Naples,  which  had  of  late  been  much  violated.  Ma- 
saniello  was  stout,  of  a  good  countenance,  and  a  middle 
stature ;  he  wore  linen  slops,  a  blue  waistcoat,  and  went 
barefoot,  with  a  mariner's  cap.  His  profession  was  to 
angle  for  small  fish,  with  a  cane,  hook  and  line  ;  as  also 
to  buy  fish  and  to  retail  them.  This  man  having  observed 
the  murmurings  up  and  down  the  city,  went  one  day  very 
angry  towards  his  house,  and  met  wuth  the  famous  Ban- 
ditto  Perrone  and  his  companion,  as  he  passed  by  a  church 
where  they  had  fled  for  refuge.  They  asked  him  what 
ailed  him  ?  he  answered  in  great  wrath,  "  I  will  be  bound 
to  be  hanged,  but  I  will  right  this  city!'' — They  laughed 
at  his  words,  saying,  "  a  proper  'squire  to  right  the  city 
of  Naples!"  Masaniello  replied,  "Do  not  laugh:  I 
swear  by  G — d,  if  I  had  two  or  three  of  my  humour,  you 
should  see  what  I  would  do — will  you  join  with  me  V  they 
answered,  "  yes  :"  "  plight  me  then  your  faith  ;"  which 
they  having  done,  he  departed.  A  little  after,  he  fell 
into  a  gi'eat  passion ;  for  some  of  the  officers  of  the  cus- 
toms having  met  his  wife  carrying  a  small  quantity  of 
contraband  flour  in  her  apron,  they  laid  hold  on  her,  and 
carried  her  to  prison,  nor  would  set  her  at  liberty,  till 
Masaniello  had  sold  the  whole  of  his  fish  and  property 
to  pay  a  fine  of  a  hundred  ducats  which  was  the  price 
they  had  set  on  her  freedom.  He  then  resolved  to  make 
use  of  the  occasion  of  the  murmurings  of  the  people 
against  the  tax  on  fruits,  which  particularly  lay  heavy  on 
the  poorer  sort,  and  went  among  the  fruit  shops  that  lay 
in  that  quarter,  advising  them,  that  the  next  day  they 
should  come  all  united  to  market,  with  a  resolution  to  tell 
the  country  fruiterers  that  they  would  buy  no  more  taxed 
fruit. 

A  number  of  boys   used   to  assemble  in   the  market- 
place   to    pick    up   such   fruit  as  fell.       Masaniello  got 
among  these,  taught  them  some  cries  and  clamours  suit- 
ed 


MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES.  239 

ed  to  his  purpose,  and  enrolled  such  a  number  of  them 
between  16  and  17  years  of  age,  that  they  came  to  500, 
and  at  last  5000.  Of  this  Militia  he  made  himself  Gene- 
ral, giving  every  one  of  them  in  their  hands  a  little  weak 
cane.  The  shop-keepers  observing  his  instructions, 
there  happened  the  next  day  a  great  tumult  between  them 
and  the  fruiterers,  which  the  regent  of  the  city  sent  Ana- 
clerio,  the  elect  of  the  people,  to  quell.  Among  the  fruit- 
erers was  a  cousin  of  Masaniello's ;  who,  according  to  the 
instructions  given  him,  began  more  than  any  to  inflame  the 
people.  He  saw  that  he  could  not  sell  his  fruit,  but  at  a 
low  price;  which,  when  the  tax  was  paid,  would  not  quit 
cost.  He  fell  into  a  great  rage,  threw  two  large  baskets 
on  the  ground,  and  cried  out,  God  gives  plenty,  and  the 
bad  government  a  dearth ;  I  care  not  a  straw  for  this 
fruit,  let  every  one  take  of  it.  The  boys  eagerly  ran  to 
gather  and  eat  the  fruit.  Masaniello  rushed  in  among 
them,  crying.  No  tax!  No  tax!  But  Anaclerio threaten- 
ing him  with  whipping  and  the  gallies,  not  only  the  fruit- 
erers, but  all  the  people,  threw  figs,  apples,  and  other 
fruits  with  great  fury  in  his  face.  Masaniello  hit  him  on 
the  breast  with  a  stone,  and  encouraged  his  Militia  of 
boys  to  do  the  same ;  but  Anaclerio  saved  his  life  by 
flight. 

Upon  this  success,  the  people  flocked  in  great  numbers 
to  the  Market-place,  exclaiming  aloud  against  the  into- 
lerable grievances  under  which  they  groaned;  and  pro- 
testing their  resolution  to  submit  no  longer  to  them.  The 
fury  still  increasing,  Masaniello  leaped  upon  the  highest 
table  that  was  among  the  fruiterers,  and  harangued  the 
crowd  ;  comparing  himself  to  Moses,  who  delivered  the 
Egyptians  from  the  rod  of  Pharaoh  ;  to  Peter,  who  was  a 
fisherman  as  well  as  himself,  yet  rescued  Rome  and  the 
world  from  the  slavery  of  Satan  ;  promising  them  a  like 
deliverance  from  their  oppressors  by  his  means,  and  pro- 
testing 


240  MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES. 

testing  his  readiness  to  lay  down  his  life  in  such  a  glorious 
cause.  Masaniello  repeating  often  tliese  and  such-like 
words,  wonderfully  inflamed  the  minds  of  the  people,  who 
were  disposed  in  their  hearts  to  co-operate  with  him  to 
this  purpose. 

To  begin  the  work,  fire  was  put  to  the  house  next  the 
toll-house  for  fruit,  both  of  which  were  burnt  to  the  ground, 
with  all  the  books  and  accounts,  goods  and  furniture. 
This  done,  every  one  shut  up  his  shop;  and  the  numbers 
increasing,  many  thousand  people,  uniting  themselves, 
went  to  other  jjarts  of  the  city,  where  all  the  other  toll- 
houses were  :  them  they  plundered  of  all  their  writings 
and  books,  great  quantities  of  money,  with  many  rich 
moveables ;  all  of  which  they  threw  into  a  great  fire  of 
straw,  and  burnt  to  ashes  in  the  streets.  The  people, 
meeting  with  no  resistance,  assumed  more  boldness,  and 
made  towards  the  palace  of  the  Viceroy.  The  first  Mili- 
tia of  Masaniello,  consisting  of  2000  boys,  marched  on, 
every  one  lifting  up  his  cane  with  a  piece  of  black  cloth 
on  the  top,  and  with  doleful  and  loud  cries  excited  the 
compassion,  and  intreated  the  assistance  of  their  fellow- 
citizens.  Being  come  before  the  palace,  they  cried  out 
amain,  that  they  would  not  be  freed  of  the  fruit-tax  only, 
but  of  all  others,  especially  that  of  corn.  At  last  they 
entered  the  palace,  and  rifled  it,  notwithstanding  the  re- 
sistance of  the  guards,  whom  they  disarmed. 

The  Viceroy  got  into  his  coach  to  secure  himself  within 
the  church  of  St.  Lewis  ;  but  the  people  spying  him, 
stopped  the  coach,  and  with  naked  swords  on  each  side  of 
it,  threatened  him,  unless  he  would  take  off"  the  taxes.  With 
fair  promises  and  assurance  of  redress,  and  by  throw- 
ing money  among  the  multitude,  which  they  were  greedy 
to  pick  up,  he  got  at  last  safe  into  the  Church,  and 
ordered  the  doors  to  be  shut.  The  people  applied  to 
the    Prince  of    Bisagnano,    who  was   much  beloved   by 

them, 


MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES.         241 

them,  to  be  their  defender  and  intercessor.  He  pro- 
mised to  obtain  what  they  desired  ;  but  finding  himself 
unable,  after  much  labour  and  fatigue,  to  restrain  their 
licentiousness  or  quell  their  fury,  he  took  the  first  oppor- 
tunity of  disengaging  himself  from  the  labyrinth  of  that 
popular  tumult. 

After  the  retirement  of  the  prince,  the  people  finding 
themselves  without  a  head,  called  out  for  Masauiello  to 
be  their  leader  and  conductor ;  which  charge  he  ac- 
cepted. They  appointed  Genoino,  a  priest  of  approved 
knowledge,  temper,  and  abilities,  to  attend  his  person; 
and  to  him  they  added,  for  a  companion,  tlie  aforenamed 
famous  Banditto  Perrone.  Masaniello,  by  his  spirit, 
good  sense,  and  bravery,  won  the  hearts  of  all  the  people, 
insomuch  that  they  became  willing  to  transfer  unto  him 
solemnly  the  supreme  command,  and  to  obey  him  accord- 
ingly. 

A  stage  was  erected  in  the  middle  of  the  market-place, 
where,  clothed  in  white,  like  a  mariner,  he  with  his 
counsellors,  gave  public  audience,  received  petition?, 
and  gave  sentence  in  all  cases  both  civil  and  criminal. 
He  had  no  less  than  150,000  men  under  his  command. 
An  incredible  multitude  of  women  also  appeared  wiiii 
arms  of  various  sorts,  like  so  many  Amazons.  A  list  was 
made  of  above  60  persons,  who  had  farmed  the  taxes,  or 
been  some  way  concerned  in  the  custom-houses  ;  and, 
as  it  was  said,  they  had  enriched  themselves  with  the 
blood  of  the  people,  and  ought  to  be  made  exam])Ies  to 
future  ages,  an  order  was  issued  that  their  houses  and 
goods  should  be  burnt;  which  was  executed  accord- 
ingly, and  with  so  much  regularity,  that  no  one  was 
suffered  to  carry  away  the  smallest  article.  Many  for 
stealing  but  mere  trifles  from  the  flames  were  hanged  by 
the  public  executioner  in  the  market-place,  by  the  com- 
mand of  Masaniello. 

Vol.  II.  H  H 


242  MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES. 

Whilst  these  horrid  tragedies  were  acting,  the  Viceroy 
thought  of  every  method  to  appease  the  people,  and 
bring  them  to  an  accommodation.  He  applied  to  the 
Archbishop,  of  whose  attachment  to  the  government  he 
was  well  assured,  and  of  whose  paternal  care  and  affec- 
tion for  them,  the  people  had  no  doubt.  He  gave  them 
the  original  charter  of  Charles  V.  (which  exempted  them 
from  all  taxes,  and  upon  which  they  had  all  along  in- 
sisted) confirmed  by  lawful  authority,  and  also  an  in- 
lulgence  or  pardon  for  all  offences  whatsoever  com- 
mitted. 

The  bishop  found  means  to  induce  Masaniello  to  con- 
voke all  the  captains  and  chief  commanders  of  the  peo- 
ple together ;  and  great  hopes  were  conceived  that  an 
happy  accommodation  would  ensue.  In  the  mean  time, 
500  banditti,  all  armed,  on  horseback,  entered  the  city, 
under  pretence  that  they  came  for  the  service  of  the 
people,  but  in  reality  to  destroy  Masaniello,  as  it  appeared 
afterwards;  for  they  discharged  several  shots  at  him, 
some  of  which  narrowly  missed  him.  This  immediately 
put  a  stop  to  the  whole  business,  and  it  was  suspected 
that  the  Viceroy  had  some  hand  in  this  conspiracy.  The 
streets  were  immediately  barricaded,  and  orders  were 
given,  that  the  aqueduct  leading  to  the  castle,  in  which 
were  the  Viceroy  and  family,  and  all  the  principal  offi- 
cers of  state,  should  be  cut  off,  and  that  no  provision, 
except  some  few  roots  and  herbs  should  be  carried  thither. 
The  Viceroy  applied  again  to  the  archbishop,  to  assure 
the  people  of  his  good  intentions  towards  them,  his 
abhorrence  of  the  designs  of  the  banditti,  and  his  reso- 
lution to  use  all  his  authority  to  bring  them  to  due  punish- 
ment. Thus  the  treaty  was  again  renewed,  and  soon 
completed  ;  which  being  done,  it  was  thought  proper 
that  Masaniello  should  go  to  the  palace  to  visit  the 
Viceroy.     He  gave  orders  that  all   the  streets  leading  to 

it 


MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES,  243 

it  sLould  be  swept  clean,  and  that  all  masters  of  families 
should  hang  their  windows  and  balconies  with  their 
richest  silks  and  tapestrys.  He  threw  off  his  mariner's 
habit,  and  dressed  himself  in  cloth  of  silver,  with  a  fine 
plume  of  feathers  in  his  hat;  and,  mounted  upon  a  pranc- 
ing steed,  with  a  drawn  sword  in  his  hand ;  he  went 
attended  by  50,000  of  the  choicest  of  the  people. 

While  he  was  in  conference  with  the  Viceroy  in  the 
balcony,  he  gave  him  surprising  proofs  of  the  ready  obe- 
dience of  the  people ;  whatever  cry  he  gave  out,  it  was 
immediately  echoed ;  when  he  put  his  finger  upon  his 
mouth  there  was  a  profound  universal  silence,  that  scarce 
a  man  was  seen  to  breathe.  At  last,  he  ordered  that 
they  should  all  retire,  which  was  punctually  and  pre- 
sently obeyed,  as  if  they  had  all  vanished  away.  On 
the  Sunday  following  the  capitulations  were  signed  and 
solemnly  sworn  to  in  the  cathedral  church,  to  be  observed 
for  ever.  Masaniello  declared,  that  now  having  accom- 
plished his  honest  designs,  he  would  return  again  to  his 
former  occupation.  If  he  had  kept  this  resolution,  he 
might  justly  have  been  reckoned  one  of  the  greatest  heroes 
that  any  age  or  country  ever  produced.  But  as  it  is  di- 
versely reported,  either  through  the  instigations  of  his 
wife  and  kindred,  through  fear,  or  allured  by  the  tasted 
sweets  of  rule  and  power,  he  still  continued  his  authority  ; 
and,  what  is  worse,  exercised  it  in  a  very  capricious  and 
tyrannical  manner,  insomuch  that  his  best  friends  began 
to  be  afraid  of  him. 

It  has  been  thought  something  had  been  infused  into 
his  drink,  to  deprive  him  of  his  senses,  or,  what  is  equally 
probable,  that  he  had  drank  to  an  excess,  wholly  to  de- 
prive hiui  of  reason ;  but,  whatever  was  the  cause,  he 
certainly  conducted  himself  at  last,  in  a  very  improper 
manner ;  wantonly  cutting  and  maiming  every  person 
without    distinction,    galloping  along   the  streets  like   a 

H  H  £  maniac  : 


244  MASANIELLO,    THE    FISHERMAN    OF    NAPLES. 

maniac :  instead  of  being  followed  by  the  people,  as 
heretofore,  every  person  avoided  his  presence  ;  and  at 
last,  fatigued  and  exhausted,  he  took  refuge  in  the  church 
of  Carmine.  The  archbishop  sent  immediate  notice 
to  the  Viceroy,  and  Masaniello  was  in  the  mean  time 
taken  care  of  by  the  religious  of  the  church,  and  pro- 
vided with  refreshments,  after  the  fatigue  he  had  suffered 
by  his  violent  proceedings.  Some  gentlemen  who  thought 
they  should  be  doing  the  viceroy  an  acceptable  office, 
now  entei'ed  the  church ;  and  as  they  passed  through  the 
cloister  cried  out,  long  live  the  King  of  Spain,  and  let 
none  from  henceforth,  wpon  pain  of  deatky  ohey  Masaniello. 
The  people  did  not  oppose  these  gentlemen  in  their 
search,  but  on  the  contrary  made  way  for  them  ;  and 
th  ey  proceeded  to  the  convent  of  the  church,  searching 
and  enquiring  for  Masaniello.  This  unhappy  man, 
hearing  somebody  call  M;i?a;iiello,  runs  out  to  meet  his 
foes,  saying,  7s  it  me  you  look  for,  my  people  ?  Behold  I  am 
here  ;  but  all  the  answer  he  had  was  from  four  muskets,  that 
were  fired  upon  him  at  one  time,  by  Salvatone  Cataneo, 
Carlos  Cataneo,  Angelo  Ardezone,  and  Andrea  Rama. 
He  instantly  dropped  down  upon  the  place,  having  but 
just  time  to  cry  out.  Ah!  ungrateful  traitors,  he  breathed 
his  last.  Salvatone  Cataneo  then  cut  off  his  head,  and 
carried  it  directly  to  the  Viceroy,  to  the  terror  of  the 
rabble;  who,  to  the  amount  of  eight  or  ten  thousand,  were 
in  the  church  and  market-place;  and  far  from  avenging 
the  death  of  their  captain-general,  by  that  of  his  mur- 
derers, they  seemed  satisfied  and  motionless ;  and  in 
this  occurrence  gave  a  memoi'able  instance  of  the  incon- 
stancy of  the  populace,  whose  attachment  may  be  justly 
compared  to  a  broken  reed,  Mhich,  whoever  bears  upon 
is  sure  of  falling.  And  no  sooner  was  the  breath  out  of 
his  bofiy,  but  his  hi  herto  followers  first  procured  tlie 
body,  and    after  his  head,    and    dragged   them    through 

evcrv 


r.IANNEn    OI'    MAKING    A    NEW    FREEMAN.  245 

every  kennel  and  gutter  of  the  city,  and  finally  threw 
each  into  a  separate  ditch.  But  the  day  following,  as 
great  a  change  again  took  place  with  respect  to  his 
memory,  his  head  and  body  were  carefully  sought  after, 
and  when  found,  were  washed  free  from  the  filth  that  had 
defaced  them ;  and  the  most  sumptuous  funeral  ever  seen  in 
Naples  was  that  of  Masaniello,  being  followed  to  the 
cathedral  church  by  five  hundred  priests,  and  forty- 
thousand  other  persons.  The  ensigns  of  the  Spanish 
monarchy  lowered  their  banners  as  it  passed ;  and  the 
viceroy  sent  out  a  number  of  attendants  with  torches,  when 
it  passed  his  palace,  to  attend  the  procession,  and  honor 
him  in  death.  The  disturbance  in  Naples  began  July  7th 
1647,  and  ended  the  16th  of  the  same  month,  the  day 
Masaniello  was  killed,  after  ruling  nine  days. 

It  may  not  be  improper  to  remark,  that  about  one 
hundred  years  before,  in  the  year  1547,  a  Masaniello  put 
himself  at  the  head  of  a  mob,  on  the  introduction  of  the 
inquisition  at  Naples,  by  Philip  II.  This  Masaniello  was 
Captain  of  a  banditti. 

TO  THE   EDITOR  OF  THE  SCIENTIFIC  MUSEUM. 

Sin, 
If  the  following  s'mgular  custom  is  thought  worthy  a  place  in  your  entertain- 
ing publication,  it  will  be  the  means  of  my  endeavouring  to  furnish  you 
with  similar  articles. 

Yours,  &c. 

S.  D. 

X  HE  manner  of  makiuij;  anew  freeman,  of  Alnwick,  in 
the  county  of  Northumberland,  is  so  remarkable  and 
ludicrous,  that  an  able  historian  has  preserved  the  story 
from  whence  the  custom  is  derived.  This  curious  mode 
of  making  a  new  freeman  is  practised  in  its  full  force  to 
^he  pres.^nt  time,  and  within  a  very  few  )'cars  has  been 
complied  witli.      The  history  and    form  of  it  is  as  follows: 

In 


246  MANNKR    01'    MAKING    A    NEW    FREEMAN. 

In  the  reign  of  King  John,  that  monarch  attempted  to 
ride  across  Ahiwick  Moor,  then  called  the  forest  of  Aidon; 
he  fell  with  his  horse  into  a  bog  or  morass,  where  he 
stuck  so  fast  that  he  was  with  great  difficulty  pulled  out 
by  some  of  his  attendants. 

The  King,  incensed  against  the  inhabitants  of  that 
town,  for  not  keeping  their  roads  over  their  moor  in  bet- 
ter repair,  or  at  least  for  not  placing  some  post  or  mark 
pointing  out  the  particular  spots  which  were  impassable* 
inserted  in  their  charter  both  by  way  of  memento  and 
punishment,  that  for  the  future  all  new  created  freemen 
should  on  St.  Mark's  day  pass  on  foot  through  that 
morass,  called  the  Freemen's  well. 

In  obedience  to  this  clause  of  their  charter,  when  any 
new  freemen  are  to  be  made,  a  small  rill  of  water  which 
passes  through  the  morass  is  kept  dammed  up  for  a  day 
or  two,  previous  to  that  on  which  this  ciiremonial  is  to  be 
exhibited,  by  which  means  the  bog  becomes  so  thoroughly 
liquified  that  a  middle  sized  man  is  chin  deep  in  mud 
and  water  in  passing  over  it,  besides  which,  unlucky  wags 
frequently  dig  holes  and  trenches  ;  in  these,  filled  up  and 
rendered  invisible  by  the  fluid  mud,  several  freemen  have 
fallen  down  and  been  in  great  danger  of  sutfocation. 
In  short,  in  proportion  as  the  new  made  freemen  are  more 
or  less  popular,  the  passage  is  rendered  more  or  less  dif- 
ficult ;  at  the  best,  however,  it  is  scarcely  preferable  to 
the  punishment  of  the  horse  pond,  inflicted  by  the  mob  on 
a  detected  pick-pocket. 

The  day  being  come,  the  candidates,  for  they  are 
literally  so,  being  dressed  all  in  white,  preceded  by  a 
cavalcade,  consisting  of  the  Castle  Bailiff,  the  four  Cham- 
Derlains,  the  freemen  of  the  town,  and  a  band  of  music, 
repair  to  the  scene  of  action.  And  on  the  word,  or  a 
signal  being  given,  they  pass  through  the  bog,  each  being 
at  liberty  to  use  the  method  and  pace,  which  to  him  shall 

seem 


REMARKABLE    TRIAL.  247 

seem  best,  some  running,  some  going  slow,  and  some  at- 
tempting to  jump  over  suspected  places,  but  all  in  their 
turns,  tumbling  and  wallowing,  like  porpoises  at  sea,  or 
hogs  in  the  mire,  to  the  great  amusement  of  the  populace, 
who  usually  assemble  in  vast  numbers  on  this  occasion. 
This  scene  being  ovei*,  the  parties  return  to  the  town,  and 
endeavour  to  prevent  by  good  cheer  the  ill  effects  of  their 
mornings  exercise. 

REMARKABLE  TRIAL. 

In  the  Court  of  Kings-Bench^  brought  hy  a  Mrs.  Booty, 
against  Captain  Barnahy,  to  recover  the  sum  if  one 
thousand  pounds,  as  damages  for  the  scandal  of  his 
assertion,  that  he  had  seen  her  deceased  husband,  Mr, 
Booty,  a  receiver,  drove  into  Hell. 


N  this  remarkable  trial,  witnesses  were  brought  for- 
ward, who  proved  the  words  to  have  been  spoken  by 
Captain  Barnaby,  and  afterwards  by  his  wife ;  the  de- 
fence set  up  was,  that  the  defendant  had  spoke  no  more, 
than  had  been  seen  by  a  number  of  persons,  as  well  as 
himself;  to  prove  which,  the  journal  books  of  three  dif- 
ferent ships  were  produced  in  court,  and  the  following 
passages  recorded  in  each,  submitted  to  the  court  and 
jury  by  the  defendant's  council. 

Teusday,  l'2th  May,  1687. — This  day  the  weather 
cameS.  W.  a  little,  about^three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and 
about  four,  we  anchored  in  Manson-road,and  there  found 
in  the  road  Captain  Barnaby,  Captain  Bristow,  and 
Captain  Brown,  all  of  them  bound  for  the  island  of  Lis- 
sara,  to  load. 

Wednesday,  13th  May. — This  day,  about  ten  o'clock 
in  the  forenoon,  I  went  on  board  of  Captain  Barnaby, 
and  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  we  weighed,  and 

sailed 


248  REMARKABLE    TRIAL. 

sailed,  all  of  us,  for  the  island  of  Lissara,  the  wind  was 
W.  N.  W.  and  better  weather. 

Thursday,  14th  of  May. — About  two  o'clock  we  saw 
the  island  of  Lissara;  and  about  seven  we  came  to  an 
anchor  off  the  said  island,  in  twelve  fathoms  water,  and 
then  we  were  at  W.  S.  W. 

Friday,  15th  May. — We  had  the  observation  of  Mr. 
Booty  this  day,  Captain  Barnaby,  Captain  Bristow, 
Captain  Brown,  I,  and  Mr.  Ball,  merchant,  went  on  shore 
in  Captain  Barnaby's  boat,  to  shoot  rabbits  upon  Strom- 
boli ;  and  when  we  had  done,  we  called  all  our  men 
together  by  us,  and  about  half  an  hoar  and  fourteen 
minutes  after  three  in  the  afternoon,  to  our  great  sur- 
prise, we  all  of  us  saw  two  men  come  running  towards  us 
with  such  swiftness,  that  no  living;  man  could  run  half  so 
fast  as  they  did  run;  when  all  of  us  heard  Captam  Bar- 
naby say,  "  Lord  bless  me,  the  foremost  is  old  Booty, 
my  next  door  neighbour  ;  "  but  he  said,  he  did  not  know 
the  other  that  run  behind;  he  was  in  black  clothes  and 
the  foremost  was  in  grey  :  then  Captain  Barnaby  desired 
all  of  us,  to  take  an  account  of  the  time,  and  pen  it  down 
in  our  pocket  books,  and  when  we  got  on  board  we  wrote 
it  in  our  journals  ;  for  we  saw  them  into  the  flames  of 
fire,  and  there  was  a  great  noise,  which  greatly  affrighted 
us  all ;  for  we  none  of  us  ever  saw,  or  heard  the  like  be- 
fore. Captain  Barnaby  said,  "  he  was  certain  it  was  old 
Booty,  which  he  saw  running  over  Stromboli,  and  into  the 
flames  of  hell." 

Then  coming  home  to  England,  and  lying  at  Graves- 
end,  Captain  Barnaby's  wife  came  on  board  the  6th  day 
of  October,  1687  ;  at  which  time  Captain  Barnaby,  and 
Captain  Brown,  sent  for  Captain  Bristow,  and  Mr.  Ball, 
merchant,  to  congratulate  with  them  :  and  after  some  dis- 
course,   Captain    Barnaby's   wife   started    up,  and   said, 

"  my 


SOME    ACCOtNt    OF    StROMBOLl.  249 

"  my  dear,  I  will  tell  you  some  news,  old  Booty  is  dead  ;'* 
he  directly  made  answer/'  "  we  all  of  us  saw  hiui  run 
into  hell  !"  Afterwards  Captain  Barnaby's  wife  told  a 
Gentleman  of  his  acquaintance  in  Loudon,  vshat  her 
husband  had  said ;  and  he  went  aud  acquainted  xMrs. 
Booty  of  the  whole  affair  :  upon  that  Mri.  Booty 
arrested  Captain  Barnahy  in  a  thousand  pounds  action  ; 
for  what  he  had  said  of  her  husband  ;  Cap^  Barnaby  gave 
bail  to  it,  and  it  came  to  n  tri.-d  in  the  Court  of  king's 
Bench,  and  they  had  Mr.  Booty's  weanugapparei  brought 
into  Court,  and  the  Sexton  of  the  Pixrish,  and  the  people 
that  were  with  him  when  he  died  ;  and  they  swore  to  the 
time  he  died,  and  when  he  died;  and  we  swore  to  our 
journals,  and  it  came  to  the  same  time  within  about  tw<£' 
minutes  :  ten  of  our  men  swore  to  the  buttons  on  his 
coat,  and  that  they  were  covered  with  the  same  sort  of 
cloth  his  coat  was  made  ;  and  so  it  proved. 

The  jury  asked  Mr,  Spinks  (whose  hand  writing  in  the 
journal  that  happened  to  be  read  appeared)  if  he  knew 
Mr.  Booty,  he  answered  "  I  never  saw  him,  till  he  ran 
by  me  on  the  Burning  Mountains." 

Then  the  judge  said,  "  Lord  have  mercy  upon  me,  and 
grant  I  may  never  see  what  you  have  seen  ;  one,  two  or 
three  may  be  mistaken,  but  thirty  never  can  be  mis- 
taken."— So  the  widow  lost  her  cause. 

SOME    ACCOUNT    OF    STROMBOLI,    ONE  OF  TItE    LlTAia 
ISLANDS. 

oTROMBOLI,  the  most  northern  of  the  Lipari  Islands, 
is  a  volcano,  which  rises  in  a  conical  foi:n,  above  the  sur- 
face of  :he  sea.  On  the  east  side,  it  has  three  or  four 
little  craters  ranged  near  each  other,  not  at  the  summit^ 
but  on  the  declivity,  nearly  at  two  thirds  of  its  height. 
It  is  inhabited,  notwithstanding  its  tires ;  but  care  is 
taken  to  avoid  the  proximity  of  the  crater ;  which  is  yet 
Vol.  IL  i  x  much 


QSO  NORTMtJMBEIlLANII 

much  to  be  feared.  Of  all  the  Volcanos  recorded  ill 
history,  Stromboli  seems  to  be  the  only  one  that  buryis 
without  ceasing,  Etna  and  Vesuvius  often  lie  quiet  for 
many  months,  and  even  years,  without  the  least  ap* 
pearance  of  fire ;  but  Stromboli  is  ever  at  work,  and,  for 
ages  past,  has  been  looked  upon  as  the  great  lighthouse 
of  the  Mediterranean  sea. 


EXTRACT   FROM    THE    NORTHUMBERLAND   HOUSEHOLD 

BOOK. 

The  following  curious  Items,  were  preserved  in  a  Manuscript  Household 
Book,  kept  by  the  Steward  of  the  Northumberland  Family,  in  the  reign  of 
'Henry  the  Fourth :  Dr.  Percy,  Chaplain  to  the  late  Duke  of  Northumberland, 
superintended  the  printing  of  this  singular  book,  of  which  a  few  copies 
only  were  distributed  among  the  friends  of  the  family  about  twenty  years 
ago  ;  from  one  of  which  we  have  extracted  the  accounts,  offcasts  aud  offer- 
ings of  that  period; 

JrlRSTE  it  is  thoughte  that  Cranys  muste  be  hadde  nt 
Cristynmas  andc  outher  principalle  feists  for  my  lord's 
owne  meas  so  they  be  bought  at  x\jd  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  It  is  thoughte  in-like-wiea 
that  Hearonsewis  be  boughtc  for  my  lordes  owne 
meas  so  they  be  at  xijd.  th'e  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Pledeschanks  to  be 
boughte  at  principalle  feists  for  my  lords  own  meas  after 
jd.  ob.  the  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Bitters  for  my  lordc, 
owne  meas  at  principal  feists,  ande  to  be  at  x'ljd.  a  pece 
io  they  be  goode. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Fessauntis  for  my  lordes 
owne  meas,  to  be  had  at  principalle  feists,  and  to  be  at 
xijf7.  a  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  PtEis  to  be  hadde  for  my 
lordes  owne  meas  at  principal  feists,  ande  atij(ia  pece. 

At 


HOUSEHOLD    BOOK.  251 

At  principal  Feists.— Item,  Siiolardis  to  be  hadde  for 
my  lords  owne  meas  at  principal  feists,  and  to  be  at  \jd. 
a  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Kirlewis  to  be  hadde  for 
my  lords  owne  meas  at  principal  feitses,  ande  to  be  at 
xijf/.  a  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Pacokks  to  be  hadde  for 
my  lordes  owne  meas  at  principal  feistes,  and  at  x'ljd.  a 
pece  ;  and  no  Payhennes  to  be  bowght. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item.  Seepies  for  my  lorde  at 
principal  feists,  ande  noone  onther  tynie. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Wegionnes  for  my  lorde 
at  principal  feistes,  ande  noone  outher  tyme,  ande  jd.  ob. 
the  pece,  excepte  my  lordes  comandement  be  outherwis. 
At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Knottis  for  my  lorde  at 
principalle  feists,  and  noone  outher  tyme,  ande  at  jd.  a 
pece,  except  my  lords  comaundement  be  otherwis. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Dottreelis  to  be  bought 
for  my  lorde  when  they  ar  in  seasonne,  ande  to  be  at  a 
penny  a  pece. 

At  principal  Feists. — Item,  Bustardes  for  my  lordes 
owne  meas  at  principall  feists,  ande  noon  outher  tyme 
except  my  lords  comaundement  be  otherwis. 

Ai  principal  Feists. — Item,  Tearnes  for  my  lordes 
owne  meas  oonclie  at  principalle  feists,  and  noon  outher 
tyme  aftir  iiij  a  penny,  excepte  my  lordes  comaundement 
be  outherwis. 

Extracts  from  the  Northumberland  Household-book  con- 
tinued, p.  331. 

ALMANER  of  Rewardes  Customable  used  Yerly  by 
my  Lorde  tobeYeven  ande  Paidcby  his  Lordischipe  from 
Michaelmas  to  Michaelmas  yerely  as  it  doiih  appeire  in 
the  Booke  of  his  Lordshipe  Foren  Expences  of  every 
Yere  what  Customable  Payments  they  be  that  my  Lorde 

I  i  2  usith 


^5$  NORTHUMBERLANO 

usith  yerly  ancle  for  what  causes thej  be  Yeven  ande  wher- 
forevery  Some  is  paide  ande  for  what  consideracion  as  well 
for  Waiges  and  Fees  paide  owt  yerely  of  his  Lordes- 
chippe  CofFures  '  as  '  Rewardis  Customable  used  yerly  by 
my  Lorde  at  New  Yers  Day  ande  other  tymes  of  the 
Yere  His  Lordschipe  ande  my  Ladies  Offerings  at  prin- 
cipal! Feists  yerly  accustomed  Ande  Rewards  usede 
Customable  to  be  Yeven  yerely  to  Strangers  as  Players 
Mynstralls  ande  others  as  the  Some  of  every  Rewarde 
particulerly  With  the  Consderacion  why  ande  wherefore 
it  is  Yeven  With  the  names  of  the  Parsones  to  whom 
the  saide  Rewards  be  Yeven  more  playnly  hereafter  fol- 
owith  ande  apperith  in  this  Booke  Which  be  Ordynary 
and  Accustomable  Payments  by  my  Lorde  usede  Yerly  if 
the  tyraes  so  requier. 


All  Maner  of  Offerings  for  my  Lorde  ande  my 
Lady  ande  my  Lordis  Childeren  Customable  used 
yerly  at  Principall  Feasts  ande  other  Offeringe- 
Dayes  in  the  Yere  as  the  Consideracion  Whye 
more  playnly  hereafter  followith. 

FuRST.  My  Lordis  Offerringeaccustomede  uponAlhallow 
day  yerely  W^hen  his  Lordshippe  is  at  home  at  the 
Highe  Mas  jf  he  kepe  Chapell xijc?. 

Item.  My  Ladis  Offerringe  accustomede  upon  Alhal- 
lowe-day  yerely  If  sche  offer  at  the  Highe  Masse  if 
my  L'>rde  kepe  Chapell  to  be  paid  owt  of  my  Lords 
Coffures  if  sche  be  at  my  Lordis  Fyndinge  ande  not  ^t 
hir  owen viijc?. 

Item,  My  Lordes  Offeringe  accustomed  upon  Cristyn- 
mas-day  yerely  When  his  Lordshipe  is  at  home  at 
the  Highe  Mas  if  he  kepe  Chapell x\]d. 

Item.  lVi\  Ladies  Olferince  upon  Cristynmas-day  yerly 
at  the  Higlie  Mas  if  my  Lorde  kepe  Chapell  to  be 

paide 


HOUSEHOLD    BOOK.  253 

paide  owt  of  my  Lordis  CoiFures  if  sche  be  at  my 
Lordis  fyndynge  ande  not  at  her  even v'njd. 

Item.  MyLordisOfteringeupon  SayntStepbyns  dayeWhen 
his  Lordschipp  his  at  home  a  groit  to  bow  at  a  Lawe 
Mas  in  his  closett iiije?. 

Item.  My  Lordis  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  New-Yers- 
day  yerely  When  his  Lordescip  is  at  home  at  the  High 
Mas  if  he  kepe  Chapell x'ljd. 

Item.  My  Ladies  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  New- 
Yers-doy  yerely  at  the  High  Mas  if  my  Lorde  kepe 
Chapell  to  be  paid  owt  of  my  Lordis  Coffures  if  sche 
be  at  my  Lords  fyndinge  and  not  at  hir  owen — viijrf. 

Item.  My  Lords  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  the  xijth 
Day  yerely  When  his  Lordschipe  is  at  home  At  the 
High  Mas  if  he  kepe  Chapell-^ xijd. 

Item.  My  Ladies  Offeringe  accustomed  uppon  the  xijth 
Day  yerely  at  the  High  Mass  if  my  Lorde  kepe  Cha- 
pell to  be  paide  owt  of  my  Lords  Coffures  if  sche  be  at 
my  Lordis  fyndinge  and  not  at  hir  owen — viijc?. 

Item.  My  Lordis  Offerynge  accustomede  upon  Candil- 
mas-Day  ?yerely  to  be  sett  in  his  Lordschippis  Candill 
to  offer  at  the  High  Mas  when  his  Lordschipp  is  at 
home  V  groits  for  the  v  joyes  of  our  Lady — xxd. 

Item.  My  Laidis  Offerynge  uppon  Candilmae-daie  yerely 
to  be  sett  in  hir  Candill  to  offer  at  the  High  Mas  iij 
groitts  to  be  paid  owt  of  my  Lordis  Coffures  if  sche  be 
at  my  Lordis  fyndynge  and  not  at  hir  owen — xijd. 

Item.  My  Lorde  useth  and  accomyth  yerely  upon  Can- 
dilmas-Day  to  caus  to  be  Delyveride  for  the  Offeringe 
of  my  Lords  Son  and  Hcire  the  Lorde  Percy  to  be  sett 
in  his  Candill  \jd,  Ande  for  every  of  my  Vongc  Mas- 
ters my  Lords  Yonge  Sonnes  to  be  sett  in  the  Candills 
afforethe  Offeringe  jd.  for  aithcr  of  them h\jd. 

Item.  My  Lordis  Offeringe  accustomrd  ycrly  upon  Saint 

Blayes 


254  NORTHUMBERLAND 

Blayes  Day  to  be  sett  in  his  Lordschippc  Candill  to 

offer  at  Hye  Mas  if  his  Lordschyp  kepe  Chapell 

iiij<^. 

Item.  My  Laidis  Offer  Inge  accustomedeyerely  upon  Saint 
Blayes  Day  to  be  sett  in  hir  Candill  to  offer  at  the  Hye 
Mass  to  be  paid  owt  of  my  Lordis  Coffures  if  sche  be  at 
my  Lordis  fyndynge  and  not  at  hir  owen iiijc?. 

Item.  My  Lorde  useth  and  accustomyth  yerly  upon  Saynt 
Blays  Days  to  cause  to  be  delyveride  for  the  Offeryngc 
of  my  Lordis  Sone  and  Heire  the  Lorde  Percy  to  sett  in 
his  Candill  jd.  Ande  for  every  of  my  Yonge  Masters 
my  Lords  Yonger  Sonnes  to  sett  in  their  Cand ills  after 
jd.  for  every  of  them  for  ther  Offerings  this  said  day 
iijc?. 

Item.  My  Lordis  Offeringe  accustomede  uppon  Goode- 
Fridayyerely  if  his  Lordschipp  be  at  Home  and  kepe 

Chapell  when  his  Lordschipe  crepith  the  Cros 

iiijc?. 

Item.  My  Ladis  Offerringe  accustomede  yerely  upon 
Good  Friday  when  she  crepith  the  Crosse  to  be  paide 
owt  of  my  Lordis  Coffures  if  sche  is  at  my  Lordis  fyn- 
dinge  and  not  at  hir  own iujd. 

Item.  My  Lorde  useth  and  accustomoth  yerely  when  his 
Lordschip  is  at  home  to  cans  to  be  delyveride  for  the 
Offerrings  of  my  Lordis  Sonc  and  Heire  the  Lord  Percy 
upon  the  said  Good  Friday  when  he  crepith  the  Crose 
ijj.  Ande  for  every  of  my  Yonge  Maisters  my  Lordis 
Yonger  Sonnes  after  j^,  to  every  of  them  for  ther  Offer- 
inges  when  they  Crepe  the  Cros  the  said  Good-Friday 

iiijJ. 

Item.  My  Lordis  Offeringe  accustomede  yerely  uppon 

Ester-Evyn  when  his  Lordshipp  takyth  his  Rights 

iujd. 
Item.  My  Ladis  Offeringe  accustomede  yerely  upon  Eslur- 

Evyn 


liOUSEHOLD  BOOK.  ^55 

Evyn  when  hir  Ladischipe  taketh  hir  rights  if  sche  be 
at  my  Lords  fyndynge  and  not  at  hir  owen iiijc?. 

Item.  My  Lorde  usith  and  accustomyth  yerly  to  caus  to 
be  delyyerid  to  his  Lordschippis  Children  that  be  of 
Aige  to  take  there  Rights  for  them  to  offer  upon  Esters 

^   Even  after  ijd.  to  every  of  them 

Item.  My  Lorde  usith  and  accustometh  yerely  to  caus  to 
be  delyvrede  to  every  of  his  Lordschipps  Wardis  or 
Hansman  or  anny  other  Yonge  Gentilmen  that  be  at 
his  Lordschipes  fyndyinge  Ande  be  of  Aige  to  take  ther 
Rights  after  ijd.  a  pece  to  every  such  Parson 

Item.  My  Lords  Offerynge  accustomede  yerely  upon 
Ester-Day  in  the  mornynge  when  his  Lordshipe  Cre- 
pith  the  Cros  after  the  Resurreccion  if  his  Lordschippe 
be  at  home  and  kepe  ChapcU iiijrf. 

Item.  My  Ladis  Offering  accustomede  yerly  upon  Ester- 
Daye  in  the  mornynge  when  hir  Ladyschip  Crepith  the 
Cros  after  the  Resurreccion  to  be  paide  owt  of  my  Lor- 
dis  Coffures  if  she  be  at  my  Lordis  findinge  and  not  at 
hir  owen iiijc?. 

Item.  My  Lord  useth  and  accustomethe  upon  Ester-Day 
in  the  mornynge  to  caus  to  be  delyverid  to  my  Lords 
Eldest  Son  the  Lord  Percy  and  to  every  of  my  Yonge 
Masters  my  Lords  yonger  Sones  after  jc?.  to  every  of 
them  to  offer  when  they  Creep  the  Cross  the  said  day 
after  the  Resurreccion iijtZ. 

Item.  My  Lords  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  Ester-Day 
yerely  when  his  Lordschip  is  at  home  at  the  High  I^Ias 
if  my  Lorde  kepe  Chapell xijc/. 

Item.  My  Ladis  Oflerenge  accustoniide  upon  Estir-Day 
yerely  at  the  High  Mas  if  my  Lorde  kepe  Chapell  to 
be  paid  owt  of  ray  Lords  Coffures  if  she  be  at  my  Lords 

fyndinge  and  not  at  hir  owen viijf/. 

Item.  My  Lorde  usith  and  accustomyth  upon  Ester-Day 
yerely  when  his  Lordschip  is  at  home  if  my  Lorde 

kepe 


'Si56  NORTHUMBERLAND 

Icepe  Chapell  to  caus  to  be  delyvered  to  my  Lord? 
Eldest  Sone  the  Lord  Percy  ande  to  every  of  ray  Yonge 
Masters  my  Lords  Yonger  Sonnes  After  jd.  every  of 
them  for  them  to  offer  the  said  Ester-Day  in  the  Cha- 
pell at  the  Hye  Mass njd. 

Item.    My  Lordis   Offirynge   accustomede  upon  Saynt 
George-Day  yerly  at  the  Hye  Mas  when  his  Lords- 
chyppe  is  at  home  and  kepith  Saynt  George  Feast — xd. 
Item.  My  Lordis  Offerlnge  accustomyde  at  the  Mea  of 
Requiem  uppon  the  morowe  after  Saynt  George-Day 
when  his  Lordschip  is  at  home  and  kepith  Saynt  George 
Feast  which  is  accustomede  ycrely  to  be  don  for  the 
Saullis  of  all  the  Knightes  of  th'  Order  of  the  Garter 
Departede  to  the  Mercy  of  God — iiijc?. 
Item.  My  Lorde  uselh  and  accustomyth  when  he  is  at 
home  ande  kipith  Dergen  over  Night  and  Mes  of  re- 
quiem uppon  the  morowe  my  Lord   his  Father  xij. 
Month  Mynde  to  offer  at  the  Mas  of  Requiem — iiijc?. 
Item.  My  Lorde  usith  and  accustomyth  yerely  when  his 
Lordschiy  is  at  home  to  caus  to  be  delyvered  to  my 
Lordis  Eldest  Sone  and  Heyre  the  Lorde  Percy  ande 
to  ever}'^  of  my  Yonge  Masters  my  Lords  Yonger  Sons 
after  jd.  to  every  of  them  for  them  to  offer  this  said 
daye  at  the  said  Mes  of  Requiem  Done  for  my  Lords 
Father  xij.  Month  Mynde — iijc?. 
Item.  My  Lordis  Ofl'erynge  accustomed  uppon  the  Assen- 
cion-Day  yerly  when  liis  Lordeschip  is  at  home  at  the 
High  Mas  if  he  kepe  Chapell — x'ljd. 
Item.  My  Ladies  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  the  Assen- 
cion-Day  yerly  at  the  Hy  Mas  in  the  Chapell  to  be 
paid  owt  of  my  Lordis  Coffures  if  she  be  at  my  Lordis 
fyndynge  and  not  at  hir  owne — viijc?. 
Item.  My  Lords  Offeringe  accustomede  upon  Whitson- 
day  yerely  at  the  Hye  Mas  in  the  Chapell  when  his 
Lordschip  is  at  home — xijd. 

A  SINGULAR 


(     257     ) 

A  SINGULAR  MURDER. 

A  Singular  and  Interesting  relation  of  a  Murder. 

In  the  year  ]f>13,  a  Mrs.  Clarke,  keeper  of  the  Blue-Bell 
Inn,  opposite  the  Free  School,  in  Leicester,  was  robbed 
and  murdered  by  her  servant-maid  and  seven  men.  The 
relation  being  singular  and  interesting,  I  shall  give  it  as 
told  by  Sir  Roger  Twisden,  who  had  it  from  persons  of 
undoubted  credit,  who  were  not  only  inhabitants  of 
Leicester,  but  saw  the  murderers  executed.  "  When 
King  Richard  III.  marched  into  Leicester,  against  Hen r\'. 
Earl  of  Richmond,  afterwards  Henry  VH.  he  lay  at  the 
Blue  Bear  Inn,  in  the  town  of  Leicester,  where  was  left 
a  large  wooden  bedstead,  gilded  in  some  places ;  which 
after  his  defeat  and  death  in  the  battle  of  Bosworth,  was 
left,  either  through  haste,  or  as  a  thing  of  little  value, 
(the  bedding  being  all  taken  from  it)  to  the  people  of  the 
house ;  thence-forward  this  old  bedstead,  which  was 
boarded  at  the  bottom,  (as  the  manner  was  in  those  days) 
became  a  piece  of  standing  furniture,  and  passed  from 
tenant  to  tenant  with  the  inn. 

In  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth  this  house  was  kept 
by  one  Mr.  Clarke,  who  put  a  bed  on  this  bedstead,  which 
his  wife  going  to  make  hastily,  and  jumbling  the  bed- 
stead a  piece  of  gold  dropped  out.  This  excited  the 
woman's  curiosity ;  she  narrowly  examined  this  antique 
piece  of  furniture,  and  finding  it  had  a  double  bottom, 
took  off  the  uppermost  with  a  chisel,  upon  which  sire  dis- 
covered the  space  between  them  filled  with  gold  ;  part  of 
it  coined  by  Richard  HI,  and  the  rest  of  it  in  earlier 
times. 

Mr.  Clarke  (her  husband)  concealed  this  piece  of  good 
fortune,  though  by  degrees,  the  effects  of  it  made  it 
known,  lor  he  became  rich  from  a  low  condition,  and  in 
the  space  of  a  feu  years  mayor  of  the  town:    and  then 

Vol.  II.  K  k  the 


258  A    bTNGULAR    MURDEE. 

the  story  of  the  bedstead  came  to  be  rumoured  by  the 
servants.  At  his  death 'he  left  his  estate  to  his  wife,  who 
still  continued  to  keep  the  inn,  though  she  was  known  to 
be  very  rich  ;  wliich  put  some  wicked  persons  upon  en- 
gaging the  maid  servant  to  assist  in  robbing  her.  These 
folks,  to  the  number  of  seven,  lodged  in  the  house,  plun- 
dered it,  and  carried  off  some  ho^-se  loads  of  valuable 
things  ;  and  yet  left  a  considerable  quantity  of  valuables 
scattered  about  the  floor.  As  for  Mrs.  Clarke  herself,  who 
was  very  fat,  she  endeavoured  to  cry  out  for  help,  upon 
which  her  maid  thrust  her  lingers  down  her  throat  and 
choakedher,  for  which  fact  she  was  burnt;  and  the  seven 
men,  who  were  her  accomplices,  were  hanged  at  Leicester 
■jome  time  in  the  vear  l6l3. 


Particular  account  of  Mr.  Hastings,  who  lived  at  JVoocl- 
lands  in  the  year  lG38  ;  from  an  ancient  manuscript 
communicated  bij, 

May,  lSo4,  J.  P. 

JLN  the  year  1638  lived  Hx.  Hastings,  by  his  qualit}^  son, 
brother,  and  uncle,  to'the  Earls  of  Huntingdon.  He  was 
peradventure  an  original  in  our  age,  or  rather  the  copy 
of  our  anticnt  nobihtv,  in  huatins;  and  in  warlike  times. 
He  was  low  of  stature,  very  strong  and  very  active,  of  a 
reddish  flaxen  hair  ;  his  clothes  always  green  cloth,  and 
never  worth,  when  new,  five  pounds.  His  house  was  pt- r- 
fectly  of  the  old  fashion,  in  the  midst  of  a  large  park 
well  stocked  with  deer;  and  near  the  house  was  a  rabbit 
warren,  to  serve  his  kitchen;  many  fish  ponds,  great  store 
of  wood  and  timber;  a  bowling  green  in  it,  long  but 
narrow,  full  of  high  ridges,  it  being  never  levelled  since 
it  was  plowed;  they  used  round  sand  bowls,  and  it  had  a 
banquctting  house  like  a  stand,  also  a  large  one  built  in  u 
tree.   Ho  kept  all  manner  of  sport  hounds  that  run,  buck, 

fox. 


PARTICULAR    ACCOUNT    OF    MR.  HASTINGS.        2o!> 

lox,  hare^  otter^  and  badger;  aird  hawks,  long  and  short 
winged.     He  had  all  sorts  of  nets  for  fish  ;  he  had  a  walk 
in  the  new  forest;,  in  the  parish  of  Christ  Church.     This 
last  supplied  him  with  red  deer,  sea  and  river  fish,  and 
indeed  all  his  neighbours  grounds  and  royalties  were  free 
to  him  who  bestowed  all  his  time  in  these  sports ;  but  what 
he  borrowed   to  caress  his  neiarhboursj  wives,  s,isters,  or 
daughters;  there  being  not  a  woman  in  all  his  walks  of 
the  degree  of  a  ycomans  wife   or  under,  and  under  the 
age  of  forty,  but  it  was  CMtremely  her  fault  if  he  was  not 
acquainted  with  her.    This  made  him  very  popular,  alvvays 
speaking  kindly  to  the  husband,  brother,  or  father,  who 
was  to  be  very  welcome  to  his  house  whenever  he  came  j 
there  he  found  beef,  pudding,  and   small   beer   in  great 
plent}^     A  house  not  so  neatly  kept  as  to  shame  him  or 
his  dusty    slaves,  the  great   hall   strewed  with  marrow 
bones,  full  of  hawks  perches,   hounds,  spaniels,  and  tar-' 
riers  ;  the  upper  part  of  the  hall  hung  with    the  foxes 
skins,  of  this  and  the  last  years  killing;  here  and  there  a 
pole-cat,  intermixed  game   keepers,  and  hunter  poles  in 
great  abundance.     The  parlour  was  a  large  long  room,  as 
properly  furnished  ;  on  a  great  hearth  paved   with  brick,' 
lay  some  small  favourite-  tarricrs,  and  the  cJioiccst  hounds 
and  spaniels;  seldom  but  two  of  the  great  chairs  had  lit- 
ters of  young  cats  in   them,   which  were  not  to  be    dis- 
turbed, alw'ays  three  or  four  of  these  animals  attended 
liim  at  dinner,  and  a  little  whiU"  louud  stick  of  fourteen 
inches  long  lying  by  his  trencher,  that  he  might  defend 
such  meat  as  he   had    no   mind    to    part   with    to  them. 
The  windows,  which  were  very  large,  served  for  places  to' 
lay  his  arrows,  sling  bows,  and  cross  bows,  and  other  such 
like  accoutrements.     The  corners  of  the  room  full  of  the 
best  chosen  hunting  and    hawking  poles;   an  ovster  table 
at  the  lower  end,  which  wus  in  constant  use  twice  a  dav, 
all  the  year  round,  for  he  never  failed  to  eat  oysters  be- 

K  k  2  for« 


2()0  PARTICULAR    ACCOUNT    OF    MR.    HASTINGS. 

fore  dinner  and  supper  through  all  the  seasons;  the 
neighbouring  town  of  Poole  supplied  him  with  them. 
The  upper  "part  of  the  room  had  two  small  tables  and  a 
desk,  on  the  one  side  of  which  was  a  chm-ch  bible,  on  the 
other  the  book  of  martyrs ;  on  the  tables  were  haw^ks 
heads,  bells,  and  such  like,  two  or  three  old  green  hats 
with  their  crowns  thrust  in,  so  as  to  hold  ten  or  a  dozen- 
eggs^  which  were  of  a  pleasant  kind  of  poultry,  of  which' 
he  took  much  care  and  fed  himself.  Tables,  dice  boxes, 
apd  ca  ds  were  not  wanting ;  in  the  hole  of  the  desk 
were  store  of  tobacco  pipes  thai  had  been  used.  On  one 
side  of  this  end  of  the  room  was  the  door  of  the  closet, 
wherein  stood  the  strong  beer  and  the  wine,  which  never 
came  there  but  in  single  glasses,  that  being  the  rule  of 
the  house  exactly  observed,  for  he  never  exceeded  in  drink 
or  pcraiitted  it;  on  the  other  side  was  the  door  into  an 
old  chapel  not  used  for  devotion.  The  pulpit,  as  the 
safest  place,  was  never  wanting  of  a  cold  chine  of  beef 
and  venison  pasty,  gammon  of  bacon  or  great  apple  pye 
with  thick  crust  extremely  baked  j  this  table  cost  him  not 
iTjuch,  though  it  was  good  to  eat  at,  the  sports  supplied 
almost  all  but  beef  and  mutton,  except  Fridays,  when  he 
had  the  best  salt  fish,  as  well  as  other  fish  he  could  get, 
and  was  the  day  his  neighbours  of  best  quality  most  vi- 
sited him.  He  never  w^anted  a  London  pudding,  and 
always  sung  it  in,  with  the  best  eyes  therein  .;  when  he 
drank  a  glass  or  two  of  wine,  at  meals  very  often  S3Tup 
of  gilly-flpwers  in  his  sack^  and  had  always  a  tall  glass 
w-ithout  feet  standing  by  him,  hol(iing  a  pint  of  small 
beer,  which  he  often  stirred  with  rosemary.  He  was  well 
iiatured,  but  soon  angry,  calling  his  servants  bastards, 
cuckolds,  and  knaves  ;  in  one  of  which  he  often  spoke  truth 
to, his  own  knowledge,  and  sometimes  in  both,  though  of 
the  jame  man.  He  lived  to  be  an  hundred,  never  lost 
^    ■  hi^ 


A    REMARKABLE    IMPOSTURE.  26l 

his  eye-sight^  but  always  wrote  and  read  without  spec- 
tacles, and  got  on  horse  back  without  help  till  past  four- 
\      score;  he  rid  to  the  death  of"  the  stag  as  well  as  any. 


A  REMARKABLE  IMPOSTURE. 

i-N  the  year  17G2,  a  hoy  of  Bilson,  who  was  onl}-  13 
years  of  age,  by  instruction  so  conducted  himself  before 
the  public  that  the  spectators  were  induced  by  his  ex- 
traordinary fits,  agitations,,  and  tlie  surprising  distempers 
wherewith  he  seemed  to  be  affected,  to  believe  hhn  to  be 
possessed  of  a  devil  and  hezvitched.  In  his  fits  he  seemed 
to  be  both  deaf,  and  blind,  writhing  his  mouth,  continually 
groaning  and  panting.  And  although  often  pinched  with 
men's  fingers,  pricked  with  needles,  tickled  on  the  sides, 
whipped  severely  with  rods,  and  treated  with  other  cor- 
rections, he  was  never  known  to  discover  the  least  sense 
of  what  was  done  unto  him.  When  he  was  thought  to 
"be  out  of  his  fits,  he  digested  nothing  given  him  for 
nourishment,  but  would  often  surprize  the  company  by 
casting  rags,  thread,  straws,  crooked  pins,  needles,  &c. 
out  of  his  mouth ;  by  such  means  his  belly  grew  almost 
as  flat  as  his  back ;  his  throat  swelled  and  grew  hard, 
his  tongue  seemed  to  be  stiff  and  rolled  up  to  the  roof 
of  his  mouth,  so  that  he  seemed  always  dumb;  had  he 
not  vouchsafed  to  speak  a  few  words  once  a  fortnight 
or  three  weeks.  This  impostor  proceeded  so  far  as  to  ac- 
cuse a  poor,  honest,  industrous  old  moman,  named  Joan 
Cook,  of  Witchcraft,  and  of  bewitching  him  in  particular; 
and  by  his  artful  behaviour,  when  she  was  brought  ever 
60  secretly  "into  the  room  where  he  was,  raised  a  strong 
presumption  of  the  truth  of  his  accusation,  for  which 
crime  of  witchcraft  the  poor  woman  was  apprehended, 
and  obliged  to  take  her  trial  at  the  Stafford  assizes,  to 

the 


263  A    REMARKABLE    IMPOSTURE. 

the  manifest  danger  of  her  life,  but  was  acquitted  by  the 

jury- 

The  judges  then  committed  the  care  of  the  boy  to  the 

Bishop  of  Litchfied  and  Coventry,  then  present  in  court, 
who  carried  him  to  his  palace  at  Eccleshall ;  and  there 
having  first  taken  the  advice  of  well  approved  physicians 
concerning  the  state  of  his  body;  his  Lordship  did  intend 
to  proceed  with  him  by  severities,  but  in  the  mean  time 
•was  informed  that  the  boy  always  fell  into  agitation  and 
violent  fits,  upon  hearing  the  words  of  St.  John's  Gospel. 
In  the  beginning  was  the  zcord,  S)'c.  he  resolved  to  begin 
with  this  experiment. 

**"  Boy,"  said  the  Bishop,  '"'  it  is  cither  thou  thyself  or  the 
devil  that  abhorrest  those  words  of  the  Gospel ;  and  if  it 
be  the  devil  there  is  no  doubt  but  he  understandeth  all 
languages  ;  so  that  he  cannot  but  know,  and  shew  his 
abhorrence,  when  I  recite  the  same  sentence  in  the 
Gospel  out  of  the  Greek  text;  but  if  it  be  thyself,  then 
thou  art  an  execrable  wretch  who  playest  the  devils  part, 
in  loathing  that  part  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  which  above 
all  other  scriptures,  doth  express  the  admirable  union  of 
the  godhead  and  manhood,  in  one  Christ  and  Saviour 
which  union  is  the  arch-pillar  of  man's  salvation  ;  there- 
fore look  to  thyself,  for  now  thou  art  to  be  put  unto  trial, 
and  mark  diligently  whether  it  be  the  same  scripture 
which  shall  be  read  unto  thee  out  of  the  Greek  Testa- 
ment, at  the  reading  whereof,  in  the  English  tongue  thou 
doth  seem  to  be  so  much  troubled  and  tormented." 

Then  the  Bisliop  read  untp  him  the  12th  instead  of  the  1st. 
verse  of  the  first  chapter  of  St.  John,  which  the  pretended 
Demoniac  supposing  to  be  the  first  verse,  he  as  usual  fell 
into  a  fit,  which  being  soon  over,  the  Bishop  then  read  the 
real  first  verse  in  Greek;  buthe  supposing  this  was  some 
other  text,  shewed  no  ^ort  of  emotion  at  this  reading. 

Here 


WONDERS   ON    THE    DEEP.  £6,'? 

Here  the  Bishop  would  have  rested  the  detection  of 
.the  impostures,  and  the  youngster  seemed  greatly  con- 
founded at  his  own  mistake;  hut  recovering  himself,  and 
resuming  various  sensations  and  postures,  he  excused  him- 
self to  the  company  by  i)retending  he  was  disturbed  by  the 
appearance  of  two  mice,  complained  of  great  sickness;  and 
in  order  to  get  home  to  his  father's  house  he  would  ans'ver 
no  more  questions;  but  by  writing,  as  well  as  hecould,sig- 
nified  that  he  was  troubled  with  a  violent  pain  in  his  belly. 
To  confirm  his  complaint  he  next  day  contrived  to  make 
water  as  black  as  ink,  and  continued  so  to  do  for  two 
days  with  tokens  of  great  pain.  A  circumstance  which 
alarmed  the  Bishop  greatly,  and  had  well  nigh  obtained 
his  dismission  before  the  imposture  could  be  sufiicentlv 
made  out  to  quiet  the  minds  of  the  divided  people.  But 
by  diligence  and  narrow  watching,  it  was  on  the  third 
day  discovered  that  he  made  black  water  by  the  help  of 
an  inkhorn  which  stood  in  one  corner  of  the  room;  and 
being  taken  in  the  fact,  he  confessed,  and  related  the 
manner  of  imposing  so  many  ways  upon  the  public. 

Yours,  &c. 

CAROLUS 

WONDERS  OF  THE  DEEP. 

Being  an  exact  Tcpreseiitation  of  the  River  Thames,  as  it 
appeared  during  the  memorable  Frost,  zchich  began  about 
the  middle  of  December,  and  ended  on  the  2Sth  of 
February  follozcing,  anno  1683-4. 

1  HIS  frost  continued  with  such  violence,  that  men  and 
beasts,  coaches  and  carts,  went  as  frequently  thereon,  a© 
boats  were  wont  to  pass  before.  The  curious  tieTC  zee  have 
engraved  from  a  7)iost  rare  and  valuable  original,  represents 
an  exact  prospect  ofan  assemblage  of  booths,  that  reached 
from  the  Tem})lc  to  Southwark,  and  was  called  Freezland'^ 
Street,  alias  Blanket  Fair ;    where  was  sold  all  sorts  of 

'■ood's 


£64  WONDERS    ON    THE    DEEP. 

goods  imaginable  :  namely,  clothes,  plate,  earthen  ware, 
meat,  drink,  books,  prints,  toys,  and  hundreds  of  other 
commodities,  so  that  the  whole  trade  of  London  was  for 
the  time  the  frost  continued,  confined  to  the  River 
Thames. 

This  most  wonderful  frost  began,  the  wind  being  North 
West,  about  the  l6th  of  November  1683,  and  thence  by 
small  thaws  continued  to  the  19th  of  December;  at  which 
time  the  wind  shifting  the  compass  to  North  North  East, 
the  sun  shining,  and  the  weather  very  clear,  till  such  time 
as,  notwithstanding  the  resistance  of  the  strongest  tides,  it 
so  incumbered  the  Thames  with  ice,  that  divers  attempting 
to  cross  in  boats,  were  frozen  in,  and  there  endured  much 
misery,  and  amongst  the  rest,  one  person  as  he  was  shoot- 
ing sea-pyes,  was  drove  out  at  Black-Wall,  and  not  being 
able  to  get  off,  was  starved  to  death  with  cold ;  but  soon 
after,  the  ice  closing,  even  from  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
to  London  Bridge,  people  began  to  build  booths,  which 
by  degrees  they  continued  furnishing  with  all  sorts  of 
wares  for  sale ;  but  a  small  thaw  made  them  desist  for 
two  days,  after  when  the  wind  shifting  again,  it  froze 
more  terrible  than  before.  When  not  onlv  a  greater 
number  of  booths  were  erected,  than  before ;  but  all 
manner  of  sports  and  pastimes  was  performed  on  the 
river,  as  well  below  as  above  bridge,  and  the  Thames  was 
now  known  by  the  name  of  Frost  Fair. 

The  North  and  South  Channels  were  frozen  a  league  or 
more  into  the  sea  ;  as  likewise  were  all  the  Northern  and 
Eastern  ports  of  England,  Scotland,  Leland,  Holland, 
Denmark,  Sweden, France,  and  other  countries,  so  that  no 
commerce  could  be  had,  from  nation  to  nation;  but  fires 
were  kept  in  the  city  of  Paris  in  the  open  streets.  Nor 
was  the  hoL  coast  of  Spain  exempted,  and  many  people 
died  of  the  extreme  cold  ;  fuel  was  so  scarce  in  England, 
that  coals  were  raised  irom  20s.  to  fJ.  the  chaldern.     So 

had 


WONDERS    ON    THE    DEEP.  265 

that  had  not  thek  Majesties  bouiuy  relieved  in  a  liberal 
mariner  the  distresses  of  the  people,  many  must  un- 
avoidably have  perished  of  hunger  and  cold.  Their  lloyal 
Highnesses  Princess  Anne,  and  George  of  Denmark,  with 
many  of  the  nobility  and  gentry,  followed  the  Royal  ex- 
ample, and  rendered  many  distressed  families  a§  happy  as 
food  and  fuel  could  make  them  ;  notwithstanding  which, 
many  of  a  sickly  constitution  began  to  despair  of  living 
througli  the  winter  ;  but  it  so  pleased  God,  that  the  wind 
suddenly  and  beyond  expectation,  turned  to  South  by 
West,  on  the28tii  of  February ;  when  the  thaw  began,  and 
it  so  happened  that  the  next  day,  the  ice,  which  most  peo- 
ple imagined  would  be  the  ruin  of  London  Bridge, 
sunk  entirely  to  the  bottom,  and  large  fragments  drove  to 
sea  out  of  all  the  ports  ;  so  that  the  river  in  a  week's  time 
was  open  for  trade,  which  few  expected  it  would  be  pos- 
sible for  a  month  at  least :  )'et  divers  vessels,  and  a  great 
many  men  were  lost,  in  hastily  endeavouring  to  put  in  at 
Staines,  and  many  other  bridges;  abundance  of  fowl 
and  fish  were  found  dead,  and  the  dismal  effects  of  the 
hard  weather  was  in  every  part  to  be  seen: 

'Three  sir/gular  poems  zcere  made  at  the  time,  on  this  ever 
to  be  remembered  Froit,  zvhich  as  they  convey  a  picture 
of  the  times,  zee  have  given  at  large,  zcithout  Abridge- 
ment.    Thejirst  is  imder  the  plate  zee  took  our  view  frorn, 

I. 

THE  various  sports  behold  here  in  this  piece. 
Which  for  six  weeks  were  seen  upon  the  ice  ; 
L'pon  the  Thames  the  great  vuriely 
Of  plays  and  booths  is  liere  brought  to  your  eye. 
Here  coaches,  as  in  Cheapside,  run  on  wheels. 
Here  men  (out  tipling  of  the  fishes)  reels  : 
Instead  of  waves  that  us'd  to  beat  the  shoar. 
Here  bulh  they  bait,  till  loudly  they  do  roar  ; 

Vol.  U  Li  Here 


266  wondehs  on  the  dee?. 

Here  boats  do  slide,  M'bere  boats  were  wont  to  row^ 
Where  ships  did  sail,  the  sailors  do  them  tow  ; 
And  passengers  in  boats  the  river  crost. 
For  the  same  price  as  'twas  before  the  frost. 
There  is  the  printing  booth  of  wonderous  fame. 
Because  that  each  man  there  did  print  his  name  ; 
And  sure,  in  former  ages,  ne're  was  found, 
A  press  to  print,  where  men  so  oft  were  drown'd. 
In  blanket  booths,  that  sit  at  no  ground  rent, 
^luch  coin  in  beef  and  brandy  there  is  spent. 
The  Dutchmen  here  in  nimble  cutting  scates,. 
To  please  the  crowd  do  shew  their  tricks  and  feats  ; 
The  rabble  here  in  chariots  run  a  round, 
C  offce  and  tea  and  mum  doth  here  abound. 
The  tinkers  here  doth  march  at  sound  of  kettle. 
And  all  men  know,  that  they  are  men  of  mettle  : 
Here  roasted  was  an  ox  before  the  court. 
Which  to  much  folks  afibrded  meat  and  sport ; 
At  nine-pins  here  they  play,  as  in  Moorfields, 
This  place  the  pass-time,  us  of  foot-ball  yields  : 
The  common  hunt  here,  makes  another  show. 
As  he  to  hunt  an  hare  is  vont  to  go  ; 
But  though  no  woods  are  here,  or  hares  so  fleet. 
Yet  men  do  often  foxes  catch  and  meet; 
Into  a  hole  here  one  b}'  cliance  doth  fall. 
At  which  the  watermen  began  to  bawl. 
What  will  you  rob  our  cellar  of  its  drink? 
When  he  alas,  poor  man,  no  harm  did  think. 
Here  men  well  mounted  do  on  horses  ride. 
Here  they  do  throw  at  cocks  as  at  Shrovetide  ; 
A  chariot  here  so  cunningly  was  made. 
That  it  did  move  itself  without  the  aid 
Of  horse  or  rope,  by  virtue  of  a  spring. 
That  Vulcau  did  contrive,  who  v.  rought  therein. 


The 


"6  "^"" : 

2ams_,    S. 


WONDERS    ON    THE    DEEP.  26? 

The  rooks  at  nine-holes  here  do  flock  together. 
As  they  are  wont  to  do  hi  summer  weather. 
Three  ha'pcrth  lor  a  penny,  here  they  cry. 
Of  gingerbread,  come,  who  will  of  it  buy  ? 
This  is  the  booth  where  men  did  money  take. 
For  crape  and  ribbons  that  they  there  did  make  ; 
But  in  six  huurs,  this  great  and  rary  sliow 
Of  booths  and  pastimes,  all  away  did  go. 

n. 

Behold  the  wonders  of  Almighty  God, 
Whose  looks  dry  up,  or  chain  the  swelling  flood  ; 
See  how  his  breath  lock'd  up  the  wavy  Thames, 
And  under  rocks  of  ice  conlin'd  her  streamsj 
In  spight  of  Phoebus  heat  contracted  be« 
Whilst  restless  Neptune  murmuring  underneath. 
His  strange  captivity  durst  scarcely  breathe. 
A  trading  mart  theharden'd  waves  become, 
And  marble  like  the  watry  world  intomb  ; 
Whilst  on  its  glass  glib  face  strange  buildings  stand. 
In  spite  of  throbing  waves,  as  on  the  land; 
Furnish'twith  trades,  that  there  most  things  are  sold, 
As  vessels  of  silver,  copper,  v;ood,  brass,  gold  ; 
Pewter,  tinn,  glass,  and  what  could  trade  create. 
Wine,  beer,  ale,  brandy,  chockolct; 
Yea,  toys,  confections,  roast-meat,  gingerbread. 
Were  there  produc'd,  on  whom  some  thousands  {cd  : 
These  were  not  all,  books  and  varieties. 
Strange  to  be  seen,  were  there  to  please  men's  e\'es: 
Ne're  known  before,  street  crouded  ui)on  street. 
Signs  upon  signs,  mens  admiration  meet. 
Printing,  an  art  before  ne're  public  shown. 
Upon  the  frozen-flood,  to  thousands  known  ; 
Bulls  and  bears  baited,  pleasant  monky-shows. 
Fine  eating,  swallowing  knives,  trod  iron  tiiat  glows; 

L  I  2  Walk'd 


iomple  to  the  ISarge-housc  o  er"> 
trcet,  the  ice  long  floating  borc^  I 
gh out  hut  one  continued  shore.   J 


26s  •     M'ONDEKS    ON    THE    DEEP. 

Walk'd  on  with  naked  feet,  Dutch  Flying  boats. 

Coaches  swift  running,  ships  as  if  a  float. 

Drove  upon  wheels;  Dutch  whirling, whimsic  chair. 

Turning  more  swift  than  unrestrained  air. 

A  Freezeland  chariot,  a  self-moving  coach. 

Whose  swiftness  rais'd  mens  admiration  much. 

l\ine-pins  were  play'd  at,  and  cock-fighting  found. 

Sliding  on  scates,  fox  hunting,  as  tho'  o'lh  ground. 

Ox  roasted  whole,  horse-racing,  pigin-holes. 

Great  football  matches,  and  a  game  at  bowls; 

Whilst  scatter'd  on  strong  ice  there  every  where. 

Blanketed,  boarded,  matted  booths  appear; 

And  from  the  Temple  to  the  Barge-house  o'er 

A  wonderousst 

iNIaking  throu 

Shrove  Tuesday  with  cock-throwing  usher'd  in. 

Was  on  the  flood  made  hard  by  cold  wind  seen 

Corn,  coles,  and  wood,  o're  it  daily  convey'd. 

And  on  the  starlings  kept  the  brandy  trade  ; 

Through  bridgf,  men  walk'd,  whilst  the  strong  ice  below, 

As  that  above,  could  numerous  buildings  show. 

Not  ships,  but  sail-cloath  mansions,  tent-wise  fram'd. 

In  which  great  fires  with  roast-meat  at  them  fam'd; 

And  some  their  pampi^r'd  steeds  durst  proudly  prance, 

Whil.-it  music  play'd,  drums  beat,  and  men  did  dance: 

Streamers  wav'd  with  the  wind,  and  all  was  bent. 

To  give  the  kind  spectator's  due  content : 

Who  came  in  crowds  to  see  that  wond'rous  sight, 

Where  people  on  the  Thames  dv/elt  day  and  iSight; 

Whilst  strong  North  winds  with  unrelenting  cold, 

Imprison'd  nature  did  in  fetters  hold. 

But  Heaven  was  kind  at  last^  the  South  windblew,*! 

And  weeping  clouds  o're  earths  hard  bosom  threw,  I 

Eesolvingall  ihiugs  with  a  subtile  dew.  J 

II.  Behold 


.WONDERS   ON    THE    DEEP.  269 

II. 

Behold  the  wonder  of  this  present  age, 
A  famous  river  now  becomes  a  stage; 
Question  not  what  I  now  declare  to  you. 
The  Thames  is  now  both  fair,  and  market  too  ; 
And  many  thousands  daily  do  resort. 
There  to  behold  the  pastime  and  the  sport: 
Early  and  late,  used  by  young  and  old. 
Who  valu'd  not  the  fierceness  of  the  cold ; 
And  did  Jiot  think  of  that  Almighty  hand. 
Who  made  the  waters  bear,  like  to  the  land. 
Thousands  and  thousands  to  the  river  flocks. 
Where  mighty  flakes  of  ice  do  lie  like  rocks : 
There  may  you  see  the  coaches  swiftly  run. 
As  if  beneath  the  ice  were  waters  none  ; 
And  sholes  of  people  every  where  there  be. 
Just  like  to  herrings  in  the  brackish  sea; 
And  there  the  quaking  watermen  will  stand  yc, 
Kind  master,  drink  you  beer,  or  ale,  or  brandy: 
Walk  in,  kind  Sir,  this  booth  it  is  the  chief. 
We'll  entertain  you  with  a  slice  of  beef; 
And  what  you  please  to  eat  and  drink,  'its  here. 
No  booth,  like  mine,  affords  such  dainty  cheer. 
Another  cries,  here  master,  they  but  scoff" ye. 
Here  is  a  dish  of  famous  new  made  coffee  ; 
And  some  do  say,  a  giddy  senseless  ass. 
May  on  the  Thames  be  furnish'd  with  a  lass: 
But  to  be  short,  such  wonders  there  are  seen. 
That  in  this  age  before  hath  never  been. 
Before  the  Temple  there  a  street  is  made. 
And  there  is  one  almost  of  every  trade: 
There  may  you  also  this  hard  frosty  winter. 
See  on  the  rocky  ice  a  working  Printer, 
Who  hopes  by  his  own  art  to  reap  some  sain. 
Which  he  perchance  doe^  think  he  may  obtain  ; 

ilerc 


270  'VeONDERS    ON    THE    DEEf. 

Here  also  is  a  lottery,  and  music  too. 
Yea,  a  cheating,  drunken,  bad,  and  debaucli'd  crew. 
Hot  codlins,  pancakes,  duck,  goose,  and  sack. 
Rabbit,  capon,  hen,  turkey,  and  a  wooden  jack; 
In  this  same  street  before  the  Temple  made. 
There  seems  to  be  brisk  and  lively  trade; 
Where  every  booth  hath  such  a  cunning  sign. 
As  seldom  hath  been  seen  in  former  time; 
And  there  if  you  have  money  for  to  spend. 
Each  cunning  snap  will  seem  to  be  your  friend. 
There  may  you  see  small  vessels  tinder  sail, 
AU's  one  to  them, with  or  against  the  gale: 
And  as  they  pass  they  little  guns  do  fire. 
Which  feedeth  some,  and  puffs  them  with  desire 
They  sail  therein,  and  when  their  money's  gone, 
*lts  right,  they  cry,  the  Thames  to  come  upon. 
There  on  a  sign  you  may  most  plainly  see't. 
Here's  thejirst  tavern  built  in  Freezland^street : 
There  is  bull  baiting  and  bear  baiting  too. 
That  no  man  living  yet  e're  found  so  true; 
And  foot-ball  play  is  there  so  common  grown. 
That  on  the  Thames  before  was  never  known; 
Coals  being  dear  are  carry'd  on  men's  backs. 
And  some  on  sledges  there,  are  drawn  in  sacks ; 
Men  do  on  horseback  ride  from  shore  to  shore. 
Which  formerly  in  boats  were  wafted  o're  : 
Poor  people  hard  shifts  make  for  livelihoods. 
And  happy  are  if  they  can  sell  their  goods ; 
W^hat  you  can  buy  for  threepence  on  the  shore, 
W^ill  cost  you  fourpence  on  the  Thames,  or  more. 
Now  let  me  come  to  things  more  strange,  yet  true. 
And  question  not  what  I  declare  to  you; 
There  roasted  was  a  great  and  well-fed  ox. 
And  there,  with  dogs,  hunted  the  cunning  fox: 

Dancing 


WONDERS    ON    THE    DEEP.  £71 

Dancing  o'th'  ropes,  and  puppit-plays  likewise. 

The  like  before  n'er  seen  beneath  the  skies ; 

All  stand  admir'd,  and  very  well  they  may. 

To  see  such  pastimes,  and  such  sorts  of"  play  : 

Besides  the  things  I  nara'd  to  you  before. 

There  other  toys  and  baubles  are  great  store ; 

There  may  you  feast  your  wandering  eyes  enough. 

There  you  may  buy  a  box  to  hold  your  suufF: 

No  fair  nor  market  underneath  the  skies. 

That  can  afford  you  more  varieties ; 

There  may  you  see  some  hundreds  slide  in  skeels. 

And  beaten  patlis  like  to  the  city  streets  ; 

There  where  Dutch  whimsies  turned  swiftly  round. 

Faster  then  horses  run  on  level  ground  : 

The  like  to  this  I  now  to  you  do  tell. 

No  former  age  could  ever  parallel : 

There's  all  that  can  supply  most  curious  minds. 

With  such  varieties  of  cunning  signs  ; 

That  I  do  think  no  man  dolh  understand. 

Such  merry  fancies  e'er  were  on  the  land ; 

There  is  such  whimsies  on  the  frozen  ice. 

Makes  some  believe  the  Thames  a  Paradice  ; 

And  though  these  sights  be  to  our  admiration. 

Yet  our  sins,  our  sins,  do  call  for  lamentation. 

Though  such  unusual  frosts  to  us  arc  strange. 

Perhaps  it  may  predict  some  greater  change; 

And  some  do  fear  may  a  fore-runner  be. 

Of  an  approaching  sad  mortality  ; 

But  why  should  we  to  such  belief  incline  ? 

There's  none  that  knows,  but  the  blest  pow'r  divine  ; 

And  whatsoe're  is  from  Jehovah,  sent, 

Poor  sinners  ought  therewith  to  be  content ; 

If  dreadful,  then  to  fall  upon  the  knee. 

And  beg  remission  of  the  Deity  : 

Bnt 


272  REMARKABLE    FROSTS    ID    ENGLAND 

But  if  beyond  our  thoughts  he  sends  us  store. 
With  all  our  hearts  let's  thankful  be  therefore. 
Now  let  us  all  in  Great  Jehovah  trust. 
Who  do  preserve  the  righteous  and  the  just; 
And  eke  conclude  sin  is  the  cause  of  all 
The  heavy  judgements  that  on  us  do  fall ; 
And  call  to  mind,  fond  man,  thy  time  mispent. 
Fall  on  tliy  knees,  and  heartly  repent ; 
Then  will  thy  Saviour  pity  take  on  thee. 
And  thou  shaltlive  to  all  eternity. 

A  Chronologj/  of   He  mark  able    Fkosts   in  England, 
from  the  second  year  of  the  Conqueror  to  the  year  1683-4. 

Anno  IOGS,  being  the  second  year  of  William  the 
Conquerors's  reign,  a  terrible  frost  began  on  the  9th  of 
October,  which  continued  till  the  middle  of  February 
following  without  intermission;  it  froze  up  most  rivers, 
particularly  the  Tweed,  Thames,  and  Humber,  and  destroy- 
ing green  things  of  the  earth,  caused  a  dearth  theenstiing 
year. 

Anno  1137,  the  second  year  of  King  Stephen's  reign, 
the  Thames  and  Medway  were  frozen  over,  so  that  divers 
people  passed  on  foot  from  shore  to  shore  upon  the  ice ; 
as  likewise  did  they  over  other  rivers,  and  some  arms  of 
the  sea;  when  the  frost  continuing  from  the  10th  of  No- 
vember, to  the  igtli  of  January;  most  of  the  fish  in 
ponds  and  small  rivers  were  frozen  to  death:  tind  by 
reason  of  the  sudden  and  unusual  snow  that  fell,  some 
hundreds  of  srtiall  cattle  were  overwhelmed  and  smo- 
thered. 

Anno  1199,  the  first  year  of  King  John's  reign,  a  great 
and  terrible  frost  began  on  the  10th  of  December,  and 
continued  till  the  middle  of  March,  so  that  people  were 
forced  to  make  fires  in  divers  streets,  to  abate  the  keen- 
ness 


EEMABKaBLE    FEOSTS  in    ENGLAND.  273 

ncss  of  the  air,  which  notwithstanding  numbed  divers 
people  to  deaths  and  was  the  cause  or"  a  great  dearth  and 
mortahty  the  year  after. 

Anno  1380,  the  third  year  of  Richard  the  Second,  the 
Channel  between  France  and  England  \vas  half  frozen 
over,  and  most  rivers  lock'd  up ;  when  after  about  a  month's 
continuance,  such  abundance  of  snow  fell,  that  a  sudden 
thaw  ensued,  many  bridges  were  broken  down  by  the 
torrent  of  water,  and  many  houses  overwhelmed  in  the 
low  villages  of  England,  and  suburbs  of  London. 

Anno  1484,  in  the  second  year  of  Richard's  usurping 
the  crown,  a  frost  began  in  September,  and  from  thence 
without  much  interruption,  continued  till  the  latter  end 
of  February,  so  that  no  grass  being  to  be  had,  hay  was 
/3l.  the  load,  and  coals  at  3l.  the  chaldern. 

In  the  19th  year  of  Henry  the  Eighth's  reign,  a  frost 
began  on  the  third  of  November,  and  lield  to  the  7th  of 
March,  with  such  extremity,  that  maiiy  people  were 
found  dead  in  the  streets. 

Anno  1G12,  being  the  10th  year  of  King  James's  reiign, 
a  frost  happenerl,  which  continued  seven  weeks;  during 
which  time  the  Thames  at  Lambeth  and  Whitehall  was 
frozen  over,  and  men  passed  thereon. 

In  the  J  1th  year  of  King  ('harles  the  First,  a  terrible 
frost  happened,  which  continuing  three  months  without 
mtermission,  caused  great  scarcity  to  ensue  ;  and  did 
greatly  indannnage  most  bridges  upon  its  sudden  thaw. 

Anno  1()(34,  a  terrible  frost  happened,  which  continued 
from  the  10th  of  November  to  the  middle  of  March,  in- 
somuch that  the  snow  lying  on  the  ground,  and  the 
rhime  on  the  trees,  the  wild-fowl  in  great  abundance  were 
found  dead  in  the  fields,  and  many  people  suffered  ereaf 
misery,  by  being  frozen  into  the  Thames,  as  they  were 
crossing  the  water  in  boats. 
Ann  l67f),  a  terrible  Irost  began  about  the  l6th  of 
Vol.  XI.  M  m  December 


274      HUMAN    BONES    DISCOVEI!  KD    IN    AN    ORC'IIARrj. 

December,  which  continued  with  such  violence,  that  the 
Thames  was  frozen  over  in  (Hvers  phices,  except  a  nar- 
row channel,  over  which  people  passed  on  planks;  then 
and-that  the  hist  tiine  in  our  age,  that  such  k  number  of 
booths,  and  all  manner  of  provision,  was  found  upon  the 
congealed  flood;  which  frost  endured  till  the  15th  of 
I'ebruary,  and  then  by  its  sudden  thaw,  broke  down  many 
bridges,  and  raised  iloods  that  (how  nod  many  sheep,  goats, 
and  other  small  cattle,  and  otherwise  did  great  damage. 


TO    THE    EDITOR    OT    THE    WON  DERE  U  L  AN  1)    SCIENTIFIC 
MUSEUM. 

Sin, 

^Jn  my  letter  to  yon  (hitod  November  13tli,  1S0;5,  and  which  you  <lid  nie  thr 
honour  to  publisli  in  Vol.  I.  page  438,  of  your  Museum,  wherein  I 
vstateJ  my  intention  of  transmitting  j'on  more  TJcmarkable  Characters, 
"If  "t!ie  subjoined  was  inserted  in  it;  and  winch  promise  I  purpose  com- 
plying with   by  giving  an  account  of  one  or  more  extraordinary  persons 

■_  at  the  conclusion  of  the  list  of  Miscellaneous  articles,  which  I  have  now, 
and  in  future  shall  send  for  the  purpose  of  aj)pcaring  to  the  public  through 
the  medium  of  your  valuable  and  autlientic  Repository,  if  you  think  they 

■  will  prove  cnteHaininj  to  your  numerous  readers,  to  oblige  whom  it  will 
ever  be  the  wish  of  your  correspondi-nt  and  constant  reader. 

■j!{oUiiighum,  April  \-i,liO-L  D.  B.  L, 


HUMAN    BONES    DISCOVEUED    IN    AN    OKCHAUD. 

.I.N  the  month  of  April  17G0,  as  some  workmen  were 
digging  in  an  orchard,  then  belonging  to  Mr.  Basil  Har- 
rison, near  the  Cross-Keys,  for  brick  earth,  at  the  depth  of 
about  five  feet,  they  found  a  leaden  coffin  much  decayed, 
containing  the  skull  and  bones  of  a  woman,  as  supposed; 
the  coffin  was  six  feet  long,  the  head  of  which  was 
fifteen  inches  over,  twelve  deep,  and  the  feet  nine  inches 
over.  It  lay  upon  some  small  tiles  thought  to  be^the  bot- 
tom of  a  vault,  and  had  several  characters  on  them  so 
much  defaced  as  not  to  be  understood.  What  was  re- 
markable. 


UNCOMMON'    mXIDS    AND    BEASTS.  tlo 

insirkable  is,  that  under  the  middle  of  the  coffin  was  ii 
stone  sixteen  inches  by  lourteen,  vviiii  a  hole  in  the  centre 
four  inches  square,  lull  of  small  coal  and  dust.  Several 
months  before  this  was  found,  by  digging  near  the  same 
place,  an  urn  fourteen  inches  deep,  and  twelve  inches 
over,  which  was  likewise  full  of  small  coal  and  ashes. 
Many  more  human  bones  having  at  times  been  dug  up 
in  the  orchard,  makes  it  believed  that  it  v.as  tlie  bur^ung 
place  belonging  to  the  nunnery  or  church  of  St.  Sepul- 
chre's, formerly  standing  near  that  place  for  some  ages 
past. 


A  list  of  some  uncommon  Birds  atid  Beasts  discovered  in 
this  Qounlry. 

A  VERY  uncommon  Woodcock  was  in  March  1760, 
killed  near  Carmartiien,  his  head  and  bill  was  extremely 
large;  the  feathers  froju  the  crown  of  the  head,  and  all 
round  his  neck  to  the  body,  were  coal  black;  his  tail 
was  very  long,  and  like  a  black  heath-cock's,  tipped  with 
white  ;  his  wings  were  large,  and  every  feather  in  each 
was  tipped  with  about  in  inch  of  white,  and  very  beauti- 
fully speckled  all  over  with  black  and  white  spots  ;  the 
feathers  of  his  body  were  of  the  common  colour,  but 
mixed  throughout  with  black  feathers  tipped  with  white', 
and  all  his  claws  were  black.  He  was  made  a  present  of 
by  Mr.  Dawson,  the  person  who  killed  him,  to  a  gentle- 
man then  going  for  London,  who  promised  lo  get  him 
drawn. 

At  Colonel  Thornton's,  Thornvillc  Royal,  Yorkshire, 
at  different  periods  between  the  years  1783  and  1702,  tlicre 
have  been  bred  a  white  hare,  a  white  stag,  a  white  mole,  a 
white  sparrow,  and  a  white  rook;  and  in  the  nest  of  the 
last  specimen  wore  three  of  the  common  colour,  and  two 
pye-balled. 

M  m  2  la 


276  RECOVERY    OF    SIGHT. 

In  June  178S;,  a  -vrhitc  linnet  was  caught  at  Baklock^ 
in  Hertfordshire. 

In  ISovember  1797, a  while  yellow-hammer  was  killed 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lewes. 

In  November  1797,  the  keeper  killed  a  hare  in  the 
wood  near  the  HoraC-course,  belonging  to  Andrew  Cor- 
betl,  Esq.  of  Shavvbury  Park,  Salop  ;  which  weighed 
rather  more  than  nine  pounds;  but  what  is  singular,  she 
was  quite  white.  The  cause  of  this  change,  it  is  imagined, 
proceeded,  from  her  being  over-heated  in  a  hard  course, 
which  she  sustained  about  two  years  before  with  a  leash 
of  grey-hounds;  and  though  the  com^se  was  very  long, 
and  one  of  the  dogs  caught  the  hare,  and  died  whilst  she 
was  in  his  mouth,  jet  she  then  made  her  escape.  The 
othci  two  dogs  were  in  all  appearance  dead  through  fa- 
tigue, but  by  being  immediately,  and  properly  treated 
tney  recovered.  As  a  proof  of  its  being  the  same  hare 
she  had  lost  iialf  her  scut,  as  appeared  when  she  was 
killed.  She  was  often  seen,  and  at  last  taken  by  a  pointer 
in  her  form.     Her  skin  was  preserved  as  a  curiosity. 

A    EECOVERY    OF    SIGHT. 

In  April  J 792,  died  at  Norwich,  in  the  8Sth  year  of  his 
age,  Mr.  Nicholas  Hubbard.  There  were  two  singular 
circumstances  attending  his  life,  which  are  worthy  of 
notice ;  his  having  had  26  children  by  two  wives,  and 
what  is  more  extraordinary,  13  by  each  wife,  and  that  of 
his  receiving  naturally  and  providentially  without  any 
medical  assistance,  several  months  before  hi?  death  a 
return  of  his  eye-sight,  after  his  being  totally  deprived 
of  that  inestimable  blessing  fourteen  years,  wliich  he  re- 
tained with  encreasing  strength  to  the  hour  of  his  dis- 
solution. 

A   KEM ARK ABLE 


A    REMARKABLE    TORNADO,    OR    HURRICANE.       277 
A    REMARKABLE  METEOR. 

A  REMyVllKABLE  Meteor  was  seen  in  March  1795^ 
at  Sheffield,  at  C5  minutes  past  11  o'clock,  acooinpanied 
with  a  most  tremendous  roll,  resembling  thunder,  which 
lasted  one  minute  and  a  half.  The  direction  of  the 
Meteor  was  northward.  its  appearance  was  highly 
beautiful  and  magnificent.  It  appeared  to  descend  in 
two  balls  to  the  earth. 

A    REMARKABLE  TORNADO,    OR    HURRICANE. 

On  the  23d  of  July  1797,  about  one  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon,  a  tornado  or  hurricane  happened  near  Work- 
sop, in  the  county  of  Nottingham  ;  its  course  was  in  a 
north-east  direction,  and  its  violence  was  first  percfuvcd 
on  the  forest,  between  Workso'p  and  Monton,  where  it 
strip t  large  branches  from  oak'and  other  trees,  scattering 
them  to  considerable  distances,  taking  up  cocks  and 
even  stacks  of  hay,  drii^ing  them  in  every  direction  ;  and 
a  wooden  barn  there  was  unroofed  and  thrown  down. 
At  Kelton,  a  little  to  the  north-east,  a  small  cottage  aiKl 
an  out  house  was  unroofed,  and  all  the  aj)ple-trees  in  the 
orchard  adjoining  torn  up  by  the  roots.  The  storm  go- 
ing on  from  thence  with  encrcascd  violence,  tearing  up 
some  trees,  splitting  others,  and  destroying  every  thing 
.  in  its  way,  till  arriving  at  a  plantation  of  spruce  furs  near 
Scofton,  belonging  to  Mr.  Sutton,  where  it  cut  an  avenue 
through  it  about  30  yards  wide,  aiul  threw  down  every 
tree  in  its  course,  except  one,  which  has  unaccountably 
stood,  though  in  the  very  centre  of  its  progress.  This 
hurricane  did  not  seem  to  extend  above  three  miles  in 
length,  and  about  100  yards  in  breadth.  On  the  day  it 
happened,  and  on  the  preceding  one,  the  claps  of  thun- 
der, with  vivid  lightning,  were  fre(^uent  and  violent :  the 

atmosphere 


£7S         JOHN  DUNN,  A  penuhious  ciiatjactek. 

atmosphere  seemed  to  be  strongly  impregnated  with  the 
electric  fluid,  which  by  its  action  might  rarefy  the  air  in  a 
partial  or  local  manner,  and  thus  occasion  the  above  men- 
tioned eftects,  till  the  equilibrum  was  restored. 


JCHN    DUNN,    A    PENUIIIOUS    CHAKACTER. 

l-N  the  month  of  July  1795,  died  in  a  lodging-house 
Hear  Gloucester,  John  Dunn,  well  known  by  the  name  of 
the  Old  Fra^h  JAnen-Man.  He  had  frequented  that 
city  upwards  of  eighteen  years;  his  appearance  was 
wretched  in  the  extreme,  and  his  garments  worse  than 
those  worn  by  a  common  beggar,  whose  character  he 
frequently  assumed  ;  by  which  means  he  procured  the 
greatest  necessaries  of  life,  and  always  preferred  those 
places  to  lodge  in  where  beggars  resorted.  He  was 
never  seen  with  more  than  a  piece,  or  a  piece  and  a  half 
of  linen  in  a  wretched  wallet  or  bag,  thrown  across  his 
shoulder,  with  which  he  called  at  every  door,  and  usually 
travelled  a  circuit  of  eighteen  or  twenty  miles  at  a  time. 
His  custom  was  to  go  to  Ireland  six  or  eight  times  in  the 
j'ear,  where  it  appears,  by  receipts  found  about  him,  that 
Ijis  trade  was  so  large,  that  he  paid  150l.  per  annum  for 
bleaching  only.  Finding  his  dissolution  rapidly  ap- 
proaching, he  sent  for  a  tradesmaii,  at  whose  house  he 
had  frequently  received  donations;  to  him  he  disclosed 
his  mind,  and  told  him,  that  he  was  possessed  of  a  great 
deal  of  cash,  as  well  as  several  packs  of  linen,  in  w-hicli 
his  money  was  concealed,  in  a  warehouse  on  the  quay 
in  Glouctster,  as  well  as  some  goods  that  were  in  the 
ciry  of  Chester.  On  opening  the  packs  at  the  former 
place,  in  the  presence  of  the  gentleman,  who  was  accom- 
panied by  a  clergyman  and  several  others,  a  considerable 
quantity  of  gold  nnd  silver  was  found,  very  curiously  tied 


MOVEMENT  OF  THE  EARTH.  Q79 

v.p  in  rags  and  old  stockings,  in  small  parcels,  and  in  a 
variety  of  covers.  The  whole  was  intended  to  be  dis- 
tributed among  his  poor  relations  in  Ireland :  it  appears 
thai  he  never  was  married. 


>rOVEMENT  OF  THE  EARTH. 


TO    THE    EDITOn    OF    THE    SCIENTIFIC   MUSEUM. 

Sin, 
A  most  oxtraord'mary  occurrence  having  taken  i)Iace  in  our  ntighbcurliood, 
1  take  tlie  earliest  opjiortunity  of  transmitting  j'ou  the  particulars,  and 
shall  be  hitrhly  gratified  in  finding  it  inserted  in  the  next  number  of  your 
Ocigiiial  and  Entertaining  Work, 

And  am,  your  obedient  servant, 
}imtol,Muii'2l,  1604.  ISAAC  J  AMES- 

On  Triday  May  4th,  1804,  about  4 o'clock  in  the  after- 
tcrnoon,  came  on  at  Bristol,  a  lieavy  storm  of  thunder, 
lightning,  hail,  and  rain,  during  which  the  following- 
singular  occurrence  happened  behind  Brislington  Turn- 
pike, about  half  a  mile  from  Temple-Gate,  in  this  city, 
and  between  the  Bath  and  Wells  roads«  About  half  an 
acre  of  land,  situated  on  the  declivity,  between  two  hills, 
removed  into  the  field  below,  carrying  with  it  about  36 
yards  of  the  hedge,  which  is  mostly  overwhelmed  in  the 
ruins.  From  the  uppermost  part  of  the  breach  to  where 
the  hedge  stood  is  about  50  yards:  this  body  of  earth 
(which  in  some  places  is  nearly  ten  feet  thick)  for  at  least 
three  parts  out  of  four  is  precipitated  into  another  field; 
about  a  fourth  part  remaining,  in  a  great  measure  un- 
broken, in  the  station  from  which  the  foremost  part  ad- 
vanced, the  progress  of  which  lias  been  about  56  yards. 
The  bed  of  earth  left  bare  is  of  a  clay  te.xture,  and  that 
which  lay  upon  it  more  inclining  to  mould,  and  probably^ 

from 


280  MOVEMENT    OF    THF  EARTH. 

from  its  sltaation  might  have  some  deep  sissures.     The 
rain  fell   in  torrents,  insomuch,  that  fit  Knowle,  on   the 
summit  of  the  hill,  the  people  tell  me  the  Wells  road  re- 
sembled a  river.     Thus  the  earth  being  full  of  water,  and 
perhaps  raised  from  tlie  bed  of  clay,  would  require  a  great 
projectile  force:  and  it  seems  it  did,  for  the  bulk  of  the 
removed  ground  lias  passed  over  about  30  yards  of  the 
field  below,  leaving  the  grass  (already  subricated  b}'  the 
rain)  comparatively  clean  behind  it.     Its  pi'ogress  must 
have  resembled  that  of  a  ship  going  off  the  stocks ;  but 
I  believe  no  person  saw  it.     Mr.  Fletcher,  at  the  turn-     j 
-pike,  tells  me  he  perceived  nothing  of  it  though  it  ad-     \ 
vanccd    directly    behind     his    house,    towards     which,     ! 
he    says,    it  thundred  most  tremendously.      The  fore-     1 
most  body  of  earth  is  about  36  yards  in  length,   and      j 
part  of  the  hedge  remains  about  8  yards  behind  the  front     | 
of  it.     Another  great  body  has  not  advanced  quite  s6  far,      j 
and  lies  in  broken  fragments  of  a  pyramidical  form.     The      ^ 
separation  of  these  two  bodies  resembles  aditch  in  astraight 
line.  The  hedge  has  advanced  about  48  yards,  and  the  whole 
length  from  the-topof  the  breach  to  the  foremost  ground 
is  about   106  yards.     There  is  no   appearance    of  the 
lightning  having  stiuck  the  ground,  as  was  at  first  sup-      ' 
posed.     Many  thousands  of  people  have  been  to  visit  the 
spot,  and  still  continue  to  go ;   and  on  Sunday,  May  l.Sth, 
two   sermons  were  preached  there  to   several  hundred     ' 
spectators,  from  the  laudable  design  of  making  so  unusual 
an  occurrence  truly  beneficial.     You  have  doubtless  seen, 
the  accounts  of  the  damage  done  by  the  lightening  at 
Westover  House   near  Kitton,  in  the  upper  road  hence 
10  Bath,  near  which  city  an  occurrence  similar  to  the 
above  took  place  ;  at  Keynsham  also,  and  other  places  ia 
this  neighbourhood,  its  effects  were  severely  felt. 

• 

BXTBAOKDINARY 


V  (     281     ) 

EXTRAORDINARY    MARRIAGE. 

On  April  1st.  1804,  was  married  at  Portieu,  Citizen 
Jean  Mossequin,  aged  105,  to  his  ninth  wife,  Maria 
Vascois,  aged  19.  He  died  the  night  after  his  wedding, 
leaving  behind  him  29  children,  49  grand  children,  and 
69  great  grand  children. 

TO   THE    EDITOR    OF    THE    SCIENTIFIC    MUSEUM, 
Sir, 
In  looking  over  some  curious  old  books  in  tny  possession,  1  found  a  singularly 
rare  tract,  which  as  I  think,  will  suit  the  purpose  of  your  undertaking,  I 
have  transci'ibed,  and  enclosed  for  your  use. 

Yours,  3ic.  S.  D. 

The   miraculous  preservation  and  deliverance  of  Eight 
Englishmen,  left  bi/ mischance  in  Greenland,  Anno, 
1630;    zcere  they  continued  nine  months  and  tzcclvt  daj/s, 
suffering  great  hardship  for  Kant  of  food,  6;c. 

Greenland  is  a  country  very  far  northward,  situated 
in  77  degrees  and  40  minutes,  that  is,  within  12  degrees 
and  20  minutes  of  the  North  Pole  itself.  The  land  is 
wonderfully  mountainous;  and  the  mountains  all  the 
vcar,  covered  Avith  ice  and  snow  ;  the  plains  in  part,  are 
bare  in  summer,  there  grows  neither  tree  nor  herb,  except 
scurvy-grass  and  sorrel.  The  sea  is  as  barren  as  the 
land,  affording  no  fish  but  whales,  sea-horses,  scales, 
and  another  small  fish.  The  Muscovie  merchants  of 
London,  sent  a  fleet  of  small  vessels  yearly  to  this  place, 
to  catch  the  whales  and  sea  horses,  for  the  advantage  dc' 
rived  by  the  oil.  On  the  1st  of  May,  lt)30,  wc,  William 
Ji'akely,  as  gunner;  luUvard  Pclham,  gunncr's-mate ; 
Jolin  Wise  and  Robert  (joodfellow,  seamen;  Tliomas 
Ayers,  vvhalc-cuiteri  ilcnry  Bett?,  cooper;  John  Dawes 
J-yj,,  IL  >  n  and 


282  MIRACIJLOrs  ptifservatiow. 

and  Richard  Kellet,  landsmen^  sailed  in  a  ship  called 
the  Salutation,  from  the  port  of  London ;  and  hav- 
ing a  fair  gale,  we  quickly  left  the  fertile  banks  of 
England's  pleasant  shores  behind  us.  After  which, 
setting  our  comely  sails  to  the  supposed  prosperous  gale, 
and  ranging  through  the  boisterous  billows  of  the  rugged 
seas,  by  the  help  and  gracious  assistance  of  Almighty 
God,  we  safely  arrived  at  our  destined  port  in  Greenland, 
the  Jlthof  June  following:  whereupon  having  moored 
our  ships,  and  carried  our  casks  on  shore,  we,  with  all 
expedition  fell  to  the  fitting  up  of  our  shallops,  with  all 
things  necessary  for  our  intended  voyage;  we  were  in 
company  three  ships,  all  of  which  were  then  appointed, 
by  the  order  of  our  Captain,  William  Goodler,  to  stay  at 
tlie  Foreland  until  the  15th  of  July  ;  with  resolution^ 
that  if  we  could  not  by  that  time  make  a  vova";e  to  our 
expectation,  then  to  send  one  ship  to  the  eastward,  unto 
a  fishing  place  some  lourscore  leagues  from  hence,  whi- 
ther at  the  latter  end  of  the  year  the  whales  use  more  fre- 
quently to  resort.  A  second  of  the  three  ships  was  de- 
signed fur  Green-Harbour,  (a  place  some  fifteen  leagues 
distant  to  the  southward)  and  was  appointed  to  stay  at  the 
Foreland  until  the  20th  of  August;  but  the  Captain 
having  made  a  great  voyage  at  Bell-Sound,  dispatches 
a  Shallop  towards  our  ship,  with  a  com.mand  unto  us  to 
come  to  him  at  Bell-Sound  aforesaid  :  his  purpose  being, 
both  to  have  us  take  in  some  of  his  train  oil,  as  also  by 
joining  our  forces  together,  to  make  the  fleet  so  much 
the  stronger  for  the  defence  of  the  merchants  goods 
homeward  bound;  the  Dunkirkers  being  ver}' strong  and 
rife  at  sea  in  those  days.  Upon  the  8tli  of  August  leav- 
ing the  Foreland,  we  directed  our  course  to  the  south- 
ward, towards  Green-Harbour,  there  to  take  in  twenty 
of  our  men,  which  had  out  of  our  ship's  company  been 

sent 


Miraculous  Preservation*.-       £83 

sent  into  the  lesser  ship^  for  the  furtherance  of  her 
Voyage. 

But  the  wind  being  now  contrary^  our  ship  could  no 
way  lie  our  course^  the  Ijth  day  being  calm  and  clear^ 
and  our  ship  now  in  the  offing,  some  leagues  from  Blacks- 
Point,  and  about  five  from  tlie  Maydens  happes,  (which 
is  a  famous  place  for  good  and  great  store  of  venison)  our 
master  sent  eight  men  of  us  together  in  a  shallop,  for 
the  hunting  and  killing  some  venison,  for  the  ship's; 
provision  ;  we  thus  leaving  the  ship,  and  having  a  brace 
of  dogs  along  with  us,  and  furnished  ourselves  with  asnap- 
hance,  two  lances,  and  a  tinder-box,  we  directed  our 
course  towards  the  shore,  where  in  four  hours  we  ar- 
rived, the  weather  being  at  that  time  fair,  clear,  and  every 
way  seasonable  to  our  intention.  That  day  we  laid  four- 
teen tall  and  ninlble  deer  aloiig>  and  being  very  weary 
and  throughly  tired,  first  with  rowing)  and  now  with 
hunting)  we  fell  to  eat  such  provisions  as  we  had  brought 
with  lis,  agreeing  to  take  our  rest  for  that  night,  and  the 
next  day  to  make  an  end  of  our  hunting,  and  so  return  to 
the  ship  again.  But  the  next  day,  as  it  pleased  God,  the 
weather  falling  out  something  thick,  and  much  ice  in  the 
offing  betwixt  iIkt  shore  and  the  ship  (by  reason  of  a 
southerly  wind  drivinj^  ahmg  the  coast),  our  ship  was 
forced  so  far  off  to  sea  to  be  clear  of  the  ice,  thatweliad 
quite  lost  sight  of  her;  neither  could  we  assure  ourselves 
whether  she  were  inclosisd  in  the  drift  ice  or  not;  and 
the  weather  growing  thickci'  and  thicker,  we  thought  it 
our  best  course  to  hunt  along  the  shore>  and  so  to  go  lor 
Green-Haibour,  there  to  stay  aboard  the  ship  with  the 
rest  of  our  men,  until  our  own  ship,  should  come  into 
the  port. 

Coastinn  thus  alon^  tov/ards  Green-harbour,  w^e  killed 
eight  deer  more,  and   at  last  having  laden  our  shallop 

N  n   9,  with 


284  MiRACrlous  fTxEservatioN'.' 

\*ith  venison,  we  kept  on  our  course  for  Grcen-Harbonr : 
where  arriving  on  the  Ifcith  day,  we  found,  to  our  great 
surprise,  that  the  ship  was  departed  thence,  together  with 
cur  twenty  men  aforesaid ;  that  which  increased  oin-  ad- 
miration was,  we  knew  they  had  not  victuals  sufficient 
aboard,  to  serve  them  by  proportion,  homeward  bound  ; 
which  made  us  again  to  wonder  what  sliould  be  the  rea- 
son of  their  so  sudden  departure. 

Perceiving  ourselves  thus  frustrated  of  our  expectation 
and  having  now  but  three  bare  da3-s  (according  to  ap- 
pointment) to  the  uttermost  expiration  of  our  limited 
time  for  departure  out  of  the  country,  wc  thought  it  our 
best  course  to  make  all  possible  speed  to  get  to  Bell- 
sound,  unto  our  Captain.  Fearing  a  little  delay  might 
bring  a  great  deal  of  danger,  for  the  lightening  therefor^ 
of  our  shallop,  that  she  might  make  the  better  way 
through  the  waters,  we  heaved  our  venison  over-board, 
and  cast  it  all  into  the  sea.  Having  thus  forsaken  Green- 
Harbour,  with  a  Ion2;in'j[  desire  to  recover  bell-Son nd. 
(from  thence  distant  some  sixteen  leagues  to  the  south- 
ward) that  night  we  got  half  way  about  the  point  of  the 
Nesse,  or  point  of  Land,  called  Low-Nesse,  but  the 
darkness  or  misty  fog  increasing  so  fast  upon  wi^,  that  it 
was  impossible  for  u,s  to  get  further;  and  there  between 
two  rocks  we  coved  from  the  17t)i  day  at  night,  until 
the  !8th  day  at  noon;  at  which  time  the  weather  being 
something  clearer  (though  very  thick  still)  we  left  the 
Nesse  behind  us,  still  desirous  to  recover  Bell-Sound  ; 
ibut  having  never  a  compass,  to  direct  our  course  by.,  nor 
any  of  our  company  that  was  pilot  suflicient  to  know  the 
laud.  \\  hen  we  saw  it,  we  were  fain  to  grabble  in  the 
daik>  as  it  were,  like  a  blind  nuui  for  his  way;  and  so 
'over-bhat  Bell-Point,  at  least  ten  leagues  to  the  southward, 
toward^  Hond-Sound. 

Some 


MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION.  ^S.'i 

■  Some  of  us  in  the  mean  time,  knowing  that  it  was  im- 
possible to  be  so  long  a  rowing  and  sailing  of  eight 
leagues  (for  we  did  both  row  and  sail)  made  enquiry  of 
©ne  another,  how  tiie  harbour  lay  ;  most  of  us  judging 
that  it  coukl  not  possibly  be  further  to  the  southward, 
our  reason  being  our  observation  of  the  lands  rounding 
axcay  aud  trenthv^^  towards  the  eastward.  AVe  re.'^olved 
thereupon  to  rov/  no  further  on  that  course,  for  the  find- 
ing of  Bell-Sound  ;  and  though  we  were  persuaded  by 
William  Fakely  our  gunner,  (a  proper  seaman,  thouglino 
skilful  mariner,  who  had  been  in  the  eountry  five  or  i«ix 
times  before,  which  none  of  our  seamen  had  been),  tliat 
it  was  farther  to  the  southward,  vet  we,  trustins:  better 
to  our  own  reasons  than  unto  his  persuasions,  agaiii 
returned  towards  the  northward,  which  was  our  best  and 
direct  course  indeed,  for  the  finding  the  Bell-Soiind. 
Steering  of  which  course,  we  were  now  come  within  two 
miles  of  Bell-Poiut,  and  the  weather  being  fair  and 
clear,  we  presently  descried  the  tops  of  the  lofty  moun- 
tains; William  I'akely  thereupon  looking  about  him, 
presently  cries  out  unto  us,  '^  that  zee  rcere  all  this  Zi-hiU 
upon  a  zcrong  cuiirsc.^'  Upon  hearing  which  words,  some 
of  our  company,  yea  the  most,  were  persuudtd  to  turn 
about  the  boat's  head  a  second  time,  linto  the  southward; 
which  one  action,  was  the  main  and  only  cause  of  our 
too  late  repentance  ;  though  for  my  own  part,  as  it  is  weil 
known,  T  never  gave  con.ent  to  their  counsel. 

And  thus  upon  the  fatal  £Oth  day  of  August,  which 
was  the  utmost  day  of  our  limited  time  for  staying  in  the 
country;  we  again  returned  the  quite  contrary  wav, ' 
namely  to  the  southv/ard,  utterly  uncertain  when,  and 
where  to  find  the  sound  ;  a  thousand  sad  in)agination3 
overtaking  our  perplexed  mind  j  all  of  us  assuredly  know-^ 
ing,  that  a  million  of  miseries  would  of  necessity  ensue, 
if  we  fuuud  not  the  ships  to  save  our  passage.     In  this 

diitractcd 


28^  MfRACULOUS    PKESEHVATlON. 

distracted  time  of  our  thoughls,  we  were  now  the  second 
time  running  as  far  to  the  southward  as  at  the  first;  bufe 
finding  there  was  no  likehhood  of  finding  any  such  a, 
place  further  to  the  south,  we  turned  the  shallop  again  to 
the  northward  ;  William  Fakel}' hereupon,  being  unwil- 
ling to  condescend  unto  our  agreement,  still  sai/ing  it 
could  not  be  our  course  :  but  we  not  trusting  longer  to  his 
opinion  (though  all  in  him  was  out  of  good  will  and  con- 
ceit of  being  in  the  right),  and  he  not  consenting  to  steer 
any  longei",  I  took  the  oar  out  of  his  hand  to  steer  the 
boat  withal.  The  weather  all  this  while  continued  faic 
and  clear,  and  it  pleased  God  at  the  very  instant  to  send 
the  wind  easterly  ;  which  advantage  we  thankfully  em- 
braced, and  presently  set  sail.  The  wind  increasing  fresh 
and  large,  and  our  shallop  swiftl}'  running,  we  arrived 
the  21st  da}'  at  Bell-Point,  where  we  found  the  wind 
right  out  of  the  sound,  at  East  North  East,  so  fiercely 
blowing,  that  wc  could  not  possibly  row  to  windward  ; 
but  being  forced  to  take  in  our  sail,  we  were  fain  to  be-« 
take  ourselves  unto  our  oars,  by  help  of  which  we  re- 
covered some  two  miles  within  the  shore,  where  we  were 
constrained  for  that  time  to  cove,  or  else  to  drive  to  lee- 
ward. 

binding  this  to  be  the  place  we  had  all  this  while 
sought  for  (he  now  also  agreeing  thereunto)  we  forthwith 
sought  out  and  found  an  harbour  for  our  shallop ;  and 
having  brought  her  into  it,  two  of  our  men  were  presently 
dispatched  over-land,  unto  the  tent  at  Bell-Sound,  to  sec 
if  the  ships  were  still  there;  of  which,  by  reason  of  the 
time  being  expired,  and  the  opportunity  of  the  present 
high  wind,  we  v/ere  much  afraid.  The  tent  being  distant 
ten  miles  at  least  from  our  shallop,  our  men  at  their  com- 
ing thither,  and  finding  the  ships  to  be  departed  out  of 
the  road,  and  not  being  certain,  whether  or  not  they 
might  be  at  Bottle-Cove,  three  Icfigues  distant  on    the 

other 


MIRACULOUS    PRESKHVATIOTI.  28? 

Other  side  the  sound,  riding  there  under  the  loom  of  the 
Jand  ;  again  returned  to  us  with  their  sad  news.  The 
storm  of  wind  continuing  till  about  midnight^  it  fell  to  a 
stark  calm  ;  wtiereupon  we,  unwilling  to  lose  the  oppor- 
tunity, departed  towards  Bottle-Cove,  betwixt  hope  and 
fear  of  finding  the  ships  there.  Whither  coming  the  22d 
and  finding  the  ships  departed,  we  having  neither  pilot 
or  compass  for  our  directors  to  the  eastward,  found  our- 
selves (God  he  knoweth)  to  have  little  hope  of  any  deli- 
very out  of  this  apparent  danger.  Our  fears  increased 
upon  us,  even  whilst  we  consulted  together,  whether  it 
were  safest  to  go  or  stay  :  if  to  go,  then  we  thought  of  the 
dangers  in  sailing,  by  reason  of  the  ice  in  our  wayj  as 
also  of  the  difficulty  in  finding  the  place,  when  we  should 
come  thereabout.  If  we  resolved  still  to  remain  at  Bell- 
Sound,  then  we  thought  that  no  other  thing  could  be 
looked  for,  but  a  miserable  and  pining  death,  seeing 
there  appeared  no  possibility  of  inhabiting  there,  or  to 
endure  so  long,  so  darksome  a  winter. 

And  thus  were  our  thoughts  at  that  time  distracted, 
thus  were  our  fears  increased ;  nor  were  they  careless 
fears.  Well  we  knew  that  neither  Christian  or  Heathen 
people,  had  evt-r  before  inhabited  those  desolate  and  in- 
temperate climates.  This  also,  to  increase  our  fears,  had 
we  certainly  heard,  how  that  the  merchants  having  in 
former  times  much  desired,  and  that  with  proffer  of  great 
rewards  for  the  hazarding  of  their  lives,  and  of  suf- 
ficient furniture  and  provision  of  all  things  that  might  be 
thought  necessary  for  such  an  undertaking,  to  any  that 
would  adventure  to  winter  in  those  parts;  could  never 
yet  find  any  so  hardy,  as  to  expose  their  lives  unto  so 
hazardous  an  undertaking;  yea,  notwithstanding  these 
proffers  had  been  made,  both  unto  mariners  of  good  ex- 
perience and  noble  resolutions,  and  also  unto  divers  other 

bold 


€88         MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATICN. 

bold  spirits ;  yet  had  the  action  of  wintering  in  those 
parts,  never  by  any  been  hitherto  nndcrtakoii.  This  alsQ 
had  we  heard,  how  that  the  company  <'>f  MuscoXie 
merchants,  having  once  procured  the  reprieve  of  some 
malefactors,  that  had  at  home  been  convicted  by 
law,  for  some  heinous  crimes  committed  ;  and  that  both 
promise  of  pardon  for  their  faults,  with  addition  of  re- 
wards also,  if  so  be  they  would  undertake  to  remain  in 
Greenland  but  one  whole  year,  and  that  every  way  pro-, 
vidcd  for  too,  both  of  clothes,  victuals,  and  all  thing? 
else,  that  might  be  any  way  needful  for  their  preserva-; 
tion.  These  poor  wretches  hearing  of  this  large  proft"cr> 
and  fearing  present  execution  at  home^  resolved  to  make 
trial  of  the  adventure.  The  time  of  the  year  being 
come,  and  the  ships  ready  to  depart,  these  condemned 
creatures  were  embarked,  who,  after  a  certain  space  ar- 
riving, and  taking  a  view  of  the  desohitcness  of  the 
place,  they  conceived  such  a  horror  and  inward  fear  in 
tlieir  hearts,  that  they  resolved  rather  ro  return  tQ 
England  to  make  satisfaction  with  their  lives,  for  their 
former  faults  committed,  than  there  to  remain,  though 
with  assured  hope  of  pardon.  Insomuch  as  the  time  o£ 
year  being  come  that  the  ships  were  to  depart  from  these 
barren  shores,  thty  made  known  their  full  intent  to  the 
Captain  ;  wlio  being  a  pit^'ing  and  merciful  gentleman, 
Avould  not  by  force  constrain  tfeem  to  stay  in  that  place, 
which  was  contrary  to  their  minds;  but  iiaving  made 
his  voyage  and  the  time  expired,  he  again  embarked  and 
brought  them  over  with  him  to  England  ;  where,  through 
the  intercession  and  means  of  the  worshipful  company 
of  ^luscovie  Merchants,  they  escaped  that  death,  whicU 
they  had  before  been  condeinned  unto.  The  r<  niembran<e 
of  these  two  stories,  as  also  a  third,  (more  teirihle  thaqt 
bolh  the  former);  lur  tliut  was  likelv  to  be  our  ouu  casCj 

nj(.irc 


MIFACULOUS    PRESERVATION.  'C!89 

more  miserably  now  affrighted  us;  and  that  Avas  the  la- 
mentable and  unmanly  ends,  of  nine  good  and  able  men, 
left  in  the  same  place  heretofore,  by  the  self  samemaster 
that  now  left  us  behind  ;  who  all  died  miserably  upori 
the  place,  beingcruelly  disfigured  after  their  deaths,  by  the 
savage  bears,  and  hungry  foxes,  which  are  not  only  the 
civilest,  but  also  the  only  inhabitants  of  that  comfortless 
COuntr}'  :  (he  lamentable  ends  and  miscarriage  of  which 
Inen,  had  been  enough  indeed  to  have  daunted  the  spirits 
t)f  the  most  noble  resolution. 

-  All  these  fearful  examples  presenting  themselves  be- 
fore our  eyes,  at  this  place  of  Bottle-Cove  aforesaid, 
made  us  like  amazed  m'eii,  to  stand  looking  6ne  upon 
another,  all  of  us,  as  it  were  beholding  in  the  present,' the 
future  calamities,  both  of  himself,  and  of  his  fellows  ji 
arid  thus,  like  men  already  metamorphosed  into  the  icel 
of  the  counti-y,  and  already  past  both  our  seuic  and  rea- 
son, we  stood  with  eyes  of  pity  beholding  oiie  another. 

Nor  was-  it  other  men's  examples  and  niiscarriages,  and 
fears  alone,  that  made  us  amazed;  but  it  was  the  consi- 
deration of  our  want  of  all  necessary  provision  for  the 
life  of  man,  that  already  struck  us  to  the  heart,  for  we 
were  not  only  unprovided  both  of  clothes  to  keep  u« 
warm,  and  of  food  to  prevent  the  wrath  of  cruel  famine, 
but  utterly  destitute  also  of  a  sufficient  house,  wherein  to 
shrowd  and  shelter  ourselves  from  the  chilling  cold. 
Thus  for  a  space,  standing  all  mute  and  silent,  weighing 
with  ourselves  the  misery  we  were  alread}-^  fallen  in,  and' 
knowing  that  delay  in  these  extremities  to  be  the  mo- 
ther of  all  dangers ;  we  began  to  conceive  hope,  even  out 
of  the  depth  of  despair.  Rousing  up  our  benumbed 
senses  therefore,  we  now  lay  our  heads  and  counsel  to- 
gether, to  bethink  of  the  likeliest  course  for  our  preserva* 
tion  in  that  place,  seeing  that  all  hopes  of  gaining  out 
passage  to  England  were  then  quite  frustrated.     Shaking 

Vol.  II.  o  ©  off 


290  MlHAGULOtS    1>RESERVATION,- 

off  therefore,  all  childish  fear,  it  pleased  God   to  give  ui 
hearts  like  men,  to  arm  ourseUes  with  a  resolution  to  do 
cur  best  for  the  resisting,  of  that  monster  of  desperation'. 
An  agreement  thereupon,  by  agencral  consent  of  the  whole 
company,  we  then  entered  into,  to  take  the  opportunity 
of  the  next  fair  weather,   and   go  for  Green-Harbour, 
to  hunt  and  kill  venison_,  for  part  of  our  winter  provision. 
Having  thus  agreed    among   ourselves,   the   25th   of 
August,  the   wind  and  weather  being  both   fair,  we  di' 
reeled  our  course  towards  Green-Harbour,  some  sixteen 
leagues,  as  I  before  said,  distant  from  Bell-Sound  ;  and 
the  wind  being  fresh  and  fair,  within  the  space  of  twelve 
hours  we  there  arrived  ;  upon  which  place  being   now 
landed^  the  first  thing  we  did,  was  to  make  us  a  tent  with 
the  sail  of  our  shallop,  pitched  up  and  spread  upon   our 
oars;  under   this  shelter  we  resolved  to  rest  ourselves 
that  night,  and  to  refresh  our  bodies  with  such  food  as  we 
there  had ;  and  the  next  day  to  return  to  our  hunting. 
The  weather  that  night  proving  fair  and  clear,  we  made 
our  sleep  the   shorter,  and   fitting  ourselves  and   shallop 
the  best  way  we  could,  proceeded  to  Coles-Park,  some 
two  leagues  di&tant  from   us,  and  well  known  to  Thomas 
Ayres,  to  be  well  stored  with  venison.    Coming  onshore 
here,  w^e  found  not  so  many  deer  as  we  expected  from 
his  report  ^  but  killed  seven  that  da}',  and  four  bears  be- 
iide,  which  we  also  intended  to  eat. 

The  weather  beginning  now  to  overcast,  and  not  likely 
to  continue  good  ior  hunting,  we  that  'night  returned 
again  to  Green-Harbour  ;  Avherc  making  us  a  tent  of  our 
sfiils  and  oars  as  before,  we  fell  to  eat  of  such  meat  as 
God  had  sent  us,  and  betook  ourselves  to  rest  upon  it ; 
and  now  finding  the  weather  to  clear  up,  we  broke  ofl'our 
sleep  for  that  time,  fitting  ourselves  and  two  dogs  to  go  a 
hunting,  leaving  William  Fakely  and  John  Dawes,  be- 
hind usj  in  the  teat  at  Grecn-Hai hour,  to  dress  some 
meat  for  refrc»4une;it  ut  our  return. 

Departing 


MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION'.*  ¥91 

Departing  from  the  tent,  we  rowed  towards  Coles- 
park;  in  the  way,  upon  the  side  of  a  hill,  by  the  sea 
side,  we  espied  seven  deer  feeding,  on  which  wc  rowed 
to  the  place,  and  with  the  help  of  our  dogs  killed  six  of 
them ;  after  \vhich  the  weather  again  overcasting,  we 
thought  it  to  little  purpose  to  go  any  farther  at  that 
time,  but  resolved  to  hunt  all  along  the  side  of  that  hill, 
and  so  at  night  to  return  to  our  tent:  going  thus  along 
we  killed  six  deer  more,  which  he  had  no  sooner 
done,  but  it  began  to  blow  and  rain,  and  to  be  very  dark'; 
whereupon  we  hasted  towards  the  tent,  there  intending  to 
refresh  ourselves  with  victuals,  and  with  rest  for  thaj 
night,  and  the  next  day  to  renew  our  hunting.  This  pur- 
pose of  ours,  was  by  the  foul  weather  the  next  day  pre* 
vented,  for  it  fell  so  black,  so  cold,  and  so  windy,  that  wg 
judged  it  no  way  fitting  for  our  purpose.  Lading  our 
own  shallop,  with  the  bears  and  venison  we  had  killed, 
and  finding  another  shallop  left  by  some  other  ship'a 
company,  we  loaded  that  with  the  graves  of  the  whale*', 
that  had  been  boiled  this  present  year,  which  we  found 
in  great  quantities  strewed  upon  the  ground,  and  divided 
ourselves  into  two  equal  companies;  William  Fakely  with 
one  seaman,  and  two  landmen  with  him,  taking  charge 
cf  one  shallop,  and  myself,  another  seaman,  and  two 
landmen,  taking  charge  of  tlic  other  :  we  thus  com- 
mitted ourselves  to  the  sea,  intending  with  the  next  fair 
weather  to  go  to  Bell-Sound  to  our  tent,  which  was  the 
place  we  intended  to  remain  at  during  the  winter. 

To  Bell-sound  therefore  we  went,  with  a  purpose  there 
to  lay  up  the  store  of  what  provision  we  had  already  got 
together,  and  with  the  ne^t  fair  wind  lo  come  back  again 
to  the  place  we  now  left,  to  try  if  it  wore  possible  to  pro- 
vide ourselves  with  some  more  venibun  for  our  winter 
provision. 

Jtluving  thus  lado);i  both  our  shallops,  appointed   our 

o  o  2  company 


&9t  MIRA€1710^'S    PRESERVATION. 

^ompany^  and  all  ready  for  departure,  we  were  over- 
taken with  darkness^  and  there  forced  to  stay  for  that 
tiight.  The  next  day  was  Sunday;  wheaefore  we  thought 
it  fit  to  sanctify  the  rest  of  it,  and  to  continue  there  till 
Monday,  and  to  make  the  best  use  we  could  of  that  good 
day,  taking  the  beat  course  we  could  for  the  serving  God 
Almighty ;  although  we  had  not  a  book  among  us  all,  or 
found  one  the  whole  time  we  staid  in  the  country. 

The  sabbath  day  being  shut  up  by  the  approaching 
night,  we  betook  ourselves  to  rest,  sleeping  till  the  sun 
awakened  us,  by  beginning  to  shew  himself  upon  the 
jMonday  morning.  The  day  was  no  sooner  peeped,  but 
we  got  up,  fitting  ourselves  and  business  for  departure; 
the  weather  was  fair  and  clear  at  first,  but  after  four 
bours  rowing,  the  sky  began  to  be  overcast,  and  the  wind 
blew  so  hard,  that  we  could  not  possibly  get  to  BelU 
^und  that  night,  but  coved  half  way,  until  the  next 
jnorning,  at  which  time  we  recovered  Bottle-Cove.  To 
which  place,  when  we  were  once  come,  we  found.ihe  wind^ 
then  at  south-west,  to  blow  so  hard,  that  it  was  impossible 
to  reach  Bell-Sound,  but  were  forced  to  stay  at  Bottle- 
Cove  for  that  night.  Our  shallops  we  made  fast  one  to 
the  other,  with  a  rope  fastening  the  head  of  one  to  the 
stern  of  the  other,  and  so  casting  ourgrabnell  or  anchor 
overboard,  we  left  them  riding  in  the  cove. 
•  But  see  now  what  a  mischance,  for  the  trial  of  our 
patience,  and  for  the  making  us  to  rely  more  upon  his 
providence,  than  upon  any  outward  means  of  our  own, 
God  now  sufteved  to  befall  us.  We  were  all  now  on  shore, 
the  south-west  wind  now  blew  so  hard  and  right  into  the 
cove,  that  it  made  the  sea  go  so  high  ;  our  anchor  also 
coming  home  at  the  same  time,  both  our  shallops  castjng 
along  the  shore,  sunk  presently  in  the  sea,  wetting  by  this 
means  our  whole  provision  ;  the  weather  withal  beating 
some  of  It  out  of  the  boats,  which  we  fo\md  swimming  up 

♦ind 


MIRACULOUS    PRESEIIVATION..  CQS 

and  down  the  shore;  for  coming  out  of  onr  tent  in  the 
mean  time,  judge  what  a  sight  this  was  to  us,  to  see  by 
jnischunce,  the  best  part  of  our  provision  (the  only  hope 
of  our  lives)  to  be  in  danger  utterly  to  belost^  or  at  least 
spoiled  with  the  sea  water,  and  for  which  we  had  taken 
such  pains,  and  run  such  adventures  in  the  getting.  In 
this  distress  we  saw  no  way  but  one,  and  that  very 
desperate,  namely,  to  run  presently  into  the  high- 
tcroiight  sea,  getting  by  that  means  into  our  shallops, 
to  save  the  remainder  of  our  provisions,  ready  now 
to  be  washed  away  by  the  billows.  A  Halser  there- 
upon we  got,  which  fastening  unto  our  shallops,  we 
with  a  crabbe,  or  capstan,  by  main  force  of  hand  heaved 
them  out  of  the  water  upon  the  shore,  this  done,  along 
the  sea  side  we  go,  seeking  and  taking  up  such  of  our 
provision,  as  were  swam  away  from  our  shallops.  Having 
by  this  means  gleaned  up  all  that  could  be  gotten  together, 
we  resolved  from  thenceforth  to  let  our  boats  lie  upon 
the  shore,  till  such  time  as  the  weather  should  prove  fair 
and  better,  and  then  go  over  to  Bell-Sound. 

The  third  of  September,  the  weather  proving  favorable, 
we  forthwith  launched  our  shallops  into  the  water,  and 
got  that  day  to  Bell-Sound,  thither  as  soon  as  we  came, 
our  first  business  was,  to  take  our  provision  out  of  our 
shallops  into  the  tent;  our  next,  to  take  a  particular  view 
of  the  place,  and  of  the  great  tent  especially,  as  being 
the  place  of  our  intended  habitation  for  the  ensuing  win- 
ter. This  which  we  called  the  great  tent,  was  a  kind  of 
house,  built  of  timber  very  substantial,  and  covered  with 
Flemish  tiles  :  by  the  men  of  which  nation  it  had  in  the 
time  of  their  trading  hither  been  built;  itwas  four  score  feet 
in  length,  and  fifty  in  breadth;  its  use  was  for  the  coopers, 
employed  for  the  service  of  the  company  to  work,  lodge, 
and  live  in,  during  the  time  they  are  making  the  casks  for 
the  barrelling  up  the  train  oil.  Our  view  being  taken, 
we  found  the  weather  beginning  to  alter  strangely,  and 

the 


CfH  MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION. 

tlie  nightSj  and  frosts,  so  to  grow  on  us,  that  we  durst  not 
adventure  upon  another  voyage  to  Green-Harbour;  tear- 
ing the  sound  would  be  frozen,  and  that  we  should  never 
be  able  to  get  back  to  our  tent  again.  By  land  it  was, 
v,e  knew  iu  vain  for  us  to  think  of  returning,  for  the 
country  is  so  very  mountainous,  that  there  is  no  travelling 
that  way. 

Things  being  at  this  pass  with  us,  we  bethought  our- 
selves of  building  another  small  lent  with  all  expedition, 
theplacemust  of  necessity  be  within  the  greatcrtent;  with 
our  best  wits  therefore  taking  a  view  of  the  place,  we  re- 
solved upon  the  southside,  and  began  with  taking  down 
another  lesser  tent  (built  for  the  use  of  the  landmen  hard 
by  the   other,  wherein   they  lodged   whilst   they  made 
the  oil)  from  thence  we  brought  the  materials,  which 
furnished    us    with    150    deal    boards,    besides   posts  or 
iitancheons  'and   rafters;    from  three  chimneys  of  the 
furnaces,  wherein  they  used  to  boil  their  oils,  we  brought 
a  thousand  bricks,  there  also  we  found  three  hogsheads 
or  very  fine  lime,  ofwhich  we  likewise  fetched  another  hogs- 
head from  Bottle-Cove,  on  the  other  side  of  the  sound,  some 
three  leagues  distant :  minglino:  this   lime  with  the  sand 
of  the  sea  shore,  wc  made  very  excellent  mortar  for  the 
laying  of  our  bricks  ;  falling  to  work  whereon,  the  wea- 
ther was  so  extreme  cold,  as  that  we  were  fain  to  make 
two  fires  to  keep  our  mortar   from  freezing.     AVilliani 
Fakely  and  myself  undertaking  the  masonry  part,  began 
to  raise  a  wall  of  one  brick  thickness,  against  the  inner 
planks  of  the  side  of  the  tent ;  whilst  we  were  laying  the 
bricks,  the  rest  of  our  company  were  otherwise  employed, 
sonie  in  taking  them  down,  others  in  making  them  clean, 
and  bringing  them  in  baskets  to  the  tent;  some  in  making 
mortar,  and  hewing  of  boards  to  build  the  other  side,  others 
too  in  flaying  our  venison.     Having  built  the  two  outer- 
most sides  of  the  tent  with  bricks  and  mortar,  and  our 

bricks 


MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION.  £f>5 

bricks  now  almost  spent,  we  were  enforced  to  build  the 
ether  two  sides  with  boards,  in  the  following  manner. 
First  we  nailed  our  deal-boards  on  one  side  of  the  poster 
stancheon,  to  the  thickness  of  one  foot,  and  on  the  other 
side  in  like  manner  ;  and  so  filling  up  the  hollow  plact.*, 
between  with  sand,  it  became  so  tight  and  warm,  as  not 
the  least  breath  of  air  could  penetrate :  our  chimnev's 
vent  was  into  the  greater  tent,  being  the  breadth  of  one 
deal  board,  about  four  foot  long.  The  length  of  this, 
our  tent  was  twenty  foot,  and  the  breadth  sixteen  ;  the 
height  ten;  our  ceiling  being  deal  boards  five  or  six  limes 
double,  the  middle  of  one  joining  so  close  to  the  close  of 
the  other,  that  no  wind  could  possibly  get  between.  As 
for  our  door,  besides  our  making  it  so  close  as  possiblv 
it  would  shut,  we  lined  it  with  a  bed  which  we  found 
lying  there,  and  came  over  both  the  opening  and  shutting 
of  it ;  for  windows,  we  made  none  at  all,  so  that  our  light 
we  brought  in  through  the  greater  tent,  b}'  removing  two 
or  three  tiles  in  the  eaves,  which  light  came  to  us  through 
the  vent  of  our  chimney.  Our  next  work  was  to  set  up 
£our  cabins,  billetting  ourselves  two  and  two  in  a  cabin  ; 
our  beds  were  the  deer's  skins  dried,  which  we  found  to  be 
extraordinary  warm,  and  a  very  comfortable  lodging  to 
us  in  our  distress.  Our  next  care  then  was  for  firing  to 
xlrcss  our  meat,  and  for  keeping  away  the  cold.  Ex- 
aming  therefore,  all  the  shallops  that  had  been  left  ashore 
there  by  the  slii[)s,  we  found  se\^n  of  them  very  crazy, 
^nd  not  serviceable  for  the  next  year.  Those  we  made- 
bold  with,  broke  them  up,  and  carried  them  into  our. 
house,  stowing  them  over  the  beams  in  manner  of  a  floor  ; 
intending  also  to  stow  the  rest  of  our  firing  over  them 
so  to  make  the  outer  tent  the  warmer,  and  to  keep  the 
snow  from  drifting  through  the  tiles  into  the  tent ;  which 
snow  would  otherwise  have  covered  every  thing,  and  have 
hindered  us  from  coining  to  what  we  wanted. 

When 


igG  MlRACrLOUS  PRESERVATtO*,' 

When  the  weather  was  now  grown  cold,  and  the  days 
short,  (or  rather  no  days  at  all)  we  began  to  stave  some 
empt}^  casks  that  were  left  there  the  year  before,  to  the 
quantityof  one  hundred  ton  at  least;  we  also  made  use  of 
Some  planks  and  of  two  old  coolers,  (wherein  they  cooled 
their  oil),  and  whatever  we  thought  might  be  spared 
without  damnifying  the  next  year's  voyage.  Having  got 
together  all  the  firing  that  we  possibly  could  make,  ex- 
cept we  should  make  spoil  of  the  shallops  and  cooler^ 
that  were  there,  which  might  easily  have  overthrown  the 
next  year's  voyage,  to  the  great  liinderance  of  the  wor- 
shipful company,  whose  servants  we  being,  were  every 
way  careful  of  their  profit.  Comparing  therefore  thd 
small  quantity  of  our  wood,  together  with  the  coldness 
of  the  weather,  and  the  length  of  time  that  we  were  like- 
ly to  abide,  we  cast  about  to  husband  our  stock  as  thriftily 
as  we  could,  devising  to  try  a  new  conclusion  :  onr  trial 
was  this,  when  we  raked  up  our  fire  at  night,  with  a  good 
quantity  of  ashes  and  embers,  we  put  into  the  midst  of  it 
a  piece  of  elm-wood,  where  after  it  had  lain  about  six-' 
teen  hours,  we  at  our  opening  of  it  found  great  store 
of  fire  upon  it,  whereupon  we  made  a  common  practice 
of  it  ever  after.  It  never  went  out  in  eight  months  to-* 
gether,  or  thereabouts. 

Having  thus  provided  both  our  house  and  firing,  uport- 
the  l'2th  of  September  a  small  quantity  of  drift  ice  came 
driving  to  and  fro  in  the  sound.  Karly  in  the  morn* 
iug  therefore  we  arose,  and  looking  every  where  abroad^ 
we  at  last  espied  t\?o  sea-horses  lying  asleep  upon  a 
piece  of  ice ;  presently  thereupon  taking  up  an  old 
harping  iron  that  lay  in  the  tent,  and  fastening  a  grapnel, 
rope  to  it,  we  launched  out  our  boat  to  row  towards  them  ; 
and  coming  something  near,  we  perceived  them  still 
isleep,  and  1  steering,  bid  the  rowers  to  hold  still  their 
oarS;,  for  feai.  ef  awaking  them  wfith  the  crashing  of  the 

ice  J' 


MIRACULOUS    PRESERVATION.  GO}' 

ice;  and  I  skulling  the  boat  easily  along,  came  so  near  at 
length  to  them,  that  the  shallops  even  touched  one  ,  at 
which  instant  William  Fakely  being  ready  with  his  harp- 
ing iron,  heaved  it  so  strongly  into  the  old  one,  that  he 
quite  disturbed  her  of  her  rest;  after  which  she  receiving 
five  or  six  thrusts  with  our  lances,  fell  into  a  sounder 
sleep  of  Death.  Thus  having  dispatched  the  old  one, 
the  younger  being  loath  to  leave  her  dam,  continued 
swimming  so  long  about  our  boat,  that  with  our  lances 
we  killed  her  also.  Hauling  them  both  alter  this  into  the 
boat,  we  rowed  ashore,  flayed  our  sea-horses,  cut  them 
in  pieces,  to  roast  and  eat  them;  the  J 9th  of  the  same 
month;  we  saw  other  sea-horses,  sleeping  in  like  manner 
upon  several  pieces  of  ice,  but  the  weather  being  cold, 
they  designed  not  to  sleep  so  much  as  before;  and  there- 
fore we  could  kill  but  one  of  them,  of  which  being  right 
glad,  we  returned  again  to  our  tent. 

The  nights  at  this  time,  and  the  cold  weather  increased 
50  fast  upon  us,  that  we  were  out  of  all  hope  of  getting 
any  more  food,  before  the  next  spring;  our  only  hopes 
where,  to  kill  a  bear  now  and  then,  that  might  by  chance 
wander  that  way.  The  next  day  therefore  taking  an  ex- 
acter  survey  of  our  stock  of  provision,  and  finding  our 
proportion  too  small  by  half,  for  our  time  and  company, 
we  agreed  among  ourselves  to  come  to  allowance,  that  is, 
to  stint  oui'Selves  to  one  reasonable  meal  a  day,  and  to 
keep  Wednesdays,  and  Fridays  fasting  days,  excepting 
from  the frittars  or  graves  of  the  whale,  (a  very  loathsome 
meat)  of  which  we  allowed  ourselves  sufiicient  to  satisfy 
our  present  hunger;  and  at  this  diet  we  continued  some 
three  months,  or  thereabouts. 

Having  by  this  time  finisheil  v,  hatcver  we  possibly  could 
invent  for  our  preservation  in  that  desolate  place,  our 
clothes   and   shoes  also,  were   worn   and    tore  to  pieces ; 

\  <jl.  H.  J"  P  and 


§98  MIRACULCUS    PKESERVATION. 

and  we  must  of  necessity  invent  some  new  device  for  their 
reparation.  Of  rope-yarn  therefore,  we  made  us  thread, 
and  of  whale-bones  needles  to  sew  our  clothes  and  shoes. 
The  nights  began  to  be  very  long,  and  by  the  10th  of  Octo- 
ber the  cold  so  violent,  that  the  sea  was  frozen  ovci^ 
which  had  been  enough  to  have  daunted  the  most  assured 
resolution.  At  which  time  our  business  being  over,  and 
nothing  now  to  exercise  our  minds  upon;  our  heads  began 
then  to  be  troubled  with  a  thousand  sorts  of  imaginations. 
Tlien  had  we  leisure  (more  than  enoi^gh)  to  complain 
ourselves  of  our  present  most  miserable  condition.  Then 
had  we  time  to  bewail  our  Avives  and  children  at  home; 
jind  to  imagine  what  news  our  unfortunate  miscarriages 
must  needs  be  to  them.  Then  thought  we  of  our  parents 
also,  and  what  a  cutting  corrosive  it  would  be  to  them,  to 
hear  of  the  untimely  death?  of  their  children.  Other 
times  again,  we  revive  ourselves  with  some  comfort,  that 
our  iViends  might  take,  in  hoping  it  would  please  God  to 
preserve  us,  untill  the  next  year.  Sometimes  did  we  vary 
our  griefs;  complaining  one  while  of  the  cruelly  of  our 
master,  that  would  leave  us  to  these  distresses;  and  then 
presently  again  we  fell,  not  only  to  excuse  him,  but  to 
lament  both  \ntx\  and  his  company,  fearing  they  had  been 
overtaken  by  t:he  ice, .^nd  miser?ibly  that  wa}'  perished. 

Thus  tormented  in  mind  with  our  doubts,  our  fears, 
and  our  griefs,  and  iri  our  bodies  with  hunge%  cold,  and 
wants,  that  hideous  monster  of  desperation,  began  no^v 
to  present  his  ugliest  shape  unto  us;  he  now  pursued  us 
— he  now  laboured  to  seize  upon  iis.  Thus  finding  our- 
selves in  a  labyrinth,  as  it  were,  of  a  perpetual  misery, 
we  tliought  it  not  best  to  give  too  much  way  to  our  griefs  ; 
fearing  they  also  would,  most  of  all,  have  wrought  upon 
©ur  weakness.     Our  prayers  we  now  redoubled  unto  the 

Almighty 


Miraculous  preservation?.  29<J 

Almighty,  for  strength  and  patience,  in  these  our  mise- 
ries; and  the  Lord  graciously  listened  unto  us,  and  granted 
these  our  petitions.  By  his  assistance  therefore,  we  shook 
off  these  thoughts,  and  cheered  up  ourselves  again,  to  use 
the  best  means  for  our  preservation.  Now  therefore,  we 
began  to  think  of  our  venison,  and  of  preserving  it;  and 
how  to  order  our  firing  in  this  cold  weather :  for  fear 
therefore  our  firing  should  fail  us  at  the  end  of"  the  year, 
we  thought  it  best,  to  roast  every  day  half  a  deer,  and  to 
stow  it  in  hogsheads,  which  we  now  put  in  practice,  and 
soon  filled  three  hogsheads,leaving  so  much  raw,  as  would 
serve  to  roast  every  sabbath-day  a  quarter ;  and  ao  for 
Christmas-day  and  the  like.  This  conclusion  being  made 
among  us,  then  fell  we  again  to  bethink  us  of  our  miseries 
both  passed  and  to  come  :  and  how,  though  it  pleased 
God  to  give  us  life,  yet  we  lived  as  banished  men,  not 
only  from  our  friends,  but  from  all  other  company.  Next 
we  thouglit  of  the  pinching  cold,  and  of  the  pining  hun- 
ger :  these  were  our  thoughts,  this  our  discourse  to  pnss 
away  the  time,  but  as  if  all  this  misery  had  been  too  lit- 
tle, we  presently  found  another  increase  of  it ;  for  examin- 
ing our  provision  once  more,  we  found  that  all  our  Frit- 
tars  of  the  whale  were  almost  spoilt  with  the  wet  they  had 
taken;  after  which  by  lying  so  close  together,  they  were 
now  grown  mouldy:  and  our  bear  and  veuison  we  per- 
ceived again  not  to  amount  to  ^uch  a  quantity,  as  to  allow 
ns  five  meals  a  week  ;  whereupon  we  were  fain  to  shorten 
Our  stomachs  of  one  meal  more;  so  that  for  the  space  of 
three  months  after  that,  we  for  four  days  in  the  week  fed 
upon  the  unsavory  and  mouldy  frittars,  and  the  other 
three,  we  feasted  it  with  bear  and  venison.  Birt  as  if  it 
were  not  enough  for  us  to  want  meat,  we  now  began  to 
want  light  also,  all  our  meals  proved  suppers  now;  for 
Utile  light  could  we  ;ee;  even  the  glorious  sun,  (as  if  un- 

p  p  2  willing 


300  MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION. 

willing  to  behold  our  miseries)  masking  his  lovely  face 
from  us,  under  the  sable  veil  of  coal-black  night.  Thus 
frona  the  14th  of  October,  till  the  3d  of  February,  we 
never  saw  the  sun;  nor  did  he  all  that  time,  so  much  as 
ever  peep  above  the  horizon.  But  the  moon  we  saw  at 
all  times,  day  and  night  (when  the  clouds  obscured  her 
not,)  shining  as  bright  as  in  England.  The  sky,  tis  true 
is  very  much  troubled  with  thick  and  black  weather  all 
the  winter  time;  so  that  we  could  not  see  the  moon  so 
well  at  all  times,  or  discern,  what  point  of  the  compass 
she  bore  upon  us.  A  kind  of  day-light  we  had  indeed, 
which  glimmered  some  eight  hours  a  day  unto  us;  in  Oc- 
tober time  I  mean;  for  from  thence  until  the  1st  of  De- 
cember, even  that  light  was  shortened  ten  or  twelve  mi- 
nutes a  day  constantly:  so  that  from  the  1st  of  December 
till  the  20th  there  appeared  no  light  at  all,  but  all  was 
one  continued  night.  AW  that  we  could  perceive  was, 
that  in  a  clear  season  now  and  then,  there  appeared  a  lit- 
tle glare  of  white,  like  some  show  of  day  towards  the 
south ;  but  no  light  at  all.  And  this  continued  till  the 
1st  of  January,  by  which  time  we  might  perceive  the  day 
a  little  to  increase.  All  this  darksome  time,  no  certainty 
could  we  have  when  it  should  be  day,  or  when  night; 
only  myself  out  of  my  own  little  judgment,  kept  the  ob- 
servation of  it  thus.  First  bearing  in  mind  the  number 
of  the  epact,  I  made  my  addition  by  a  day  supposed, 
(though  not  absolutely  to  be  known  by  reason  of  the 
darkness)  by  this  [judged  the  age  of  the  moon  ;  and  this 
gave  me  my  rule  of  passing  the  time;  so  that  at  the  com- 
ing.of  the  ships  into  the  port,  T  told  them  the  day  of  the 
month  as  directly  as  ihey  themselves  could  tell  me.  At 
the  beginning  of  this  darksome,  irksome  time,  we  sought 
some  means  of  preservinsr  lioht  amonii;  us  :  findins:  there- 
fore  a  piece  of  sheet-lead  over  a   seam  of  one  of  the 

coolers. 


MIRACULOUS  PEESEEYATION.  301 

coolers^  we  rirpt  it  off  and  made  three  lamps  of  it;  which 
maintaining  with  oil  that  we  found  in  the  coopers  tent 
and  rope  yarn  serving  us  instead  of  candleuicks,  we  kept 
them  continually  burning;  and  this  was  a  great  comfort 
to  us  in  our  extremity.  Thus  did  we  our  best  to  preserve 
ourselves;  but  all  this  could  not  secure  us:  for  we  in  our 
own  thoughts,  accounted  ourselves  but  dead  men;  and 
that  our  tent  was  then  our  darksome  dungeon,  and  we 
did  but  wait  our  trial  by  our  Judge,  to  know  whether  we 
should  live  or  die.  Our  extremities  being  so  many,  made 
us  in  impatient  speeches  to  break  forth  against  the  causers 
of  our  miseries:  but  then  again,  our  consciences  telling 
us  of  our  own  evil  deservings,  we  took  it  either  for  a 
punishment  upon  us,  for  our  former  wicked  lives,  or  else 
for  an  example  of  God's  mercy,  in  our  wonderful  deliver 
ranee;  and  humbling  ourselves  therefore  under  the  migh- 
ty hand  of  God,  we  cast  down  ourselves  in  prayer,  two 
or  three  times  a  day,  which  course  we  constantly  held  all 
the  time  of  our  misery. 

The  new  year  now  begun,  and  as  the  dai/s  hegan  to 
hngtJitn,  so  the  cold  began  to  strengthen ;  which  cold 
came  at  last  to  that  extremity,  as  that  it  would  raise  blisters 
in  our  flesh,  as  if  we  had  been  burnt  with  fire;  and  if  we 
touched  iron  at  any  time,  it  would  stick  to  our  fingers 
like  bird-lime.  Sometimes  if  we  went  but  out  of  tlie 
door  to  fetch  in  a  little  water,  the  cold  would  nip  us  in 
such  sort,  that  it  made  us  as  sore  as  if  we  had  been  beaten 
in  some  cruel  manner.  All  the  first  part  of  the  vvinter 
we  found  water  under  the  ice,  that  lay  upon  the  bacht 
on  the  sea-shore.  Which  water  issued  out  of  a  high  bay, 
or  cliff  of  ice,  and  ran  into  the  hollow  of  the  bache,  there 
remaining  with  a  thick  ice  over  it;  which  ice,  we  at  one 
certain  place  daily  digging  through  with  pick-axes,  took 
as  much  water  as  served  for  our  drinking. 

This  continued  until  the  10th  of  January,  and  then 
we  were  fain  to  make   shift  with  snow-water,  which  we 

melted 


502  MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION. 

melted  by  putting  hot  irons  into  it;  and  this  was   onr 
drink  until  the  20th  of  May  following.     By  the  end  of 
January  the  days  were  grown  to  seven  or  eight  hours 
long;  and  then  we  again  took  another  view  of  our  vic- 
tuals, which  we  now  found  to  grow  so  short,  that  it  would 
no  way  last  us  above  six  weeks  longer.     And  this  bred  a 
further  fear  of  famine  among  us.     But  our  recourse  was 
in  this,  as   in   other  extremities,  unto  Almighty  God, 
who  had  helps  we  knew,  though  we  saw  no  hopes ;  and 
thus  spent  we  our  time  until  the  3d  of  February,  which 
proved  a  marvellous  cold  day;  yet  a  fair  and   clear  one, 
about  the  middle  whereof,  all  clouds  now  quite  dispersed, 
and  night's  sable  curtain  drawn;  Aurora  with  her  golden 
face  smiled  once  again  upon  us,  at  her  rising  out  of  her 
bed  ;  for  now  the  glorious  Sun  with  his  glittering  beams, 
began   to  gild  the  highest  tops  of  the  lofty  mountains. 
The  brightness   of   the   sun,    and  the  whiteness  of  the 
snow,  both  together  was  such,  as  that  it  was  able  to  have 
revived  even  a  dying  spirit.     But  to  make  a  new  addition 
to  our  new  joy,  we  perceived  two  bears  (a  she  one  with  her 
cub)    now  coming    towards    our  tent;    whereupon   we 
straight  arming  ourselves  with  our  lances,  issued  out  of 
the  tent  to  await  her  coming;  she  soon  cast  her  greedy 
eyes  upon  us ;  and  with  full  hope  of  devouring  us,  she 
made  the  more  haste  unto  us;  but  with  our  hearty  lances 
we  gave  her  such  a  welcome,  as  that  she  fell  down  on  the 
ground,  tumbling  up  and  down,  biting  the  snow  for  very 
anger.     Her  cub  seeing  this,  by  flight  escaped  us.     The 
weather  now  was  so  cold,  that  longer  we  were  not  able 
to  stay  abroad ;  retiring  therefore  into  our  tent,  we  first 
warmed  ourselves,  and   then  out  again  to  draw  the  dead 
bear  in  unto  us.     We  flayed  her,  cut  her  into  pieces  of  a 
stone  weight  or  thereabouts,  one   of  which  served  us  for 
our  dinner;  and  upon  this  hear  we  fed  some  twenty  days, 
for  ihe  was  very  good  ilcsh,  and  better  than  our  venison 

This 


MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION.  oOS 

This  only  mischance  we  had  with  her,  that  upon  the 
eating  of  her  Hver,  our  skins  peeled  off.  For  mine  own 
pari,  I  being  sick  before,  by  eating  of  that  liver,  though  I 
lostmy  skin,  yet  recovered  I  my  health  upon  it.  She  being 
spent,  either  we  must  seek  some  other  meat,  or  else  fall 
aboard  with  our  roast  venison  in  the  cask,  which  we  were 
very  loth  to  do,  for  fear  of  famishing,  lest  that  should 
he  exhausted  before  tlie  fleet  arrived  from  England. 
Amidst  these  our  fears,  it  pleased  God  to  send  divers  bears 
into  our  tent;  some  forty  at  least,  as  we  accounted.  Of 
which  number  we  killed  seven ;  on  the  2d  of  March  one, 
the  4th  another;  and  on  the  10th  a  wonderful  great  bear, 
six  foot  high  at  least.  All  which  we  flayed,  and  roasted 
upon  wooden  spits  (having  no  better  kitchen  furniture 
than  that,  and  a  frying-pan  which  we  found  in  the  tent.) 
They  were  as  good  savoury  meat,  as  any  beef  could  be. 
Having  thus  gotten  good  store  of  such  food,  we  kept 
not  ourselves  now  to  such  straight  allowance  ;  but  eat  fre- 
quently two  or  three  meals  a-day,  which  began  to  in- 
crease strength  and  ability  of  body  in  all  of  us. 

By  this,  the  chearful  days  so  fast  increased,  that  tlie 
several  sorts  oflbwls,  which  had  all  the  winter  time  avoid- 
ed those  quarters,  began  now  again  to  resort  thither,  unto 
their  summer-abiding.  The  l6th  of  March,  one  of  our  two 
mastiff"  dogs  went  out  of  the  tent  from  us  in  the  morn- 
ing ;  but  from  that  da^^  he  never  rcmrnod  to  us,  nor 
could  we  hear  what  was  become  of  him.  The  fowls  llmt 
1  before  spoke  of,  constantly  use  every  spring  time  to  re- 
sort into  that  coast,  being  used  to  breed  there  most  abun- 
dantly. Their  food  is  a  certain  kijid  of  small  fish.  Year- 
ly upon  the  abuiuhmt  coining  of  these  fowls,  tlie  foxes 
which  had  all  the  winter  kept  their  burrows  under  the 
rocks,  begin  to  come  abroad,  and  seek  for  their  livings. 
For  them  we  set  up  three  traps,  like  rat-traps,  and  bailed 
theiii  witli  tli<j  skins  of  these  fowls,  which  we  had  found 

upon 


S04  MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION. 

upon  tlie  snow^  they  falling  their  in  there  flight  from  the 
hill,  wheieupon  they  breed,  towards  the  sea;  for  this 
fowl  being  about  the  size  of  a  duck,  hath  her  legs  placed 
so  close  unto  her  rump,  as  that  when  they  alight  once 
npon  the  land,  they  are  very  rarely  (if  ever)  able  to  get 
up  again,  by  reason  of  the  misplacing  of  their  legs,  and 
the  weight  of  their  bodies;  but  being  in  the  water,  they 
raise  themselves  with  their  pinions  well  enough.  After 
we  had  made  these  traps,  and  set  them  apart  one  from 
another,  in  the  snow,  we  naught  fifty  foxes  in  them  ;  all 
which  we  roasted,  and  found  very  good  meat  of  them  ; 
then  took  we  a  bear's  skin,  and  laj'ing  the  flesh-side  up- 
ward, we  made  springs  of  whale-bone,  wherewith  we 
caught  about  sixty  of  those  fowls,  about  the  size  of  a 
pigeon. 

Thus  continued  we  until  the  1st  of  May,  and  the  wea- 
ther then  growing  warm,  we  were  now  pretty  able  to  go 
abroad  to  seek  for  more  provision.  Every  day  therefore 
abroad  we  went,  but  nothing  could  we  encounter  until  the 
24lb,  whenespyinga  buck,  we  thought  to  have  killed  him 
with  our  dog;  but  he  was  grown  so  fat  and  lazy,  that  he 
could  not  pull  down  the  deer.  Seeking  further  out  therefore, 
we  found  abundance  of  zcillock's  eggs  ;  (which  is  a  fowl 
about  the  bigness  of  a  duck)  of  which  eggs  though  there 
were  great  store,  yei  we  being  but  two  of  us  together, 
brought  but  thirty  of  them  to  the  ten  that  day,  thinking 
the  next  day  to  fetch  a  thousand  more  of  them  ;  but  the 
day  proved  so  cold,  with  an  easterly  wind,  that  we  could 
not  stir  out  of  our  tent. 

Staying  al  home  therefore  upon  the  25ih  of  May,  we 
for  that  day  omitted  our  ordinary  custom,  our  order  of 
late  (since  the  lair  weather)  was,  every  day  or  every  se- 
cond day,  to  go  up  to  the  top  of  u  mountain,  to  spie  if 
we  could  discern  the  water  in  the  sea,  break  the  main  ice 
rtitliin  the  Sound,  which  until   the  day -before,  we  had 

not 


MTRACLLOUS    PRESERVATION.  305 

not  seen.  At  which  time,  a  storm  of  wind  coming  out 
of  the  sea  broke  the  ice^  and  the  wind  coming  easterly, 
carried  all  the  ice  into  the  sea,  and  cleared  the  Sound  a 
great  way ;  although  not  near  the  shore  at  firsts  seeing 
the  clear  water  came  not  near  our  tent  by  three  miles  at 
least. 

This  25th  of  Ma}'  therefore,  we  all  day  staying  in  the 
lent,  there  came  two  ships  of  Hull  into  the  Sound;  who 
knowing  that  there  had  been  men  left  there  the  year  bt— 
fore,  the  master  (full  oi"  desire  to  know  whether  we  were 
alive  or  dead)  manned  out  a  shallop  from  the  ship,  with 
order  to  row  as  far  up  the  sound  as  they  could,  and  then 
to  hawl  up  their  shallop,  and  travel  over-land  upon  the 
snow  unto  the  tent.  These  men  at  their  cominp-  ashore, 
found  the  shallop  which  we  had  hauled  from  our  tent  into 
the  water,  with  a  purpose  to  go  seek  s6uie  sea-horses  the 
next  fair  weather  ;  the  shallop  being  then  already  fitted 
with  all  necessaries  for  that  e'nterprize.  This  sight 
brought  them  into  a  quandary;  and  though  this  encoun- 
ter made  them  hope,  yet  their  admiration  made  them 
doubt,  that  it  was  not  possible  for  us  to  remain  alive 

Taking  therefore  our  lances  out  of  the  boat,  towards 
the  tent  they  come;  we  never  so  much  as  perceiving  of 
them,  for  we  were  all  gathered  together,  now  about  to 
go  to  prayers  in  the  inner  tent,  only  Thomas  Ayers  wa5 
not  yet  come  in  to  us  out  of  the  greater  tent;  the  Hull  men 
now  coming  near  our  tent,  hailed  it  with  the  usual  word 
of  the  sea,  crying  Hey!  he  answered  again  with  Ho! 
which  sudden  answer  almost  amazed  them  all,  causing 
them  to  stand  still,  half  afraid  at  the  matter.  But  we  with- 
in hearing  of  them,  Jovfully  came  out  of  the  tent;  all 
black  as  we  were  with  the  smoak,  and  with  our  clothes  all 
tattered  with  wearing  so  long.  This  uncouth  sight  made 
them  further  amazed  at  us;  but  perceiving  us  to  be  the 
very  men  left  there,  all  the  year,  with  jayfi<ii  hearts  they 

Vol.  H.  q  q  embraced 


S06  MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION. 

embraced  us ;  and  we  thera  in  return :  they  came  into 
our  tent  where  we  shewed  them  the  courtesy  of  the  house, 
and  gave  tlieni  such  victuals  as  we  liad  ;  which  was  veni- 
son roasted  four  months  before^  and  a  cup  of  cold  water, 
which  for  novelt3''s  sake  they   kindly  accepted  of  us. 

Then  fell  we  to  ask  them,  whatnefti's?  and  of  the  state 
of  the  land  at  home?  and  when  the  London  fleet  would 
come  ?  to  all  which,  they  returned  us  the  best  answers 
they  could. 

Agreeing  then  to  leave  the  lent,  witii  tliem  we  went  to 
their  shallop,  and  so  a-board  the  ship;  where  we  were 
welcomed  after  the  heartiest  and  kindest  English  manner; 
and  there  we  stayed  ourselves  until  the  coming  of  the 
London  fleet,  which  we  much  longed  for:  hoping  b}'  theni 
to  hear  from  our  friends  in  Englund.  We  were  told  that 
they  would  be  there  next  day  ;  but  it  was  full  throe  days 
ere  they  came,  which  seemed  to  us  as  tedious  'a  three 
da3^s  as  any  we  had  yet  endured  ;  so  much  we  now  de* 
sired  to  hear  from  our  friends,  our  wives,   and  children. 

The-GSth  of  May,  the  London  fleet  came  into  the  port 
lQ;Onr  great  comfort,  a-board  the  admiral  we  went,  unto 
the  right  noble  Captain  \'\'illiam  Goodler,  who  is  worth\' 
to  be  honoured  b}'  every  sciiman  for  his  courtesy  and 
bounty.  This  is  the  gentleman  that  is  every  year  chief 
cO'mmander  of  thii>  fleet;  and  right  worthy  feo  to  be,  being 
a  wise  man,  and  an  expert  mariner  as  any  in  England. 

Utito  this  gentleiman  right  welcbme  we  were;  and  joy- 
fully by  him  received:  he  giving  order,  that  we  should 
have  any  thing  that  was  in  the  ship,  that  might  do  us 
go6^d,  and  increase  our  strength;  of  his  own  charge  giv- 
ing us  appaVel  also,    to  the  value  of  twenty  pounds. 

Thus  after  fourteen  da3-s  of  refreshment,  we  grew  per- 
fectly V.  ell  all  of  us  ;  whereupon'the  noble  captain  sent 
William  Fakely  ,  and  John  Wyse, (Mason's  own  appren- 
tice) and  Thomas  Ayers  the  whale  cutter,  with  Kobert 

Goodfellow, 


MIRACULOUS  PRESERVATION.  307 

Goodfellow,  unto  Master  INlasoii's  ship,  according  as  them- 
selves desired.  But  thinking  there  to  be  as  kindlj  wel- 
comed as  tlie  lost  prodigal,  these  poor  men,  after  their 
enduring  so  much  misery,  (which  through  his  means  part- 
ly tliey  had  undergone)  no  sooner  came  they  on  board 
his  shij),  but  he  most  unkindly  called  them  ^'  RunaKni/s," 
with  other  harsh  unchristian  terms,  far  enough  from  the 
civility  of  an  honest  man. — Noble  Captain  Goodler  un- 
derstanding all  these  passages,  was  right  sorry  for  them, 
resolving  to  send  for  them  again,  but  that  the  weather 
proved  so  bad  and  uncertain.  I  for  my  own  part  remained 
with  the  Captain  still  at  Bottle  Cove,  according  to  my 
own  desire  :  as  for  the  rest  that  staid  with  him,  he  prefer- 
red the  landsmen  to  row  in  the  shallops  for  the  killing  of 
the  wdiales;  freeing  them  thereby  from  their  toilsome  la- 
bour on  shore,  bettering  their  means  besides,  and  all  these 
favours  did  this  worthy  gentleman  for  us. 

Thus  were  we  well  contented  now  to  stay  there  till  the 
COth  of  August,  hoping  then  to  return  to  our  native  coun- 
try :  which  day  of  departure  being  come,  and  we  embark- 
ed, with  joyful  hearts  we  set  sail  through  the  foaming 
ocean,  and  though  crossed  sometimes  with  contrary  winds 
homeward  bound  ;  yet  olu"  proper  ships  at  last  came  safely 
to  an  anchor  in  the  River  Thames,  to  our  great  joy  and 
comfort,  and  the  merchants  benefit.  And  thus  by  the 
blessing  of  God  came  we  all  eigiit  of  us  well  home,  safe 
and  sound;  where  the  Vvorshiplul  company  our  masters, 
the  Muscovic  merchants,  have  since  dealt  wonderi'iilly 
well  by  us..  For  ail  which  most  merciful  preservation, 
and  most  wonderfully  powerful  deliverance,  all  honor, 
praise,  and  glory  be  unto  ttie  ■ijreat  God,  the  sole  a^;thor 
of  it,  and  grant  us  to  make  the  right  use  of  it. 

Amen ! 

Q  q  Q  Extraordinary' 


(     308     ) 

'Extraordinary  Execution  of  the  Mayor  of  Bodmin,  iti 
Cornwall,  by  Sir  William  Kingston,  in  the  Reign 
of  Edward /Ae  Vlf^. 

A    REBELLION     happening   in    the    reign   of    King 
Edward  VL   upon  the  alteration  of  reliii:ion,  and   the 
rebels  being  defeated,  what  shameful  spwt  did  Sir  Wil- 
liam Kingston  make  with  men  in  misery,  by  virtue  of  his 
office  of  Provost  Marshal !    One  Bovvyer,  Mayor  of  Bod- 
win,  in  Cornwall,  had  been  amon^;;  the  rebels  not  wil- 
lingly, but  by  constraint.     Sir  William  sent  him  word  he 
would  dine  with  him  on  such  a  day,  for  whom  the  Mayor 
made  a  hospitable  entertainment.     A  little  before  dinner, 
the  Provost  took  the  Mayor  aside,  and  whispered  in  his 
ear,  '  That  there  must  be  an  execution  that  afternoon  ;' 
and  therefore  ordered  him  to  cause  a  gallows  to  be  set  up 
over   against   his   own  door.      The    Mayor  obeyed  his 
command  ;  and,  after  dinner,  the  Provost  took  the  AJayor 
by  the  hand,  and  desired  him  to  Itad  him  to  the  place  of 
execution  ;  which,  when  he  beheld,  he  asked  the  Mayor, 
"  If  he  thought  it  was  strong  enough."  '  '^  Yes,"  says  the 
INIayor,  "  doubtless  it  is."     "  Well  then,'"'  said  Sir  Wil- 
liain,  "^  get  up  and   try,  for  it  is  provided  for  you."     "  I 
hope.  Sir/'  said  the  Mayor,   "■  you  are  not  in  earnest  ?' 
"  By  luy  troth,"  says  the  Provost,  "  there  is  no  remedy, 
for  \'ou  have  been   a  busy  rebel ;"  and  so,  without  delay 
or  liberty  to  make  his  defence,  the  poor  Mayor  was  exe- 
cuted.    Near  that  place  also  lived  a  miller,  who  had  been 
very  active  in  the  rebellion,  and,  fearing  the  Provost's 
coming,  told  a  stout  young  fellow,  his  servant,  that  he 
had  occasion  to  go  from  home,  and  therefore  willed  him, 
if  any  gentleman  should  come  a  fishing  in  his  absence^ 
and  inquire  for  him,  "  He  should  tell  them  himself  was 
the  miller,  and  ready  to  serve  them."     The  Provosl  not 
long  after  came,  and,  asking  for  the  miller^  out  came  the 

servant. 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  DEATH-WATCH.  309 

servant,  saying,  "  Sir^  I  am  the  miller  ;"  upon  which  the 
Provost  commanded  his  servants  to  seize  him,  "  and  hang 
him  upon  the  next  tree."  The  poor  fellow  hearing  this, 
cried  out,  '*  I  am  not  thd  miller,  but  the  miller's  ser- 
vant." "  Nay,  friend,"  says  the  Provost,  "  I  will  take 
thee  at  thy  word.  If  thou  art  the  miller,  thou  art  a  busy- 
knave  and  a  rebel,  and  deservest  to  be  hanged.  If  thou 
art  not  the  miller,  thou  art  a  false  lyi<'.g  knave,  and  canst 
not  do  thy  master  better  service  than  to  hang  for  him  j** 
pnd  so,  without  more  edo,  he  was  executed. 

^  curious   Description  and  Explanation  of  the  Death 
Watch,  so  comnionlij  listened  to  zcith  such  dread. 

Among  the  many  natural  causes  that  operate  on  weak 
minds,  nothing  is  more  common  tlian  what  is  generally 
called  a  death  walch  ;  and  is  vulgarly  believed  wherever  it 
is  heard,  that  some  of  the  family  must  die  in  a  short  time 
after,  which  is  a  ridiculous  fancy,  crept  into  vulgar  heads, 
and  employed  to  terrify  and  aftVight  people,  as  a  monitor 
of  approaching  death  ;  and,  therefore,  to  prevent  such 
causeless  fears,  I  shall  take  this  opportunity  to  undeceive 
the  world,  by  showing  what  it  is,  and  that  no  such  thing  is 
intended  by  it.  Ithas  obtained  thenameof  adeath  watch, 
by  making  a  little  clinking  noise,  like  a  watch  ;  which 
giving  some  dibturbance  to  a  gtntlcman  in  his  chamber, 
who  was  not  to  be  alTnghied  with  vulgar  errors,  it  tempted 
him  to  a  diligent  search  after  the  true  cause  of  this  noise, 
which  be  pleased  to  take  in  his  own  words.  "  I  have 
been,"  says  he,  *'  some  time  since  accompanied  with  this 
litlle  noise.  One  evening  above  the  rest  I  sat  down  by  a 
table  from  whence  the  noise  proceeded,  and  laid  my 
watch  upon  the  same,  and  perceived,  to  my  admiration, 
that  the  sound  made  by  this  invisible  automaton  was 
louder  than  that  of  the  artificial  machine.     Its  vibrations 

would 


510  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  DEATH-WATCH. 

would  fall  as  regular,  but  withal  quicker,  which,  upon  a 
strict  inquiry,  was  found  to  be  nothing  but  a  little  beetle 
or  spider  in  the  wood  of  the  box.  Sometimes  they  are 
found  in  the  plastering  of  a  wall,  and  at  other  times  in  a 
rotten  post,  or  in  some  old  chest  or  trunk,  and  the  noise 
is  made  by  beating  its  head  on  the  subject  that  it  finds 
fit  for  sound."  The  little  animal  that  I  found  in  August, 
3695,  says  Mr.  Benjamin  Allen,  was  about  two  lines  and 
a  half  long,  calling  a  line  the  eighth  part  of  an  inch  ;  tlie 
colour  was  a  dark  brown,  with  spots,  some  lighter,  irre- 
gularly placed,  which  could  not  easily  be  rubbed  off, 
which  the  gentleman  above  named  observed,  with  its 
whole  composure  and  shape,  by  a  microscope,  and  sent 
the  whole  relation  of  it  to  the  publisher  of  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions  of  the  Royal  Societ3\  Some  people, 
governed  by  common  reports,  have  fancied  this  petit 
animal  a  spirit,  sent  to  admonish  them  of  their  deaths ; 
and,  to  uphold  the  fancy,  tell  you  of  other  strange  moni- 
tors altogether  as  ridiculous ;  for,  though  I  do  not  deny 
but  that,  in  some  particular  cases,  God  Almighty  may 
employ  unusual  methods  to  warn  us  of  our  approaching 
ends,  yet  ordinarily  such  common  and  unaccountable 
talk  is  nonsense,  and  depends  more  upon  the  fancy,  kept 
up  by  a  delight  in  telling  strange  things  than  any  thing 
else.  It  is  all  one  to  a  good  man,  whether  he  has  a 
summons  or  not,  for  he  is  always  ready  either  with  or 
without  it. 


TO  THE  EDITOR  OF  KIRBY  S  SCIENTIFIC   MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
"Reading  a  very  remarkable  trial  that  took  place  in  the  King's  Bench,  page 
2*7,  of  your  second  volume,  resjjecting  Mr.  Robert  Booty,  at  Stromboli, 
though  so  very  singular,  is  not  the  only  occurrence  that  happened  at 
that  place.  I  here  send  you  a  well-authenticated  history  of  a  circum- 
stance,   respecting  a  Mr.  Gresliam,    a   Merchant,    of   London,    whjo 

touched 


REMARKABLE  TRIAL  IN  THE  KINg's  BENCH.        311 

touched  at  Stromboli,  in  his  passage  from  Palermo,  this  being  so  nearly 
connected  with  your  foimer  account,  I  make  no  doubt  will  find  an  early 
insertion,  and  remain , 

Sir, 

Your  constant  reader, 
St.  James's  Street,  \V,  R. 

June  8,  .1804. 

JVlR.  GRESHAM,  an  eminent  merchant  in  London, 
being  homeward  bound  from  Palermo  in  Sicily,  where  at 
that  time  lived  tiie  rich  Antonio,  who  had  1  wo  kingdoms 
in  Spain  mortgaged  to  him  at  one  time  by  his  Catholic 
Majesty,  the  wind  being  against  them,  the  ship  in  which 
Mr.  Gresham  sailed  came  to  an  anchor  to  leeward  of 
Stromboli,  one  of  the  Lipari  Islands  in  the  Tyrrhenian 
Sea,  on  the  north  of  Sicily,  where  is  a  mountain  that 
casts  forth  flames  of  sulphur  in  some  places  of  it  con- 
tinually. About  noon,  the  mountain  generally  ceasing 
to  throw  out  flames,  Mr,  Gresham,  accompanied  with 
eight  sailors,  ascended  it,  and  went  as  near  the  orifice  as 
danger  would  permit  them,  where,  among  other  frightful 
noises,  they  heard  a  loud  voice  pronounce  the  following 
words,  "  Make  haste,  make  haste,  the  rich  Antonio  is 
coming  ;"  at  which,  being  in  a  great  consternation,  they 
hastened  a-board,  and  the  mountain  beginning,  in  a 
horrible  manner,  to  vomit  fire,  they  weighed ;  and  the 
wind  continuing  in  the  same  quarter,  made  the  best  of 
their  way  back  again  to  Palermo,  and  enquiring  after 
Antonio,  they  found  that  he  died,  as  near  as  they  could 
calculate,  at  the  same  instant  they  heard  the  voice  at 
Stromboli  say,  "  he  was  coming."  Mr.  Gresham,  safely 
arriving  in  England,  made  this  surprising  accident  known 
to  King  Henry  VIII.  and  the  seamen  being  called  before 
him,  attested  the  truth  of  it  by  their  oaths;  whicii  made 
such  a  sensible  impression  upon  Mr.  Gresham's  mind, 
that  he  quickly  gave  over  merchandizing,  made  a  distri- 
bution of  his  estate,  which  was  verv  considerable,  among 

hi.s 


gi2  EXTRAORDINARY  CLOCK  AT  STRASBOURG. 

his  relations,  and  to  pious  and  generous  uses,  reserving 
only  a  competency  for  himself,  and  then  spent  the  re- 
mainder of  his  days  in  the  exercise  of  piety  and  de- 
votion. 

EXTRAORDINARY   CLOCK  AT  STRASBOURG. 

Coryat,  the  celebrated  traveller,  in  the  reign  of  James  the  First,  when  at 
Strasbourg,  in  Germany,  was  particnlaily  sm"prised  with  the  extra- 
oidinary  Workmanship  of  the  Clock  th^t  ornaments  the  Cathedral  of 
that  place,  and  has  taken  great  care  in  the  Description,  as  well  as  to 
procure  a  correct  representation,  of  so  singrular  a  curiosity.  Some 
abridged  and  inaccurate  accounts  of  this  Wonderful  Piece  of  Mechanism, 
having  been  obtruded  on  the  public,  we  shall  deliver  its  true  description, 
in  the  words  of  Coryat  himself.  The  accompanying  plate  is  an  accurate 
copy,  from  the  dravfring  Coryat  procured  to  ornametit  hrs  account. 

IHIS  curious  Piece  of  Workmanship  stahdeth  at  the 
south  side  of  the  church,  near  to  the  door.'  A  true  figure 
or  representation  whereof,  made  according  to — form  itself, 
as  it  htandeth  at  this  day  in  the  church,  I  have  expressed 
in  tliis  place.  Trul}'  it  is  a  fabric  so  extraordinary  rare 
and  artificial,  that  I  am  confidently  persuaded  it  is  the 
most  exquisite  piece  of  work  of  that  kind  in  all  Europe. 
I  think  I  should  not  commit  any  great  error,  if  I  should 
sa}',  in  all  the  world.  The  bolder  I  am  to  affirm  it,  be- 
cause I  have  heard  very  famous  travellers  (such  as  have 
seen  this  clock,  and  most  of  the  principal  things  of 
Cliristendom)  report  the  same.  It  was  begun  to  be  built 
in  the  year  1.571,  in  the  month  of  June,  by  a  most  ex- 
cellent Architect  and  Mathematician,  of  the  cit}'  of 
.Strasbourg,  who  was  then  alive  when  I  was  there  ;  his 
name  is  Conradus  Dasjpodius,  once  the  ordinary  pro- 
fessor of  the  Mathematics  in  the  University  of  this  city. 
A  man  that,  for  his  excellent  art,  may  very  fitly  be  called 
the  Archimedes  of  Strasbourg;  and  it  was  ended  about, 
three  years  after,  even  in  the  year  15/4,  in  the  i>anie 
month  of  June^p-abont  the  feast  of  St.  John  Baptist.    This 

work 


WcOtt  ^ 


EXTRAORDINARY  CLOCK  AT  STRASBOURG.  313 

work  containeth^  by  my  estimation,  about  fifty  foot  ia 
height,  betwixt  the  bottom  and  the  top.  It  is  compassed 
in  with  three  several  rails,  to  the  end  to  exclude  all  per- 
sons, that  none  may  approach  near  it  to  disfigure  any 
part  of  it,  whereof  the  two  outmost  are  made  of  timber, 
the  third  of  iron,  about  three  yards  liigh.  On  the  left 
hand  of  it  there  is  a  very  ingenious  and  methodical  ob- 
servation for  the  knowing  of  the  eclipses  of  the  sun  and 
moon,  for  thirty-two  years.  At  the  top  whereof  is  writ- 
ten, in  fair  Roman  letters  : 

Tj/pl  Ec/ipsium 

So  I  is  ft  J  AUKS, 

Jd  Annos  xxxii. 

On  the  same  hand  ascendeth  a  very  fair  architectorical 
machine,  made  of  wainscot,  with  great  curiosity,  the 
sides  being  adorned  with  [)retty  little  pillars  of  marble, 
of  divers  colours,  in  which  are  three  degrees,  whereof 
each  containeth  a  fair  statue  of  carved  wainscot :  the 
first,  the  statue  of  Urania,  one  of  the  nine  Muses,  about 
which  her  name  is  written  in  gold  letters  ;  and,  by  the 
sides,  these  two  words,  in  the  like  golden  letters,  Arith- 
metica  and  Gcometria.  The  second,  the  picture  of  a 
certain  King,  with  a  regal  sceptre  in  his  hand.  But 
what  King  it  is,  [  know  not:  above  him  is  written 
Daniel,  '2  chap.  The  last  is  the  picture  of  Nicholaus 
Copernicus,  that  rare  vXstronomcr,  under  whom  is  written, 
in  fair  Roman  letters  :  'Skholui  Copcrn'ui  vera  cjjigks  ex 
ipsius  yJutographo  dcpicta. 

At  the  very  top  of  this  row,  or  series  of  work,  is  erected 
a  most  excellent  eiiigie  of  a  cotk,  which  doth,  passing 
curiosity,  represent  the  living  sh;»pe  of  Lliat  vocal  crea- 
ture ;  and  it  crowcth  at  certain  hour-,  yielding  as  shrill 
and  loud  ;i  voice  as  a  natural  cock.  Yea,  and  such  a 
Yiud   of  s(Hnul    (whicli  in;iki  th    it    n\orc   admirable)    as 

Vui     ][.  IX  r  cuunterfoiteiU 


314  EXTRAORDINARY  CLOCK  AT  STRASBOURG. 

counterfeiteth  very  near  the  true  voice  of  that  bird;  the 
hours  of  which  are  eleven  of  the  clock  in  the  morning, 
and  three  in  the  afternoon.  It  was  my  chance  to  hear 
him  at  the  third  hour  in  the  afternoon,  whereat  I  won- 
dered as  much  as  I  should  have  done,  if  I  had  seen  that 
famous  wooden  pigeon  o^  Jrckitas  Tarentimts,  the  Philo- 
s(5pher,  (so  much  celebrated  by  the  ancient  historians,) 
fly  in  the  air.  On  the  right  hand  also  of  this  goodly 
Architect,  there  is  another  row  of  building,  correspondent 
to  the  foresaid  in  height,  but  differing  from  it  in  form. — 
For  the  principal  part  thereof  consisteth  of  a  pair  of 
winding  stairs,  made  of  free  stone,  and  most  delicately 
composed.  I  could  not  perc<^ive  for  what  use  they  serve, 
so  that  I  conjecture  they  are  made  especially  for  orna- 
ment. Again,  in  the  middle  work,  betwixt  these  two 
notable  rows  that  I  have  now  described,  is  erected  that 
incomparable  fabrick  wherein  the  clock  standeth.  At 
the  lower  end  whereof,  just  about  the  middle,  I  observed 
the  greatest  astronomical  globe  that  ever  I  saw,  whxh  is 
supported  with  an  artificial  pelican,  W'ounding  his  breast 
with  his  beak  ;  wherewith  they  typically  represent  Christ, 
who  was  wounded  for  the  salvation  and  redemption  of 
the  world;  and  about  the  midst,  goeth  a  compass  of 
brass,  which  is  sustained  with  very  elegant  little  turned 
pillars.  Opposite  unto  which  is  a  very  large  sphere, 
beautified  with  many  cunning  conveyances  and  witty 
inventions.  .Directly  above  that  standeth  another  orb, 
which,  with  a  needle,  (this  is  a  mathematical  term, 
signifying  a  certain  instrument  about  a  clock,)  pointeth 
at  four  hours  onl}',  that  are  figured  at  the  four  corners, 
thus  :  1.  2.  3.  4.  each  figure  at  a  sevenil  corner.  At  the 
sides  of  the  orb,  two  angels  are  represented,  whereof  the 
one  holdeth  a  mace  in  his  liand,  with  which  he  striketh 
a  brjisen  serpent  every  hour;  and  iuird  by  flic  same 
standeth  a  death's  head,  finely  resembled  :    the  other, 

an 


EXTRAORDINAKY  CLOCK  AT  STRASBOURG.  315 

«ri  hour-glass,  which  he  moveth  likewise  hourly.     Nota- 
able  objects  tending  to  mortification.     Both  the  lower 
ends  of  this  middle  engine  are  very  excellently  grticed 
with  the  portraiture  ol  two  huge  lions,  carved  in  marble. 
This  part  of  the   third   fabrick,  wherein   standeth  the 
clock,  is  illustrated  with  many  notable  sentences  of  the 
Holy  Scripture,  written  in  Latin.     As  In  principio  creuit 
Deus  calumet  tcrram.     Gene.  1.  cap.      Oynnis  caro   /ie- 
vum,  Pet.  1.  cap.  1.     Peccati  Uipeiidium  mors  est,  Rom.  6. 
Dei  doHiim  vita  eteniaper  Christum.  Rom.  6.     Ascoidisti 
in  altum,  cepisti  captiutatem.     Psal.  68.     Again,  under 
the  same_,  are  written  these  sentences,  in  a  lower  de^-ree : 
JEcce  ego  creo  calos  Jioxos  et  terrain  novam.    Esaice  65. 
ILx  pergriscimifii  et    Icztamird  qui  habitat  is  in  palv&re. 
Esa.  26.      Venite   baicdicti  patris  mci,  possidcte  regnum 
vobis  paration.     Discedite  a  rne  maledicti  in  i<rncm  atur- 
inim.    Math.  25.     Above  thesie  sentences  divers  goodly 
arms  are  advanced,  and  beautified  with  fair  escutchens. 
Under  the  same  many  curious  pictures  are  drawn,  which 
present  only  histories  of  the  Bible.     Again,  above  that 
orb  which  I    have  already  mentioned,  there  is  erected 
another  orb,  or  sphere,  wherein  are  figured  the  hours 
distinguishing  time,  and  a  great  company  of  Mathema- 
tical conceits,  which  do  decypher  some  of  the  most  ab- 
struse and  secret  mysteries  of  the  noble  science  of  Astro- 
nomy.    Likewise,  another  orb  standeth  above  this  that  I 
last  speak  of,  within  the  which  is  expressed  the  fjo-ure  of 
an   half  moon,  and  many  glittering  stars,  set  forth  most 
gloriously  in  gold;  and  again,  without  are  formed  four 
half  moons,  and  two  full  moons.    Above  the  higher  part 
of  this  orb  this  impress  is  written  :    Qua  est  tarn  illustris, 
similes  aurora  pulera  ut  Lu?ia,  purd  lit  Sol.     At  the  sides 
■of  it,  beneath  this  pocsie,  is  vaitten,  which  is  thus  dis- 
tributed : — Dominus  lux  tnea,  on  the  left  hand ;  and,  on 
the  right  hand.  Quern  timtbo  '/  Also,  above  the  same  orb, 

R  r  I  observed 


3] 5       extraordinahy  clock  at  strAsbouegt. 

I  observed  another  exquisite  device,  even  seven  little 
pretty  bells  of  brass,  (as  I  conceived  it)  standing  together 
in  one  rank,  and  another  little  bell,  severally  by  itself, 
above  the  rest.     Within  the  same  is  contrived  a  certain 
vacant,  or  hollow  place,  wherein  stand  certain  artificial 
men,  so   ingeniously  made  that  I  have  not  seen  the  like. 
These  do  come  forth  at  every  quarter  of  an  hour,  with  a 
very  delightful  and  pleasant  grace,  holding  small  ham- 
mers in  iheir  hands,  wherewith  they  strike  these  foresaid 
bells,  every  one  in  order,  altcrnh  vicibaSj,  and  supply  each 
other  with  a  pretty  diligence  and  decorum,  in  this  quar- 
terly function.     Under  the  place  where  these  two  men 
do  strike  those  foresaid  bells,  these  two  sacred  emblems 
are  written  :  Ecc/esia  Christl  exulans :  and,  Serptns  An- 
iiquiis  Antichrist  us.     The   highest  top  of  tliis  fabrick  is 
framed  with  such  surpassing  curiosity,  that  it  yieldeth  a 
wonderful  ornament  to  the  whole  engine,  having  many 
excellent  little  portraitures  and  fine  devices  contrived 
therein,  of  free  stone,  and  garnished  with  borders  and 
works  of  singular  art.     Moreover,  the  corners  of  this 
.middle  work  arc  decked  with  very  beautiful  little  pillars, 
c<i£  .ash-coloured  marble,  whereof  there  stand  two  in  a 
-place;  those  above  square,  those  beneath  round.     Thus 
iiavc  I,  something  superficial!}',  described  unto  thee  this 
-fsimous  Clock  of  Strasbourg,  being  the  Phoenix  of  all  the 
iCio.cJvS  of  Christendom.     For  it  doth  as  far  excel  all 
-jQ^hef  Clocks  that  ever  I  saw  before,  as  of  the  Piazza  of 
^St.  Mark's,  in  Venice,  which  I  have  already  mentioned, 
that  of  Middleborough,  in  Zekuid,  which  I  after  saw,  and 
all  others,  generally  as  far  (I  say)  as  a  fair  young  lady, 
of  the  age  of  eighteen  years,  that  hath  been  very  elejjantly 
;bfought  up.  in  the  trimming  of  her  beauty,  doth  a  homely 
.and  coarse  trull  of  the  country,  or  a  rich  orient  pearl, 
>,rueau  piece  of  amber. 

...  J.  curious 


C    317     )  " 

-4  curious  Receipt  and  Expenditure  on  the  Exhibition  of 

a  Pla?/  taken  from  an  old  Churchaarden's  Book  belonif- 

ing  to  the  Parish  of  Basingborne,   Cambridgeshire. 
Memorandum.     Received  at  the  Play  held  ou  St, 
Margarets-day  A.  D.  MDXI  in  Basingborn  of  the  holy 
Martyr  St.  George. 

Received  of  the  Township  of  Royston  I2s.  TharfieM 
6s.  Sd.  Melton  5s.  4d.  Llllington  lOs.  6'd.  Whaddon  4s. 
4d.  Steeplemenden  4s.  Barly  4s.  id.  Ashwell  4s.  Abinodoii 
r,s.  4d.  Orwell  3s.  Wendy  Cs.  gd.  Wimpole  '2s.  7d.  Mel- 
dreth  2s.  4d.  Arlington  Gs.  4d.  Shepreth  2s.  4d.  Kelsey  Ss. 
5d.  Willington  Is.  lOd.  Fulmer  Is.  8d.  Gilden  Mordeii 
Is*  Tadlow  is.  Croydon  Is.  id.  Hattey  lOd.  W'ratlino-. 
>vorth  Qd.  Hastingfield  9d.  Barkney  8d.  Poxten  4d. 
Kneesworth  6d. 

item  received  of  the  Town  of  Baslngborn  on  the  Mon- 
day and  Friday  after  the  play  together  with  other  comers 
on  the  Monday  14s.  5d. 

Item  received  on  the  Wednesday  after  the  play  with  a 
pot  of  ale  at  Kneesworth  all  costs  deducted  Is.  7d. 
Expences  of  the  said  play 

First  paid  to  the  Garnement  Man  for  Garncments  and 
Propyrts  and  playbooks  20s. 

To  a  Mynstrel  and  three  Waits  of  Cambridge  for  the 
Wednesday,  Satnrday  and  Monday  Two  of  them  the  first 
day  and  Three  the  other  days  5s,  1  id. 

Item  in  expences  on  the  Players,  when  the  Plav  wa-i 
shewed,  in  bread  and  ale  and  for  other  Viitails  at  Rov- 
ston  for  those  Players  3s.  2d. 

Item  in  expences  on  the  Playday  for  the  bodies  of  six 
Sheep  22d.  each  ys.  2d. 

Item  for  tlirec  Calves  and  half  a  Lamb  Ss.  2d. 

Item  paid  five  days  board  of  one  Pyke  Propyrte 
making  for  himself  and  his  servant  one  day  and  fur  his 
horses  pasture  si.x  days  is.  4d. 

Item* 


SIS  A^JCIENT    SPOtlTSj    SCC. 

Item  paid  to  Turners  of  Spits  and  for  Salt  9d. 

Item  for  four  Chickens  for  the  Gentlemen  4d. 

Item  for  fish  and  bread  and  setting  up  the  Stages  4d. 

Item  to  John  Becher  for  painting  of  three  Fanchoms 
and  four  Tormentors. 

Item  to  Giles  Ashwell  for  easement  of  his  Croft  to  play 
in  Is. 

Item  to  John  Hobarde  Brotherhood  Priest  for  the 
playbook  2s.  8d. 

ANCIENT  SPORTS, 

AND  PASTIMES    OF    THE    LOXDONEKS, 

JBy  William  Stcphanidcs,  or  Fitzsteplien,  a  Monk  of  Can- 
tcrharrj,  horn  in  London  in  the  Reign  of  King  Stephen  ; 
Ziirote  this  Account  in  the  Reign  of  Henri/  the  Second, 
and  died  Anno  1191^  in  the  Reign  of  Richard  the 
First. 

JxT  the  Shrovetide  in  every  year,  the  boys  of  ea^h 
school  in  the  Metropolis  bring  lighting-cocks  to  their 
masters,  and  the  whole  of  the  forenoon  is  spent  in  the 
school,  to  see  these  cocks  fight  together.  After  dinner 
the  youth  of  the  city  go  to  play  at  ball  in  the  fields; 
every  bo}'^  being  provided  with  a  separate  ball,  the  prac- 
tisers  also  of  the  trades  are  each  in  possession  of  a  ball, 
with  which  they  join  in  the  sport,  the  ancienter  sort 
come,  on  this  occasion,  on  horseback,  to  witness  the 
agility  of  their  children  and  friends. 

By  this  account  the  barbarous  custom  of  killing  the 
cocks,  by  throwing  sticks  at  them,  while  tied  to  a  stake, 
was  not  known  or  practised  in  the  time  of  this  writer,  as 
he  would  certainly  have  noticed  it. 

SrORTS    IN    LENT, 

EVERY  Sunday  in  Lent,  after  dinner,  a  company  of 
young  men  ride  into  the  fields  on  horses  v/hich  arc   fit 

for 


ANCIENT    SPORTS,,   &G.  319 

for  war,  and  principal  runners  :  every  one  among  them  is 
tausht  to  run  the  rounds  with  his  horse.  I'he  citizen's 
sons  issue  out  through  the  gates  by  troops^  furnished  with 
lances  and  warlike  shields  :  the  younger  sort  have  their 
pikes  not  headed  with  iron,  where  they  make  a  represen- 
tation of  battle,  and  exercise  a  skirmish.  There  resort 
to  this  exercise  many  cotirtiers,  when  the  King  lies  near 
thecity,and  young  striplings  out  of  the  family's  of  Barons 
and  great  persons,  which  have  not  yet  attained  the  war- 
like girdle,  to  train  and  skirmish. 

Hope  of  victory  infxaraes  every  one:  the  neighing  and 
i^erce  horses  bestir  their  joints,  and  chew  their  bridles, 
and  cannot  endure  to  stand  still:  at  last  they  bc;T,in  their 
race,  and  then  the  young  men  divide  their  troops;  some 
labour  to  out-strip  their  leaders,  and  cannot  reach  them; 
Others  fling  down  their  fellows,  and  get  beyond  tijem. 

SEA    FIGHTS. 

IN  Easter  holidays  thev  counterfeit  a  sea  fi«ht'  a 
pole  is  set  up  in  the  middle  of  the  river,  with  a  target  ivell 
fastened  thereon,  and  a  young  man, stands  upright  in  a 
boat,  which  goes  swiftly  by  help  of  the  oars  and  tide,  who 
with  his  spear  hits  the  target  in  his  pjissage,  with  which 
blow,  if  he  break  the  spear,  and  continues  upright, 
begets  th(^prize,  if  any  is  contended  for:  but  if  his  spear 
continues  unbroken,  he  seldom  fails  of  being  precipitated 
irjto  the  river,  to  the  no  small  entertainment  of  the  nu- 
merous spectators  assembled  on  the  occasion.  And  in 
order  to  prevent  any  accident,  if  lie  is  not  an  oxpeit 
swimmer,  two  vessels,  with  many  young  men  on  board^ 
are  in  readiness  to  take  him  up,  the  n)oment  he  nuikes 
l)is  appearance  from  the  aqiuitic  plunge. 

su^r^rKR  si'onrs. 

UPON  the  hollidays  all  summer,  the  youth  is  exercised 
in  leaping,  shooting,  v.restlingj,  casting  of  stones,   and 

throwing 


520  ANCIENT  SPORTS,  SCC. 

throwing  of  Javelins  fitted  vnth  loops  for  the  purpose, 
which  they  strive  to  fling  beyond  the  mark :  they  also 
use  bucklers.,  like  fighting  men.  The  robust  exercise* 
besides,  consist  in  baiting  and  hunting  with  dogs,  bulls, 
boars,  and  bears. 

Many  citizens  take  delight  in  birds,  as  sparrow-hawks, 
gos-hawks,  and  suchlike;  and  in  dogs  to  hunt  in  thi» 
woody  ground,  to  which  end  they  have  authority  to  hunt 
or  course  in  Middlesex,  Hertfordshire,  all  the  Chillerns, 
and  in  Kent,  as  far  as  Gray- Water. 

SPORTS    ON    THE    ICF,, 

WHEN  the  great  moor,  which  washes  Moorflelds,  at 
the  north  wall  of  the  city,  is  frozen  over^  great  compa- 
nies of  young  men  go  to  sport  upon  the  ice;  then  taking 
a  run,  and  setting  their  feet  at  a  distance,  and  placing 
their  bodies  sideways,  they  slide  a  great  way.  Otlicrs 
take  heaps  of  ice,  as  if  they  were  great  mill-stones,  and 
make  scats;  many,  going  before,  drawing  the  party  who 
are  seated,  holding  one  another  by  the  hand;  in  going  so 
fast,  some  slipping  with  their  feet,  all  fall  down  toge- 
ther. Some  are  better  practised  to  the,  ice,  and  bind  to 
their  shoes,  bones,  as  the  legs  of  some  beasts,  and  hold 
stakes  in  their  hands,  headed  with  sharp  iron,  which 
sometimes  they  strike  against  the  ice;  and  these  men  go 
<5a  with  speed,  as  doth  a  bird  in  the  air,  or  darts  shot 
from  some  warlike  engine.  Sometimes  two  men  set  them-r 
selves  at  a  distance,  and  run  one  against  another,  as  it 
were  at  a  tilt,  with  these  two  stakes,  wdierewith  one  or 
both  parlies  are  thrown  down,  not  without  some  hurt  to 
their  bodies;  and  after  their  fall,  by  reason  of  the  violent 
mofion,  arc  carried  a  great  distance  from  one  another  ; 
and  wheresoever  the  ice  touches  their  heads,  it  rubs  off 
the  skin,  and  lays  it  bare;  nor  is  it  unusual  to  have  a 
leg  or  an  arm  broken  in  the  frolic.  But  our  youth, 
grtf.'uy  of  honour  and  desirous  of  vietory,  do  thus   e.\cr- 

ci.-'- 


EXTUAORDINAKT  MURDER.  321 

cise  themselves  in  counterfeit  battles,  that  they  may  bear 
the  brunt  more  strongly,  when  they  come  to  it  in 
earnest. 

Lucan,  speaking  of  Caesar's  attempt  on  the  Trinobantes, 
or  Britons,  says. 

He  was  afraid,  and  fall'd  by  Britons'  hand, 
That  first  presumed  to  invade  their  land. 


Extraordinary  case  of  Jonathan  Bradford,  zlJio  teas 
executed  at  Oxford,  for  the  Murder  of  Cristopiier 
Hayes,  E&q.  in  the  year  173G. 

Jonathan  Bradford  kept  an  inn  in  Oxford- 
shire, on  the  London  road  to  Oxford  ;  he  bore  an  unex- 
ceptionable character.  Mr.  Hayes,  a  gentleman  of  for- 
tune, being  on  his  way  to  Oxford,  on  a  visit  to  a  relation, 
put  up  at  Bradford's;  he  there  joined  company  with  two 
gentlemen,  with  whom  he  supped,  and  in  conversation 
unguardedly  mentioned  that  he  had  then  about  him  a 
large  sum  of  money.  In  due  time  they  retired  to  their 
respective  chambers ;  the  gentlemen  to  a  two-bedded 
room,  leaving,  as  is  customary  with  many,  a  candle 
burning  in  the  chimney  corner.  Some  hours  after  they 
were  in  bed,  one  of  the  gentlemen  being  awake,  thought 
he  heard  a  deep  groan  in  the  adjoining  chamber;  and 
this  being  repeated,  he  softly  awaked  his  friend.  They 
listened  together,  and  the  groans  increasing  as  of  one 
dying,  they  botli  instantly  arose,  and  proceeded  silently 
to  the  door  of  the  next  chamber,  from  whence  they  heard 
the  groans  ;  and  the  door  being  ajar,  saw  a  light  in  the 
room;  they  entered,  but  it  is  impossible  to  paint  their 
consternation,  on  perceiving  a  person  weltering  in  his 
blood  in  the  bed,  and  a  man  standing  over  him,  with  a 
dark  lainhorn  in  one  hand  and  a  knife  in  the  other.  The 
man  seemed  as  petrified  as  themselves,  but  his  terror 
Vol.  n.  s  s  carried 


S23  EXTRAORDINARY    MURDER. 

carried  with  it  all  the  terror  of  guilt !  The  gentlemen 
soon  discovered  the  person  was  the  stranger  with  whom 
they  had  that  night  supped,  and  that  the  man  who  was 
standing  over  him  was  their  host.  They  seized  Bradford 
directly,  disarmed  him  of  his  knife,  and  charged  him  with 
being  the  murderer:  he  assumed  by  lliis  time  the  air  of 
innocence,  positively  denied  the  crime,  and  asserted  that 
became  there  with  the  same  humane  intentions  as  them- 
selves ;  for  that,  hearing  a  noise,  which  was  succeeded  by 
a  groaning,  be  got  out  of  bed,  struck  a  light,  armed 
himself  with  a  knife  for  his  defence,  and  was  but  that 
minute  entered  the  room  before  them. 

These  assertions  were  of  little  avail,  he  was  kept  in 
close  custody  till  the  morning,  and  then  taken  before  a 
neighbouring  justice  of  the  peace.  Bradford  still  denied 
the  murder,  but  nevertheless,  with  such  an  apparent  in- 
dication of  guilt,  that  the  justice  hesitated  not  to  make 
use  of  this  extraordinary  expression,  on  writing  out  hi;? 
mittimus ;  "  iVlr.  Bradford,  either  you  or  myself  com- 
jiiitted  this^ murder.'* 

This  extraordinary  affair  was  the  conversation  of  the 
whole  county;  Bradford  was  tried  and  condemned  over  and 
over  again,  in  every  company.  In  the  midst  of  all  this 
predetermination  came  on  the  assizes  at  Oxford ;  Brad- 
ford was  brought  to  trial,  he  pleaded  not  guilty.  Nothing 
could  be  more  strong  than  the  evidence  of  the  two  gen- 
tlemen ;  they  testified  to  the  linding  Mr.  Hayes  murder- 
ed in  his  bed ;  Bradford  at  the  side  of  the  Body  with  a 
lio;ht  and  a  knife  ;  that  knife  and  the  hand  which  held 
it  bloody  ;  that  on  their  entering  the  room  he  betrayed 
all  the  signs  of  a  guilty  man,  and  tliat  a  few  moments 
preceding,  they  had  heard  the  groans  of  the  deceased. 

Bradford's  defence  on' his  trial  was  the  s;tme  as  before 
the  gentlemen :  he  had  heard  a  noise ;  he  suspected 
some  villainy  transacting;  hestruck  a  light;  he  snatched 

a  knife 


EXTRAORDINARY    MURDER.  32a 

a  Icnlfe  (the  only  weapon  near  him)  to  defend  himself; 
ami  the  terrors  he  discovered,  were  merely  the  terrors  of 
humanity,  the  natural  effects  of  innocence  as  well  as 
guilt,  on  beholding  such  a  horrid  scene  ! 

This  defence,  however,  could  be  considered  but  as 
tvealc,  contrasted  with  the  several  powerful  circumstances 
asainst  him.  Never  was  circumstantial  evidence  more 
strong  !  There  was  little  need  left  of  comment,  from  the 
judge  in  summing  up  the  evidence!  j\o  room  appeared 
for  extenuation  !  And  the  jury  brought  in  the  prisoner 
Guilty,  even  without  going  out  of  the  box. 

Bradfoid  was  executed  shortly  after,  still  declaring  he 
was  not  the  murderer,  nor  privy  to  the  murder  of  Mr. 
Hayes;  but  he  died  disbelieved  by  all. 

Yet  were  those  assertions  not  untrue  !  The  murder  was 
actually  coniinitted  by  Mr.  Hayes's  footman;  who,  im- 
niediatelv  on  stabbing  his  master,  rifled  his  breeches  of 
his  mone}^,  gold  watch  and  snuff-box,  and  escaped  to  his 
own  room  ;  wliich  could  have  been,  from  the  after  cir- 
cumstances, scarcely  tv,o  seconds  before  Bradford's  en- 
tering the  unfortunate  gentleman's  chamber.  The  world 
owes  this  knowledge  to  a  remorse  of  conscience  in  the 
footman  (eighteen  monihs  after  the  execution  of  Brad- 
ford) on  a  bed  of  sickness ;  it  was  a  death-bed  re- 
pentance, and  by  that  death  the  law  lost  its  victim  ! 

It  is  much  to  be  wished,  thiit  this  account  could  close 
here;  but  it  cannot!  Bradford,  though  innocent,  and 
not  privy  to  the  murder,  was,  nevertheless,  the  murderer 
in  design.  He  had  heard,  as  well  as  the  footman,  what 
Mr.  Hayes  had  declared  at  su])per,  as  to  his  having  a 
large  sum  of  money  about  him,  and  he  went  to  the  cham- 
ber with  the  same  diabolical  intentions  as  the  servant. 
He  was  struck  with  amazement  ! — he  could  not  believe 
his  senses  ! — and  in  turning  back  the  bed-clothes,  to 
assure  luiiisclf  of  tlie  fact,  he,  in  his   agitation,  dropped 

s  s  <Z  his 


SG-i  MELANCHOLY    EVENT    IN    BEEKSHIKE. 

bis  knife  on  the  bleeding  body,  by  which  both  his  hand 
and  the  knife  became  bloody.  These  circumstances 
Bradford  aciviiowledged  to  the  clergyman  who  attended 
him  alter  his  sentence. 


TO  THE  EDITOR  OF  KIRBY  S  SCIENTIFIC   MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
Having  rnet  with  an  otJginal  accnnni  of  a  melancholy  event  in  Berkshire, 
I  have  transcribed  it  for  your  Musewni,  nothing  being  oniitted  but  a  fe-*- 
redundant  words.  It  was  printed  bj'  John  Harding,  at  the  Bible  and 
Anchor,  Newport-Street,  n<;ar  Leicester-Fields,  1680.  I  suppose  sliooi 
and  shut  arc, provincial  Berkshire  terms. 

Yours,  &c. 
Bristol,  June  ISlJi,  1804.  ISAAC  JAMES- 


On  Thursday,  Sept.  2d,   loSO,  John  Sawyer,  a  farmer, 
with    his    son    Richard,    a  youth   of    13   years   of  age, 
went  with  four  horses  half  a  mile,  to  a  Held  in  the  parish 
of  Cookham,  called  Ham  Field,  to  plough,  about  ten   in 
the  forenoon,  it  bemg  then  fair.     About  eleven  the  sky 
began    to   lour,    the    clouds    grew  thick,    and    soon    it 
lightened  and  thundered,  and  some  showers  of  rain  fell, 
]t  thundered  several  times  very  loud,  sharp,   and  shrill, 
to  the  amazement  of  several  persons.     Two  other  ploughs 
were  at  work  in  the  same  field  ;  tlieir  cattle  being  affrighted 
and   unruly,   they  shoot    off  and    go  home,  and    leave 
John  Sawyer  in  the  liijd.     About  one  the  tempest  began 
to  give  off";  four  hours  after  a  neighbouring  labourer,  one 
Francis  Deli,  passing  from  the  wood  side  down  to  Cook- 
ham,  sees  Sawyer,  with  his  son  Uichard,  and   the   four 
horses  all  dead  on  the  around.     Knowinu:  the  man,   he 
came  into  Cookham,  and  acquaints  the  inhabitants;  im- 
mechately  the  m;ijor  part  of  the  towns  folks  flocked  up 
into  tlie  fields  to  see  this  sad  spectacle,  and  with  the  rest, 
the  wife  of  the  said  JofinSawyer  ;  where,  to  her  exceeding 
grief,  she  5aw  her  husband,  son,  and  lour  horses  dead.  ]\o 

impression 


MEtANCHOL-y     EVENT    IN      BERKSHIRE.  3Q5 

impression  or  bruise  on  the  man,  but  the  boy's  clothes 
were  most  part  of  them  rent  from  his  body,  and  his  hat 
torn  into  tuo  or  three  pieees ;  one  shoe,  all  the  upper 
k-ather  torn  tVoin  the  sole  and  heel;  and  his  whip  broke 
into  two  or  three  pieces  ;  his  shirt  beaten  to  lint,  and 
strewed  on  the  horse  he  was  snpposed  to  ride,  except 
I  one  narrow  slip  from  his  neck  to  the  fore-part,  remain- 
ing from  his  neck  downward  before.  He  was  observed 
to  be  naked,  and  from  the  neck  dow^n  his  back  burnt,  or 
singed,  as  is  supposed  with  the  lightening,  likewise  scorch- 
ed or  singed  on  the  belly  ;  some  part  of  his  hair  singed, 
and  the  C3'e  biows.  The  horse  he  was  supposed  to  ride 
was  singed  from  the  neck  to  the  flank.  It  was  judged  by 
those  ploughmen  that  shot  out  and  came  home  safe,  that 
it  migtit  be  the  last  clap  of  thunder  and  ligh.tening  that 
afforded  tliat  latal  stroke.  John  Sawyer  and  his  son  had 
shot  out  IVom  plough  and  vveje  about  six  poles  from  it,  sup- 
posed to  be  ridinghomeward.each  having  his  left  leg  undet 
the  near  side  of  the  horse  he  was  supposed  to  ride.  I'he 
horses  falling  all  one  way,  it  is  judged  they  were  struck 
immediately  dead  in  their  walk,  none  of  ihem  having  so 
much  as  one  leg  stretched  out,  or  any  reason  to  conclude 
they  strove  for  life,  iiawyer  was  a  man  of  good  repute 
among  hi^  neighbours,  that  lived  soberly  and  honestly. 
On  Saturday  the  4th,  the  Coroner  came  and  called  ii 
jury  for  enquiry,  and  they  gave  their  verdict  that  it  uas 
the  immediate  providence  of  Alniitrhty  God  ;  and  so  the 
Coroner  gave  order  for  the  burial  of  the  man  and  his 
son,  which  the  same  evening  was  pnfornied. 

We  who'je  names  are  here  under  written,  do  testiiy  the 
truth  of  this  relation  : 

Jo.  Whitjicld,  Eaq.   Justice  of  Quorum   for   Berkshire, 

Franch  Craiclei/,  Vic.  de  Cool:ham, 

Robert  Ben  tut,    "j 

John  Rr^e,  / Clunchwardens  of  Cookham, 

John  Chcrij,  of  Maidenhead,  Warden  of  the  Town. 


50.6  EXTRARODINARY    PRESERVATION. 

Thomas  Bird,  apprentice  at  Mr.  King's^,  a  fishmonger  in 
JNewgate   Market,,   whose  father  liveth   at   Cookham, 
was  likewise  at  Cookham  when  this  sad  accident  hap- 
pened, and  saw  the  man,  boy,  and  horses  in  the  field. 
Jofm  Hardiyig,  being  ver}'  near  the  place  the  next  day. 

The  same  day  at  Norwich,  and  for  six  miles  round, 
happened  a  terrible  thunder  and  lightening ;  where 
eight  persons  that  were  at  harvest  work,  retiring  into  a 
church  porch,  a  great  clap  of  thunder  and  lightening 
came  and  struck  them  all  dead. 


EXTRAOKDINARY    PRESERVATION. 

1  HE  Terrace  of  Berne,  in  Switzerland,  is  a  promenade 
close  to  the  Cathedral,  where  the  shade  of  venerable 
chesnut- trees,  affords  a  refreshing  coolness,  even  on  the 
hottest  day  in  summer.  From  this  terrace,  which  is  be- 
between  six  and  seven  hundred  feet  high,  and  is  the  Avork 
of  human  indystr}',  is  seen  a  range  of  lofty  mountains, 
whose  summits  are  buried  beneyth  everlasting  snows, 
and,  when  illumined  by  the  sun,  appear  like  beautiful, 
delicate  clouds.  Underneath  runs  the  river  Aar,  which 
precipitates  itself  with  great  noise  from  a  considerable 
height.  In  the  wall  surrounding  this  j)romenade^  is  the 
following  inscription  : 

"  In  honour  of  the  Almighty  and  Miraculous  Provi- 
dence of  God,  and  as  a  memorial  for  posterity,  this  stone 
was  erected  on  this  spot,  from  which  Mr.  Theobald 
Wenzapfli,  when  a  student,  fell  on  the  25th  of  May, 
1654;  after  which  accident  he  lived  .'^O  years  as  Minister 
of  Kerzersee,  and  died  in  an  advanced  age  on  the  25th 
of  November,  I694." 

However,  extraordinary  it  may  appear,  that  a  man 
precipitated  from  such  a  height  should  remain  alive,  yet 

the 


MOVEMENT    OF    THE    EARTH.  3\t7 

the  circumstance,  according  to  the  inhabitants  of  Berne 
has  never  been  called  in  question.  The  student,  it  is 
said,  wore  a  wide  gown,  which  being  inflated  by  the  air, 
acted  like  a  parachute,  so  that  he  fell  quite  gently  to  the 
ground. 


MOVEMENT    OF    THE    EARTH. 


TO    THE    EDITOR    OF    THE    SCIENTIFIC    MUSEUM, 

Sir, 
An  ocourr«;iice  perhaps  not  less  extraordinary  tlian  that  recorded  in  ycwr 
last  Number  (page  279)  is  related  by  Sir  Richard  Baker,  in  spcakiuj  of 
the  wonderful  events  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reigu,  that  writer  gives  the 
following  account  of  Manley-Hill. 


INlier  13th  year,  a  prodigious  earthquake  happened 
in  the  east  part  of  Herefordshire,  in  a  little  town  called 
Kynaston.  On  the  17th  of  February,  at  six  o'clock  in 
the  evening,  the  earth  began  to  open,  and  an  hill,  with  a 
rock  under  it,  niakinjj^  first  a  2:reat  bcUowinq;  noise,  lifted 
ifself  up,  and  began  to  travel,  bearing  with  it  the  trees 
that  grew  upon  it,  the  sheepfolds  and  flocks  ;  sheep  abid- 
ing  there  at  the  same  time.  In  the  place  from  whence 
it  first  moved,  it  left  a  chasm  40  feet  broad,  and  fourscore 
ells  long.  The  whole  field  w'as  about  2  acres  only. 
Passing  along,  it  overthrew  a  chapel  standing  in  the  way  ^ 
removed  a  yew-tree,  })lanted  in  the  church-yard,  from 
the  west  to  the  east:  with  the  same  force  it  thrust  before 
it  high^vays,  hedges,  and  trees ;  made  tilled  land  into 
pasture;  and  again  turned  pasture  into  tillage.  Having 
walked  in  this  manner  from  Saturday  evening  till  Mon- 
day noon,  it  then  stood  still." 

.  This  was  probably  one  of  those  slips  of  land  which  arc 
very  common  in  hilly  countries  after  a  wet  season,  as 
happened  lately  to  Becchen-clifl^,  near  the  Old  Bri'lgo  at 

Bath. 


32S         A    MAN    BORN    WITHOITT    ATMS    OR    LEGS. 

Biith. — Tlie  yew-tree  in  Kynaston  churcb-vard  is  still  ta 
be  seen ;  and  the  bell  of  tbe  cbapel  was  dug  up  a  few 
years  siuce.  Yoiu's  &c. 

A.  C. 


Account  of  a  Man  horn  zcithout  Jrms  or  Legs,zvho  lately 
died  at  Poris,  aged  aixtif-tzco  yean. 


TO  THE    EDITOR    Ob*    THE    SCIENTIFIC    MUSEUM, 

Sin, 
If  the  fullawLii?  particulars  relative  to  a  remarkable  instance  of  Ixims 
naturT  in  the  human  species,  should  be  considered  worthy  of  a  place  in 
your  amusing  Miscellany,  they  may,  perhaps,  possess  some  interest  for 
those  of  your  readers  who  are  fond  of  studying  the  varieties  of  figure  and 
disposition  among  maakimd. 

I  am,  your's,  &c. 

J.  C.  N. 

Marc  CATOZZE,  called  tbe  Little  Bzcarf,  was  born  at  j 
Venice,  in  tbe  ye^ir  1741,  of  tall  and  robust  parents.  He 
hud  several  brothers,  all  of  whom  were  tall  and  well  made ; 
bis  body  was  not  deformcfl,  and  appeared  to  belong  to  a 
man  of  live  feet  six  inches  ;  he  had  neither  arms  nor  legs, 
tiie  pectoral  nienilKM-s  consi^ted  of  a  ver}'  prominent 
shoulder,  and  a  perfect  hand  ;  the  lower  part  of  the  body 
was  very  flat,  terminating  in  a  mis-shapen  foot,  but  com- 
plete in  all  its  parts. 

This  man  was  well  known  ;  he  had  spent  the  greatest 
part  of  his  life  in  traversing  almost  all  the  states  of 
Europe  exliibiting  himself  to  the  public  curiosity.  He 
attracted  the  multitude,  not  only  b}'  the  singularity  of 
his  form,  but  likewise  by  the  astonishing  strength  of  his 
jaws,  and  the  dexterity  with  which  he  threw  up  into  the 
air,  sticks  and  other  things  with  one  of  liis  hands,  and 
rcaught  ihcni  with  the  other. 

As  he  Qould  scarcely  reach  his  mouth  with  the  ends  of 

his 


A    JiAN    feOEN    WITHOUT   ARMS    OR  lEGS.         S29 

■fingers,  his  greatest  difficult}'  would  have  been  to  feed 
himself  TVithout  assistance,  if  ;natu«e  had  not  furnished 
him  with  the  extraordinary  power  of  protruding,  and 
at  the  same  time  lowering  his  under  jaw^  as  was  discover* 
ed  in  dissecting  his  body  after  his  death. 

Though  CatOzze  could  walk  and  stand  upright  on  his 
feet,  yet  he  would  have  experienced  great  difficulty  in 
reaching  objects  situated  above,  or  at  a  certain  distance 
from  his  bauds.  He  had  therefore  contrived  to  lengthen 
them,  as  it  were,  by  a  very  simple  instrument  which  was 
to  him  of  the  utmost  utility.  This  was  a  hollow  piece  of 
elder,  about  three  feet  in  length,  through  which  passed 
a  cylindrical  iron  rod,  fixed  so  as  to  slide  up  and  down, 
and  terminating  in  a  very  sharp  hook.  If  he  wished  to 
lay  hold  of  an  object  at  some  distance  from  his  hand; 
for  instance^  to  button  his  clothes,  to  take  up  or  set  down 
his  metal  goblet ;  to  pull  the  clothes  upon  him  in  bed> 
he  took  his  tube  (which  he  always  kept  near  him)  in  one 
hand  and  pushed  it  between  his  fingers,  till  he  brought 
the  hooked  end  towards  the  hand  that  was  at  liberty ; 
then  seizing  the  object  that  he  wanted  with  the  hook,  he 
drew  it  towards  him>  turning  it  any  way  he  pleased, 
without  letting  go  the  stick,  but  drawing  back  the  hooked 
piece  of  iron,  as  into  a  sheath.  The  habit  of  using  this 
rnstrument  had  rendered  him  so  dexterous,  that,  by 
means  of  it  he  has  frequently  been  seen  Lo  take  up  a 
piece  of  money  from  a  table,  or  from  the  ground. 

It  will  scarcely  be  credited,  that  a  man  of  this  descrip- 
tion should  have  met  with  several  women  whose  affections 
he  had  the  art  to  gain;  at  least,  he  frequently  boasted  to 
that  effect. 

In  his  youth,  Catozze  travelled  on  horseback;  for  this 
purpose,  he  had  procured  a  particular  kind  of  saddle, 
and  usually  appeared  in  public,  holding  the  reins,  beat- 
ing a  drum,  performing  his  exercise  with  a  musket,  writ* 
^-      Vol.  II.  T  t  inj^, 


530       BBMARXABLB   INSJAWCE   OF    INTREPIDITT. 

ing,  winding  up  his  watch,  cutting  his  victuals,  &:c.  He 
possessed  a  very  robust  constitution ;  he  was  gay,  and 
even  merry,  and  took  a  pleasure  in  relating  his  travels 
and  adventures;  he  spoke  very  well,  and  wrote  English, 
German,  French,  and  Italian,  The  vivacity  of  his  dis- 
position rendered  his  conversation  very  interesting  ;  but 
he  was  addicted  to  wine  and  spiritous  liquors,  and  was 
fond  of  good  living.  He  was  very  obstinate,  had  mucli: 
self'^love,  and  a  ridiculous  haughtiness.  When  he  went 
abroad  for  instance,  he  Avas  drawn  in  a  small  vehicle,  by 
^  man  whom  he  called  his  horse,  and  to  whom  he  gave 
a  few  half-pence;  but  he  never  suffertd  this  man,  whom 
he  considered  as  bis  servant,  to  eat  with  him. 

The  lower  extremities,  as  has  been  already  observed, 
consisted  only  of  his  feet ;  yet  he  could  use  them  for  walk- 
ing in  an  upright  position.  ISIore  than  once  he  has 
been  seen  walking  in  the  court  of  his  abode,  and  even  to 
go  nearly  three  quarters  of  a  mile  on  foot.  In  order  to 
rest  himself,  he  turned  out  his  toes  as  far  as  he  could, 
supported  himself  before  on  his  stick,  and  behind  against 
any  place  that  he  happened  to  be  near;  and  thus  re- 
mained whole  hours  conversing  with  strangers  who 
called  to  see  him. 

He  expired  at  the  age  of  62,  of  an  inflammation  of 
the  bowels;  having  for  two  years  previous  to  his  death, 
complained  of  violent  pains  of  the  cholic. 


RKMAIIKABLE    INSTANCE  OF    INTHEPIDITY. 

On  the  celebration  of  the  anniversary  of  his  Majesty'* 
birth  at  Jersey,  June  4th,  1 804,  the  public  joy  experienced 
a  sudden  interruption  by  a  dreadful  accident,  which,  but 
for  the  signal  intervention  of  Providence,  would  have  prov- 
ed the  destruction  of  the  whole  town.  At  noon,  the  forts  on 
»hc  island,  and  th«  artillery  in  the  new  fort  on  the  larg^ 

.    .  kill, 


REMARKABLE    INSTANCE    OF    INTREPIDITY.        331 

hill,  fired  a  Royal   Salute,  by  order  of  the  Governor. 
After  the  ceremony,  a  corporal  of  the  Invalid  Company 
of  Artillery  received  the  matches,  and  locked  them  in  the 
paagazine  at  the  top  of  the  hill,  which  is  bomb-proof;  it 
contained  209  barrels  of  povrder,  a  quantity  of  loaded 
bombs,  caissons  full  of  cartridges,  and  other  combustibles. 
About  six   ill  the  evening  the  sentries  observed  a  smoke 
issuing  from  an  air-hole  at  the  end  of  the  magazine,  and 
immediately  ran  from  the  fort  to  give  the  alarm  of  fire, 
when  Mr.  P.  Lys,  the  Signal  Officer  on  the  hill, also  observ- 
ing  the  smoke,   came  towards  it,  and  meeting  two  bro- 
tliers,   named   Touzel,  who   were  employed  by  him    a; 
carpenters,   endeavoured    to  prevail  on  them    to   break 
open  the  door.     One  of  them,  however,  refused,  and  went 
in  search  of  the  keys  ;   but  the  other,  named   Edward, 
having  requested    a  soldier,  named   Pontsney,  to  assist 
him^  he  acquiesced,  and  they  agreed  to  sacrifice  their 
lives.     Touzel  then  proceeded  to  break  open   the  door 
with  an  axe  and  a  wooden  bat,  when,  finding  the  magazine 
on  fire,  he  rushed  into  the  flames,  and  threw  out  heaps  of 
burning  matches.     At  length,  by  tlie  intrepidity  of  this 
man  in  particular,  the  fire  was  subdued  before  the  soldiers 
or  inhabitants  could  reach  the  top  of  the  hill.     Captain 
Lciih,  and  the  soldiers   of  the  Slst  regiment,  then  pro- 
ceeded  to    inspect  and  empty  the   magazine,  lest  any 
sparks  should  remain  undiscovered,  when,  wonderful  to 
relate,  they  found   that  two  wooden  caissons  filled  with 
ammunition  had  been  attacked  by  the  fire,  and  that  one, 
containing  powder-horns,  cartridges,  &,c.  was  nearly  half 
burnt    through :     an   open    barrel   of  powder    was    also 
situated  under  some  of  the  beams  which  were  on  fire,  and 
supported  the  roof! — The  constable  of  the   town  sum- 
moned the  inhabitants  to  meet,  for  the  purpose  of  testify- 
ing their  gratitude  towards  the  two  brave  men  whose  in- 
trepidity preserved  them  from  destruction. 


(     332    ) 
PATRICK  O'BRIEN, 

The  celebrated   Irish   Giant,  zcith  a  striking  likeness^ 

taken  from  Life. 
IVIR  O'BRIEN  is  one  of  those   extraordinary  pheno- 
mena that,  perhaps  once  in  a  century  appear  to  the  won- 
der and  astonishment  of   mankind.      In   an   accurate 
survey  of   this  singular  character,  our  surprize   is  ac- 
companied with  pity  and  regret,  as  every  movement  ap- 
pears to  be  attended  with  trouble  and  a  degree  of  pain. 
In  the  action  of  rising  to  salute  or  surprise  his  visitors,  he 
places  both  his  hands  on  the  small  of  his  back,  and 
bowing  his  body  forward,  rises  with  considerable  difficulty 
from  his  seat,  generally  consisting   of  a  common  sized 
table,   on  which  is  placed  the  cushion  of  a   carriage. 
Mr.  O'Brien  has  exhibited  himself  in  London  at  different 
periods  during  the  last  eighteen  years ;  and  for  four  ox 
five  successive  Bartholomew  Fairs,  he  was  to  be  seen  in 
Smithfield.     His  declining,  however,  this  mode  of  ex- 
hibition, gave  rise  to  the  report  of  his  death,  and  it  was 
not  until   his  appearance  was  announced  in  the  Hay- 
Market,  that  the  rumour  was  contradicted.     Many  could 
not,  even  then,  be  satisfied  that  he  was  the  same  person 
they  had  formerly  seen,  before  they  paid  him  a  visit  for 
the  purpose  of  indulging  their  curiosity.     About  fifteen 
years  since,  during  the  time  he  was  to  be  seen  at  Bar- 
tholomew Fair,  he  used  frequently  to  walk  about  the 
streets,  for  the  sake  of  air  and  exercise,  at  two  or  three 
o'clock  ill  the  morning.     In  one  of  these  nocturnal  ex- 
cursions it  was  my  chance  to  overtake  him  ;  when  he  was 
accompanied  by  two  genteel  looking  men  of  the  com- 
mon size ;  oh  whose  shoulders  he  supported  himself  in  the 
same  manner  we  sometimes  see  a  well  grown  man  rest- 
ing his  hands  on  the  shoulders  of  children  of  eight  or 
ten  years  of  oge.     Though  I  had  frequently  seen  him  in  a 
room,  I  v/as  so  much  struck  with  his  appearance  and  man- 
ner 


1"  rarTly  UK 


The    Celcbratoa  IRISH    GlANT. 

S Feet  " Lu/i cs  /liq/i .    AQ|ed  .S 8  Years. 

Piih'^  .r„,t,-   -tri.  1,101. I'll  R.S .  KhOii  II.  f,rn,i,'„  Il.-iu,:  Vtnt  A  l..f,rii  4,l'y,.ftrnitt1 . 


VanAfttn  <fcitlfi 


PATRICK    O  BRIEN,    THE    IRISH    GIANT.  SSS 

Tier  in  the  street^  that  I  observed  him  with  much  attention. 
Walking  up  Holborn  he  appeared  to  be  greatly  fatigued ; 
and  rather  might  be  said  to  shuffle  along  than  walk;  as 
he  never  moved  either  of  his  feet  from  the  stones.  In 
proceeding  along  the  more  level  pavement^  his  body 
appeared  more  erect,  and  his  head  would  have  struck 
against  many  of  the  laraps_,  if  he  had  not  avoided  them. 
In  this  manner  he  pursued  his  widk  as  far  as  Staples  Inn,,^ 
when  he  turned  back  in  his  way  to  SmithField  (as  I  sup- 
pose) for  I  followed  him  no  farther  than  the  corner  of 
Hiitton  Garden. 

Mr.  O'Brien,  is  at  this  time  (1804)  in  his  3Sth  year,  is 
eight  feet  seven  inches  in  height,  and  proportionably 
lusty;  his  hand,  from  the  commencement  of  the  palm  lo 
the  end  of  the  middle  iinger,  measures  tvv^elve  inches; 
and  his  face,  from  the  chin  to  the  top  of  his  forehead 
precisely  the  same,  so  that  his  hand  exactly  covers  his 
face  (this  by  artists  is  deemed  just  proportion) ;  his  thumb 
is  about  the  size  of  a  moderate  man's  wrist;  and  his  shoe 
is  seventeen  inches  long,  Upon  the  whole,  Mr.  O'Brien^ 
though  possessing  every  claim  to  our  attention^  on  ac- 
count of  his  extraordinary  magnitude,  is  not  entitled  to 
the  denomination  of  a  well  made  m^n.  His  limbs,  it  is 
true,  are  not  strikingly  disproportioned  ;  but  his  figure 
wants  that  general  symmetry  which  more  commonly  dis- 
tinguishes a  man  of  ordinary  dimensions. 

It  is  an  unhappiness  too  general  among  such  as  make 
a  practice  of  exposing  their  persons  to  public  view,  that 
all  the  rest  of  mankind  are  alike  indiilerent  to  them. 
Hence  neither  connection  nor  friendship  can  possibly  be 
established  with  such  men ;  every  endeavour  to  obtain 
information  that  might  be  proper  to  elucidate  the  history 
of  their'  lives,  is  regarded  with  jealousy,  as  they  imagine 
that  it  proceeds  from  impertinent  or  mischievous  cu- 
riosity. 

Among 


334         PATRICK    OBRIEN,    THE    IRISH    GIANT. 

Among  those  with  whom  Mr.  O'Brien  is  most  familial', 
he  sometimes  relates  the  following  anecdote:  travelling 
in  a  carriage,  peculiarly  adapted  to  his  use,  by  sinking 
the  foundation  some  feec,  so  as  to  hold  his  legs  con- 
veniently, he  was  stopped  by  a  highwayman;  putting  his 
head  fo rAvard  to  observe  the  cause  that  impeded  his  pro- 
gress, the  highwayman  was  struck  with  such  a  panic 
that  he  clapped  spurs  to  his  horse  and  made  a  precipitate 
retreat. 

It  has  been  asserted,  with  what  degree  of  truth  I  can- 
not say,  that  Mr.  O'Brien  is  passionately  fond  of  cards, 
and  that  he  eagerly  embraces  every  opportunity  that 
offers  of  engaging  in  that  amusement,  but  that  he  can- 
not bear  to  lose  with  patience;  not  from  a  principle  of 
parsimony,  but  from  the  disgrace  (as  he  conceives  it)  of 
being  beat. 

The  bill  which  announced  his  return  to  London  this 
year  (1804)  runs  thus  :    Just  arrived  in  Town,  and  to  be 
seen    in    a    commodious  room,  at  No,   II,    Haymarket, 
nearly  opposite  the  Opera  House,  the  celebrated  IrishGiani, 
Mr.  O'Brien,  of  the   Kingdom  of  Ireland,  indisputabli/ 
the  tallest  man  ever  shown ;  is  a  lineal  descendant  of  the 
old  and  puissant  King  Brien  Boreau,  and  has,  in  person 
and  appearance,   all   the  similitudes  of  that  great  and 
grand  potentate.     It  is  remarkable   of  this  familj/,  that 
hozcever    various   the  revolutions  in  point   of  fortune  or 
alliance,  the  lineal  descendants  thereof,  have  beenfavoured 
by  Providence  zcith  the  original  size  and  stature  tchichhavt 
beenso peculiar  to  their  familif.— The  gentleman  alluded 
to    measures   near   Nine   Feet    High.      Admittance   On& 
Shilling. 

Mr.  O'Brien,  when  not  in  London,  resides  at  a  house 
in    Essex,   formerly   the  mansion    of   a   noble   family,' 
but   now    converted    into   an  inn.      This   place   he   has 
very   properly   pitched   upon  for  his   residence ;    being- 
built 


PATRICK  o'bEIENj   THE    IRISH    GIANT*  335 

liuilt  in  the  ancient  style^  with  very  lofty  door-ways  and 
apartments,  it  is  particularly  calculated  for  the  reception 
of  one  who  may  justly  be  denominated  the  greatest 
man  in  the  [Jnited  Kingdom.  The  house  is,  at  present, 
kept  by  a  widow,  for  whom  Mr.  O'Brien  is  said  to  per- 
form all  transactions  relative  to  the  purchase  or  dis- 
posal of  her  horses,  &c. 

O'Brien  and  Byrne,  are  names  peculiar  to  gigantic  per- 
sons of  the  Irish  Nation.  In  the  year  1780,  a  Mr. 
Byrne  was  to  be  seen  at  Charing-Cross,  where  he  died, 
and  was  buried  in  St.  Martin's  Church  yard.  He  was 
within  two  inches  of  eight  feet  at  his  death;  and  it  was 
thought  that  the  continuance  of  his  growth  proved  fatal 
to  him^  as  he  had  not  attained  the  20th  year  of  his  age 
when  he  died. — The  following  particulars  have  recently 
been  received  from  Ireland,  relative  to  a  man  equally 
singular  with  the  Great  O'Brien,  though  we  are  not 
made  acquainted  with  his  height.  I  should  rather 
imagine  that  he  more  resembles  Bright,  our  fat  man  of 
Essex,  than  his  countryman  O'Brien,  from  the  circum- 
stance of  his  being  suffocated  through  fat. 

'*  The  remains  of  the  hirgest  person  ever  known  in  Ire- 
land, at  least  since  the  days  of  Phil  Macoul,  the  famous 
Irish  Giant,  were  lately  interred  in  the  church-yard  of 
Roseunallis,  in  the  Qeeen's  County.  The  coffin,  with  it*, 
contents,  weighed  52  stone,  which  amounts  exactly  to  six 
bundred.  It  was  borne  on  a  very  long  bier,  by  thirty 
strong  men,  who  were  relieved  at  intervals.  The  name  of 
this  extraordinary  person  was  Roger  Byrne.  He  lived  at 
or  near  Borros,  in  Ossory,  and  is  reported  to  have  died 
,  of  no  other  disease  but  a  suffocation,  occasioned  by  an 
extremity  of  fat,  that  stopped  the  play  of  the  lungs,  and 
put  a  period  to  his  life,  in  the  54th  year  of  his  age.  He 
was  \3  stone  heavier  than  the  noted  Bright,  of  Maldon, 
who«e  waistcoat  inclosed  seven  large  ii)«n.     Byrne  was  a 

married 


336  PATRICK   0*BRlfiN,    TrfE    tRISl!    GIANt* 

married  man,  and  it  is  remarkable  his  widow  is  a  very 
small  woman,  by  whom  he  has  left  four  boys,  the  eldest 
not  seven  j^ears  old^" 

It  was  the  custom  with  many  of  our  Kings  to  keep 
gigantic  porters,  among  whom  the  following  are  parti- 
cularly worthy  of  notice4  Walter  Parsons,  born  in  the 
county  of  Stafford,  was  porter  to  King  James  I.  and 
might  be  truly  called  one  of  the  >vonders  of  his  age,  for 
be  was  not  only  two  yards  and  a  half,  wanting  but  two 
inches  high,  but  had  a  due  symmetry  and  proportion  in 
all  parts  of  his  body;  his  strength  was  equal  to  hia 
height,  courage  to  his  strength^  and  temper  to  his  courage ; 
he  would  neither  boast  nor  sneak  to  any  man,  but  would 
often  take  two  of  the  tallest  yeomen  of  the  guard  under 
his  arms  at  once,  and  order  them  as  he  pleased* 

William  Evans,  a  native  of  Monmouthshire,  in  Wales, 
■was  porter  to  King  Charles  I.  immediately  after  Walter 
Parsons,  and  may  be  called  the  giant  of  his  time  ;  for  he 
was  two  yards  and  a  half  complete,  exceeding  Parsons 
two  inches  in  height,  but  no  way  equalling  him  in  pro^ 
portion  of  body  ;  for  his  knees  knocked  together,  he  went 
shuffling  with  his  feet,  and  was  somewhat  lame ;  yet  hfe 
once  danced  in  an  antimasque  at  Whitehall,  and  after 
scampering  a  while,  he  drew  Jeffery  Hudson,  the  Queen's 
dwarf  out  of  his  pocket,  to  the  wonder  and  merriment  of 
all  the  spectators. 

The  stature  of  Daniel,  the  lunatic  porter  of  Oliver 
Cromwell,  is  preserved  by  a  circle  marked  on  the  terrace 
at  Windsor  Castle,  by  which  it  appears  he  was  con- 
siderably taller  than  the  common  race  of  men. 

His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of  Wales,  retained  for 
some  time  in  his  service  as  porter,  a  native  of  Scotland, 
commonly  called  Big  Sam,  who  was  nearly  eight  feet 
liigh,  lusty  and  extremely  well  made.  This  man's  size 
was.  in  no  wise  inconvenieut  to  him,  he  being  as  agile 

as 


PERNICIOUS  EFFECTS  OF  SPIRiTUOUS  LIQUORS.    337 

as  any  man  of  six  feet.  He  performed  as  a  giant  in  the 
Romance  of  Cymon,  at  the  Opera  House,  in  the  Hay- 
niarketj  while  the  Drury-Lane  company  had  the  use  of 
that  house,  till  their  own  was  rebuilt.  His  health  de- 
clinhig  in  London  he  obtained  permission  of  his  Royal 
Highness  to  return  to  his  native  country,  where  he  con- 
I  tinned  for  some  time  in  the  capacity  of  a  serjeantin  the 
army.  A  report  was  propagated  of  his  having  been 
drowned  in  crossing  some  lake  in  Scotland,  which  has 
however  been  since  contradicted. 

Having,  as  far  as  came  within  my  knowledge,  noticed 
the  most  remarkable  of  the  modern  giants,  I  shall  at  a 
future  period,  draw  up  from  several  memdraridums  in  my 
possession  an  account  of  the  earlier  ones. 

JAMES  CAULFIELD. 


Wonderful  effects  of  the  immoderate  use  of  Spirituous 

LlOUORS. 

V-'OULD  any  consideration  have  weight  with  the  deluded 
votaries  of  the  odious  vice  of  excessive  drinking,  surely 

I  the  following  facts  must  prevail  upon  them  to  abandon 
that  pernicious  habit.  If  it  does  not  undermine  their 
constitutions  by  slow  degrees,  it  may  probably  produce 
sudden  deatl),  and  that  attended  with  circumstances  of 
horror,  capable  of  alarming  the  most  indifferent. 

Howerer  v.'onderful  the  accounts  contained  in  the 
subsequent  pages  may  appear,  they  are  given  on  such 
authority  as  must  remove  all  doubts  respecting  their 
truth  from  the  minds  of  the  most  incredulous.  If  but 
one:  victim  should  be  rescued  from  the  jaws  of  destruc- 
tion, by  the  perusal  of  t4iem,  it  will  afford  us  the  most 
sincere  gratification. 

At  Copenhagen,  ia  the  year  IG92,  a  woman  of  the 
lower  class,  who,  for  three  j^ear?,   had    used  spirituous 

ToL.  H,  T)  u  liquors 


558     PtRJJ'IClWUS  EFFECTS  OF  SPIRITUOUS  LIgtOKS. 

liquors  to  such  an  excess  that  she  would  take  no  other 
nourishment,  having  sat  clown  one  evening  on  a  straw 
chair  to  sleep,  was  consumed  in  the  night-time,  so  that 
next  morning  no  part  of  her  was  found,  but  the  skull  and 
the  extreme  joints  of  her  fingers;  all  the  rest  of  her 
body  being  reduced  to  ashes. 

The  Countess  Cornelia  Bandi,  who  resided  at  the 
town  of  Cesena  in  Italy,  aged  62,  enjoyed  a  good  state  of 
health.  One  evening,  having  experienced  a  sort  of 
drowsiness,  she  retired  to  bed,  and  her  maid  remained 
with  her  till  she  fell  asleep.  Next  morning,  when  the 
girl  entered  to  awaken  her,  she  found  nothing  but  the 
remains  of  her  mistress  in  a  most  horrid  condition.  At 
the  distance  of  four  feet  from  the  bed,  was  a  heap  of 
ashes,  in  wliich  could  be  distinguished  the  legs  and 
arms  untouched.  Between  the  legs  lay  the  head,  the 
brain  of  which,  together  with  half  of  the  posterior  part  of 
the  cranium,  and  the  whole  chin  had  been  consumed. 
Three  fingers  were  found  in  the  state  of  a  coal ;  the  rest 
of  the  body  was  reduced  to  ashes,  and  contained  no  oil; 
the  taliow  of  two  candles  was  melted  on  a  table,  but 
the  wicks  still  remained,  and  the  feet  of  the  candlesticks 
were  covered  with  a  certain  moisture.  The  bed  was  not 
damaged;  the  bed-clothes  and  coverlid  were  thrown  on 
one  side,  as  is  the  case  when  a  person  gets  op.  The 
furniture  and  tapestry  were  covered  with  a  moist  kind 
of  soot  of  the  colour  of  ashes,  which  had  penetrated  into 
the  drawers  and  dirtied  the  linen.  This  soot,  having 
been  conveyed  to  a  neighbouring  kitchen,  adhered  to  the 
walls  and  utensils.  A  piece  of  bread  in  the  cup-board 
was  covered  with  it,  and  no  dog  would  touch  it.  The  in- 
fectious odour  had  been  communicated  to  other  apart- 
ments. It  is  said  that  the  Countess  Bandi  had  been  ac- 
customed to  bathe  her  body  in  camphorated  spirit  of 
wine. 

An 


PETINICIOUS   EFFECTS  OF  SPIRITUOUS  LIQUORS.    339 

An  instance  of  the  same  kind  is  recorded  in  a  letter 
of  Mr.  Wilmer,  surgeon: — Mary  Clues,  aged  50,  \yas 
much  addicted  to  intoxication.  Iler  propensity,  to  this 
vice  had  increased  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  which 
happened  a  year  and  a  half  before.  For  about  a  yciu, 
scarcely  a  day  had  passed  in  the  course  of  which  she  did 
not  drink  at  least  half  a  pint  of  rum  or  aniseed  ^v■ater. 
Her  healtli  gradually  declined,  and  in  the  beginning  c«f 
February  she  was  attacked  by  the  jaundice,  and  conHncd 
to  her  bed.  Though  she  was  incapable  of  much  action, 
and  was  not  in  a  condition  to  work,  she  still  continued 
her  old  habit  of  drinking  every  day,  and  smoking  a 
pipe  of  tobacco.  The  bed  in  which  ahe  lay  stood  paral- 
lel to  the  chimney  of  the  apartment,  at  the  distance  of 
about  three  feet.  On  Saturday  morning  tlwi  1st.  of 
^larch,  she  fell  on  the  floor,  and  her  extreme  weakness 
having  prevented  her  from  getting  up,  she  remained  in 
that  state  till  some  one  entered  and  put  her  to  bed.  The 
following  night  she  wished  to  be  left  alone;  a  woman 
quitted  her  at  half  past  eleven,  and  according  to  custom, 
shut  the  door  and  locked  it.  She  had  put  in  thehre  two 
large  pieces  of  coal,  and  placed  a  light  in  a  candle- 
stick on  a  chair  at  the  head  of  the  bed.  At  half  after 
five  in  the  morning  a  smoke  was  seen  issuing  through  the 
window,  and  the  door  being  speedily  broken  open,  some 
flames  which  were  in  the  room  were  soon  extinguished. 
Between  the  bed  and  the  chimney  were  found  the  re- 
mains of  the  unfortunate  Clues;  one  leg  and  a  thigh 
Were  still  entire,  but  there  remained  nothing  of  the  skin, 
the  muscles  and  the  viscera.  The  bones  of  the  cranium, 
the  breast,  the  spine,  and  the  upper  extremities  were  en- 
tirely calcined,  and  covered  with  a  whitish  efflorescence. 
The  people  were  much  surprized  that  the  furniture  had 
sustained  so  little  injury.  The  side  of  the  bed  which  was 
next  to  the  chimney  had  suffered  the  most;  the  wood  of 

u  u  a  it. 


S40    PERNICIOUS  EFFECT?  OF  SPIRITUOUS  HQUQ?^S. 

it  was  slightly  burnt,  but  the  feather-bed,  the  ■  clothes, 
and  covering  \vere  safe.  Mr.  Wilmer  entered  the  apart- 
ineiits  about  two  hours  after  it  had  been  opened,  and  obr 
served  that  the  walls  and  every  thing  in  it  were  blacken- 
ed; that  it  was  filled  with  a  very  disagreeable  yapour, 
'  but  that  nothing  excepting  the  body  exhibited  any  strong 
trace's  of  fire. 

The  transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  like- 
wise  furnish  an  instance  of  human  combustion  equally 
extraordinary. — Grace  Pitt,  the  wife  of  a  fishmonger  in 
*£he  parish  of  St.  Clement,  Ipswich,  aged  j^bput  ,60,  h,Q,d_ 
contracted    a   habit,    which  she    continued  for  several 
'■'years,    of  coming  down  every  night  from  her  bedrroom^ 
half-dressed,  to  smoke  a  pipe.     On  the  night  of  the  9tih 
of  April,    1744,    she  got  up  frqm  bed   as   usual.     Her 
(laughter  who  slept  with  her  did  not  perceive  that  she  was 
'  absent  till  next  morning,  when  she  awoke ;   soon  after 
>\^hich  she  put  on  her  clothes,  and  going  down  into  the 
"kitchen  fourid  her  mother  stretched  out  on  the  right  side, 
with  her  head  near  the  grate;  the  body  extended  on  the 
*hearth,  with  her  legs  on  the  floor,  which  was  of  deal, 
*ii'£iving  the  appearance  of  a  log  of  wood,  consumed  by  a 
'ii're  without  apparent  flame.     On  beholding  this  specta- 
'cl6,  the  girl  ran  in  great  haste,  and   poured  over  her 
"!Ai"bther's  body  sorne  water  contained  in  two  large  vessels 
'i*A' order  to  extinguish  the  fire  ;  while  the  foetid  odour  and 
*^nioke  which  exhaled  from  the  body  almost  suffocated 
"some  of  the  neighbours  who  had  hastened  to  the  girl's 
assistance.     Th/g  trunk  was^  in  sorne  measure,  incinerat- 
ed, and  resembled  a  heap  of  coals  .covered  with  white 
ashes.     The  head,  the  arms,  the  legs  and  the  thighs  had 
also  participated  in  tlfip  burning.     This  woman  it  is  said 
had  drank  a  large  quantity  of  spirituous  liquor  inconse- 
quence of  being  overjoyed  to  hear  that  one  of  her  daugh- 
ters" had  returned  from  Gibraltar.     There  was  no  fire  in 

the 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CAMELEON.  S41 

the  gvate^  and  the  candle  had  burned  entirely  out  in  the 
socket  of  the  candlestick,  which  was  close  to  ber.  Be- 
sides, tlicre  were  found,  near  the  consumed  bod}^  the 
clothes  of  a  child,  and  a  paper  screen,  which  had  sus- 
tained no  injury  by  the  iire.  The  dreas  of  tliis  woman 
consisted  of  a  cotton  gown. 


.'    j4n  Account  of  that  wonderful  Animal  the  Cameleon, 
described  hi/  6//-  George  Wheeler. 

i\  EAR  SMYRNA,  are  a  great  number  of  Cameleons, 
an  animal  which  has  some  resemblance  to  a  lizard^  but 
■,  hath  its  back  gibbous,  or  crooked,  like  a  hog,  and  its 
•feet  have  two  claws  before  and  three  behind,  which  are 
not  separated  from  each  other  till  near  the  ends.     It  has 
along  tail  like  a  rat,  and  is  commonly  as  big,  but  it  has 
very  little  or  no  motion  with  its  head.     The  Cameleons 
are  in  great  abundance  about  the  old  walls  of  the  Castle, 
where  they  breed  and  lie  in  holes,  or  upon  heaps  of  ruins. 
:,Sir  George  V/ heeler   says,  I  kept  two  of  them  twenty 
•.days,  durjng  which  he  made  the  folhivving  observations: 
"their  colpur  was  usually  green,  darker  towards  tlie  back, 
and  lighter  towards  tlie  belly,  where  it  inclined  to  a  yel- 
low,   with  spots  that   were  sometimes  rcddish_,    and  at 
'Others  whitish  5  but  the  green  often  changed  into  a  dark 
>colour    like  that    of    earth,  without   any   appearance   of 
green,  and  tlie  whitish  spots  often  vanished,  but  sometimes 
-turned  into    the  same  dirt    colour,  and  at  others  into  a 
flark   purple.      Sometimes,  from   being   green  all   over, 
•they  would  be  spotted  with  black;  and  when  they  slept 
imder  a  white  woollen  cap,  they  would  commonly,  when 
uncovered,  be  of  a  whit>^  or  a  cream  colour;  but  they 
-would   also  turn  white  under  a  re('  cap,  for  they  never 
turned  either  red  or  blue,  though  they  often  lay  under 
those  colours;  but  being  placed  upon  green,  they  would 

become 


342  ACCOUNt  OF  THE  CAMELEO.V. 

become  green,  and  upon  the  dark  earth  would  change  so 
as  exactly  to  resemble  it. 

As  our  author  was  walking  by  the  side  of  the  hill  near 
the  old  castle,  he  saw  many  that  had  changed  themselves 
so  as  to  resemble  the  colour  of  the  speckled  stone  wall, 
and  were  grey  with  spots  like  moss.  He  found  one  on 
the  top  of  a  green  bush,  which,  when  he  first  observed 
it,  was  of  a  bright  green;  but  it  no  sooner  perceived 
that  he  saw  it,  but  searching,  he  observed  it  creeping 
awav  to  a  hole  in  the  rock,  it  being  changed  to  a  dark 
brown,  exactly  like  the  earth,  which  was  then,  after  a 
shower  of  rain,  of  that  colour. 

The  power  of  thus  changing  its  colour,  is  given  it  by 
nature  for  its  preservation;  for  it  moves  very  slowly,  lift- 
ing up  its  legs  high,  and  not  quick,  as  if  it  searched  for 
hold  to  climb  upward,  which  it  can  do  very  well  on  a 
tree,  a  bush,  or  wall.  When  it  saw  itself  in  danger  of 
being  caught,  it  opened  its  mouth,  and  hissed  like  a 
snake. 

The  eyes  of  the  Camelcon  are  no  less  wonderful  than 
the  variation  of  the  colours  of  the  body:  they  are  large 
in  proportion  to  the  size  of  its  head,  being  generally 
bigger  than  a  pea,  and  covered  all  over  with  a  skin  of  the 
same  substance  with  the  body,  the  grain  being  in  circles 
just  to  the  centre,  Avhere  there  is  an  hole  no  bigger  than 
a  small  pin's  head,  by  which  it  receives  light,  which 
must  make  the  angle  of  its  vision  very  acute.  The  head 
being  immoveable,  it  cannot  immediately  turn  to  ob- 
jects; but  to  remedy  this  inconvenience,  it  can  not  only- 
move  its  eyes  backward  and  forward,  upward  and  down- 
ward, but  one  forward,  and  the  other  backward,  or  one 
upward  and  the  other  downward. 

The  tongue  is  a  kind  of  little  trunk,  of  a  gristly  sub- 
stance, about  half  an  inch  long,  and  hollow,  joined  to 
its  throat  by  a  strong  membranous  and  fleshy  substance, 

ia 


FIRST   IRRUPTION  OF  MOUNT  VESUVIUS...  S4r3 

in  whicl)  it  is  sheathed  when  in  the  mouth.  It  will  dart 
this  above  an  inch  out  of  its  mouth,  smeared  with  a  slu- 
tinous  substance,  to  catch  flies,  which  stick  fast  to  it  as 
to  birdlime,  and  so  arc  brought  into  the  mouth.  These 
flies  are  the  ordinary  known  food  of  the  Cameleon;  but 
like  other  animals  of  a  cold  nature,  as  lizards  and  ser- 
pents, they  will  live  a  long  time  without  sustenance. 

Its  tail  is  of  very  great  use  in  climbing,  for  it  will  twine 
about  any  thing  so  fast,  that  if  its  feet  slip,  it  will  sus- 
tain and  recover  its  whole  body  by  it.  Our  author  put 
one  which  he  had  caught  into  a  glass,  so  deep  that  it 
could  not  reach  near  the  brim  Mith  its  fore-feet,  nor 
could  take  any  hold  with  its  claws,  and  yet  it  got  out, 
and  almost  escaped  from  him,  as  he  afterwards  saw,  by 
standing  upon  its  forc-fcet,  and  raising  itself  up  back- 
ward, till  it  caught  hold  of  the  brim  of  the  glass  with  its 
tail,  by  the  help  of  which  it  lifted  out  its  whole  body. 

In  Guinea  are  many  cameleons,  and  they  are  far  from, 
living  on  air  alone. 

[In  our  next  number  we  shall  present  our  readers  with 
further  particulars  of  this  curious  animal.] 

TO  THE  EBITOR  Ol  KIRBY's  SCIENTIFIC  MUSEUM. 
Sill, 
There  is  sometiiiag  so  awful  and  strikingly  terrific,  in  the  Younger  Pliny's 
relation  of  the  first  irrruption  of  Vesuvius,  in  which  the  Elder  Pliny  was 
sulfocatcd,  that  1  imagine  it  may  be  acceptable  to  most  readers  of  your 
entertaining  publication,  particularly  m  ttiis  description  is  not  generally 
known. 

Yours,  &c. 

S.  D. 

X  LINY  at  the  time  of  the  Irruption  of  Vesuvius,  was 
with  a  fleet  under  his  command,  at  Misenum,  in  the 
Gulf  of  Naples;  his  sister  and  her  son,  the  Younger 
Pliny,  being  with  him.  On  the  C4th  of  August,  in  the 
year  79,  about  one  in  the  afternoon,  his  sister  desired 
biin  to  observe  a  cloud  of  a  very  unusual  size  and  shape. 

He 


S44  FTT5ST  IRHUPTIOV  OF  MOUNT  VESUVIUS. 

He  was  in  his  stud}';  but  immediately  arose,  and  went 
out  upon  an  eminence  to  view  it  more  distinct!}'.  It  was 
not  at  that  distance  discernable  from  what  mountain  this 
cloud  issued,  but  it  was  found  afterwards  to  ascend  from 
jNIount  Vesuvius.  Its  figure  resembled  that  of  a  pine- 
tree;  for  it  shot  up  a  great  height  in  the  form  of  a  trunk, 
which  extended  itself  at  the  top  into  a  sort  of  branches, 
and  it  appeared  sometimes  bright,  and  sometimes  dark 
and  spotted,  as  it  was  more  or  less  impregnated  with 
earth  and  cinders.  This  was  a  noble  phenomenon  for 
the  philosophic  Pliny,  who  immediately  ordered  a  light 
vessel  to  be  got  ready;  but  as  he  was  coming  out  of  the 
house,  with  his  tablets  for  his  observations,  he  received  a 
note  from  Ilectina,  a  lady  of  quality,  earnestly  entreat- 
ing him  to  come  to  her  assistance,  since  her  villa  being 
situate  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Vesuvius,  there  was  no  way 
for  her  escape,  but  by  sea.  He  therefore  ordered  the 
gallies  to  put  to  sea,  and  went  hi'mself  on  board,  with 
intention  of  assisting  not  only  Rectina,  but  others:  for 
the  villas  stood  extremely  thick  upon  that  beautiful  coast. 
He  steered  directly  to  the  point  of  danger,  whence  others 
fled  with  the  utmost  terror;  and  with  so  much  calmness 
and  presence  of  mind,  as  to  be  able  to  make  and  dictate 
his  observations  upon  the  motion  and  figure  of  that 
dreadful  scene.  He  went  so  nigh  the  mountain,  that 
the  cinders,  which  grew  thicker  and  hotter  the  nearer  he 
approached,  fell  into  the  sliijis,  together  with  pumice- 
stones  and  black  pieces  of  burning  rock:  they  were  like- 
wise in  danger,  not  only  of  being  aground  by  the  sud- 
den retreat  of  the  sea,  but  also  from  the  vast  fragments 
which  rolled  down  from  the  mountain,  and  obstructed  all 
the  shore.  Here  he  stopped  to  consider,  whether  he 
should  return?  to  which  the  pilot  advising  him,  "  For- 
tune," said  he,  *'  befriends  the  brave  ;  carry  me  to  Pompo- 
nianus."  Pomponianus  was  then  at  Stabia?,  a  town  sepa- 
rated 


FiKST  IRRLPTION  OF  MOUNT  VESUVIUS.  $45 

letted  by  a  gulf,  which  the  sea  after  several  windings, 
forms 'Upon  that  shore.  He  found  him  in  the  greatest 
consternation>  he  exhorted  him  to  keep  up  his"  spirits  ;  and 
the  more  to  dissipate  his  fears,  lie-ordered^  with  an  air 
of  unconcern,  the  baths  to  be  got  ready;  when^  aftei* 
having  bathed,  he  sat  down  to  supper  with  an  apparent 
chearfulness.  In  the  mean  while  the  irruption  from 
Vesuvius  flamed  out  in  several  places  wuth  much  vio- 
lence, which  the  darkness  of  the  night  contributed  to? 
render  still  more  visible  and  dreadful.  Plin}'^  to  soothe 
the  apprehensions  of  his  friend,  assured  him  it  was  only, 
the  burning  of  the  villages,  which  the  country  people 
had  abandoned  to  the  flames:  after  this,  he  retired,  and 
had  some  sleep.  The  Court  which  led  to  his  apartment 
being  in  some  time  almost  filled  with  stones  and  ashes,  if 
he  had  ccntinued  there  any  longer,  it  would  have  been 
impossible  for  him  to  have  made  his  way  out;  it  was 
therefore  thought  proper  to  awaken  him.  He  got  up, 
and  went  to  Pomponianus  and  the  rest  of  his  company, 
who  were  not  unconcerned  enough  to  think  of  going  to 
bed ;  they  consulted  together,  whether  it  would  be  most 
prudent  to  trust  to  the  houses,  which  now  shook  from 
side  to  side  with  frequent  and  violent  rockings  ;  or  to  fly 
to  the  open  fields,  where  the  calcined  stones  and  cinders, 
tliough  light  indeed,  yet  fell  in  large  showers,  and 
threatened  destruction.  In  this  distress  they  resolved  for 
the  fields,  as  the  less  dangerous  situation  of  the  two ; 
and  went  out,  having  pillows  tied  upon  then-  heads  with 
napkins,  .whrch  was  all  their  defence  against  the  storms 
of  'stones  that  fell  around  diem.  It  was  now  day  every 
where  else,  but  there  a  deeper-darkness  prevailed  than  in 
the  most  obscure  night;  which,  .however,  was. in  some 
degree  dissipated  by  torches,  and  other  lights  of  various 
kinds. 
Vol.  II,  X  K  .  They 


S46        riRst  iRRUptioN  or  mount  Vesuvius. 

They  thought  proper  to  go  down  farther  upon  tho" 
^hore,  to  observe  if  they  might  safely  put  out  to  sea;  but 
they  found  that  the  waves  still  ran  extremely  high  and 
boisterous.  There  Pliny,  taking  a  draught  or  two  of  wa* 
ter,  threw  himself  down  upon  a  cloth  that  was  spread  for 
him;  when  immediately  the  flames  and  a  strong  smell  of 
sulphur,  which  was  the  forerunner  of  them,  dispersed 
the  rest  of  the  company,  and  obliged  him  to  arise.  He 
raised  himself,  with  the  assistance  of  two  of  his  servants, 
for  he  was  pretty  fat,  and  instantly  fell  down  dead  :-^ 
Suffocated,  as  his  nephew  conjectures,  by  some  gross  and 
and  noxious  vapour;  for  he  had  always  weak  lungs,  and 
was  frequently  subject  to  a  difficulty  of  breathing.  As 
soon  as  it  was  light  again,  which  was  not  till  the  third 
day  after,  his  body  was  found  entire,  and  without  any. 
marks  of  violence  upon  it;  exactly  in  the  same  posture 
that  he  fell,  and  looking  more  like  a  man  asleep  than 
dead.  The  sister  and  nephew,  whom  the  uncle  left  at 
Misenum,  continued  there  that  night,  but  had  their  rest 
extremely  broken  and  disturbed.  There  had  been  for 
many  days  before  some  shocks  of  an  earthquake, 
which  was  the  less  surprizing,  as  they  were  always  ex- 
tremely frequent  in  Campania;  but  they  were  so  particu- 
larly violent  that  night,  that  they  not  only  shook  every- 
thing, but  seemed  to  threaten  a  total  destruction.  When 
the  morning  came,  the  light  was  exceedingly  faint  and 
languid,  and  the  buildings  continued  to  totter;  so  that 
Pliny  and  his  mother  resolved  to  quit  the  town,  and  the 
people  followed  them  in  the  utmost  consternation.  Having 
got  to  a  convenient  distance  from  the  houses,  they  stood 
still,  in  fthe  midst  of  a. most  dangerous  and  dreadful 
scene.  The  chariots  they  had  ordered  to  be  drawn  out, 
were  soAgitated  backv/ards  and  forwards,  though  upon 
the  most  level  ground,  that  they  could  not  keep  them 
itedt^ct,  even  by  supporting  them  with  large  stones. 
'"*  The 


FUST  IRRUPTION  OF  MOUNT  VESUVIUS.  347 

The  sea  seemed  to  roll  back  upon  itself,  and  to  be  driven 
from  its  banks  by  tlie  convulsive  motion  of  the  earth ;  it 
was  certain  at  least,  that  the  shore  was  considerably  en- 
larged, and  several  sea  animals  were  left  upon  it.  On 
the  other  side,  a  black  and  dreadful  cloud,  bursting  with 
an  igneous  serpentine  vapour,  darted  out  a  long  train  of 
fire,  resembling  flashes  of  lightning,  but  much  larger. 
Soon  afterwards,  the  cloud  seemed  to  descend,  and  cover 
the  whole  ocean  ;  as  indeed,  it  entirely  had  the  island  of 
Caprea;,  and  the  promontory  of  Misenum.  Pliny's 
mother  conjured  him  strongly  to  make  his  escape,  which, 
being  young,  for  he  was  only  eighteen  3ears  of  age,  he 
might  easily  do  ;  as  for  herself,  her  age  and  corpulency, 
rendered  all  attempts  of  that  sort  impossible:  but  he  re- 
fused to  leave  her,  and  taking  her  by  the  hand,  led  her 
on.  The  ashes  began  to  fall  upon  them,  though  in  no 
great  quantity ;  but  a  thick  smoke,  like  a  torrent,  came 
rolling  after  them.  Pliny  proposed,  while  they  had  anj^- 
light,  to  turn  out  of  the  high  road,  lest  his  mother  should 
be  pressed  to  death  in  the  dark,  by  the  crowd  that  followed 
them  ;  and  they  had  scarcely  stepped  out  of  the  path  when 
utt,er  darkness  entirely  overspread  them.  Nothing  then 
was  to  be  heard,  says  Pliny,  but  the  shrieks  of  women,  the 
screams  of  children,  and  the  cries  of  men  :  some  callin<'' 
for  their  children,  others  for  their  parents,  others  for 
their  husbands,  and  only  distinguishing  each  other  by 
their  voices  ;  one  lamenting  his  own  fate,  another  that  of 
his  family,  some  wishing  to  die  from  the  very  fear  of 
dying,  some  lifting  up  their  hands  to  the  Gods,  but  the 
greater  part  imagining,  that  the  last  and  eternal  night 
was  come,  which  was  to  destroy  both  the  Gods  and  the 
world  together.  At  length  a  glimmering  light  appeared, 
which  however  was  not  the  return  of  day,  but  only  the 
forerunner  of  an  approaching  burst  of  flames.  The  fire 
luckily  fell  at  a  distance  from  them ;  then  again  Ihey 

X  X  2  were 


54S  PIP.ST  IRRUPTION  OF  MOUNT  VESUVIUS. 

were  immerged  in  thick  darkness,  and  a  heavy  shower  of 
ashes  rained  upon  tliem,  which  they  were  obhged  every 
now  and  then  to  shak^  off  to  prevent  being  crushed  and 
bruised  in  the  heap.  At  length  this  dreadful  darkness 
was  dissipated  by  degrees,  like  a  cloud  of  smoke  :  the  real 
day  returned,  and  even  the  Sun  appeared,  thoug'h  very 
faintly,  and  as  when  an  eclipse  is  coming  on;  and  every 
object  seemed  changed,  being  covered  over  with  white 
ashes,  as  with  a  deep  snow.  Pliny  owns  very  frankly, 
that  his  support,  during  this  terrible  phicnomenon,  was 
chiefly  founded  in  that  miserable,  though  strong  conso-; 
lation,  that  all  mankind  ^yere  involved  in  the  same  cala- 
mity, arid  that  the  world  itself  was  perishing.  They  re-. 
turned  to  Misenum,  but  without  yel  getting  rid  of  their 
fears ;  foj"  the  earthquake  still  continued,  while,  as  was 
extremely  naturj^l  in  such  a  situation,  several  enthusias-r 
tic  people  ran  up  and  down,  heightening  their  own  and 
their  friends  calamities  by  terrible  predictions. 

This  event  ha[)pened  A.  D.  79,  in  the  first  year  of  the 
Emperor  Titus;  and  was  probably  the  first  irruption  of 
Mount  Vesuvius,  at  least  of  any  consequence,  as  it  is 
certain  we  have  no  particular  accounts  of  any  preceding 
irruption.  Dio,  indeed,  and  other  nncient  authors,  speak 
of  this  as  burning  before;  but  still  they  describe  it  as  co- 
vered with  trees  and  vines,  so  that  the  irruptions  must 
have  been  inconsiderable.  Martial  has  an  epigram  upon 
this  subject,  in  which  he  gives  us  a  view  of  Vesuvius,  as 
it  appeared  before  this  terrible  conflagration  broke  out. 
Mr.  Melmpth's  translation  runs  thu^  : 

"  Here  verdant  Vines  o'erspreiul  "\'c-invinb'  Side?:, 
The  (ienernu>  Grape  here  pour'd  her  purple  Tides; 
This  Bacchus IdvM  beyond  his  nati\e  Scpne, 
Here  dancins:  Satyrs  joy'd  to  trip  tlie  Green. 
Far  more  than  Sparta  this  in  A'enus'  Grace, 
And  great  Alrides  once  renowu'd  the  place; 
Now  tlaminsi  embers  spread  dire  waste  iironnd. 
And  gods  regret  that  god?  can  thub  confound." 

LOCAL   , 


(     349     ) 

LOCAL  SINGULARITIES  OF  A  DISTRICT  IN  YORKSHIRE. 

The  following  Particulars  are  extracted  from  a  Manuscript  of  John  Wat- 
son, Esq.  who,  about  the  Year  1730,  resided  at  Malton,  in  Yorkshire. 

,  U  PON  the  middle  of  Bramham  Moor,  a  man  may 
see  ten  miles  romid  him;  within  those  ten  miles^  there 
is  as  much  freestone  as  wiU  build  ten  cities  as  large  as 
York,  and  York  is  supposed  to  be  as  large  as  London 
within  the  walls. — Within  those  ten  miles  is  as  much 
good  oak-t'mber  as  will  build  those  ten  cities — within 
those  ten  miles  there  is  as  much  limestone,  and  coals  to 
burn  it  into  lime,  as  will  build  those  ten  cities.  There 
is  also  as  much  clay  and  sand,  and  coals  to  burn  them 

tnto  bricks   and   tile,  as  will  build  those  ten  cities 

Within  those  ten  miles,  there  are  two  iron  forges,  suffi- 
cient to  furnish  iron  to  build  those  ten  cities,  and  10,000 
tons  to  spare. — Within  those  ten  miles,  there  is  lead  suf- 
ficient, and  10,000  fodder  to  spare. — Within  those  ten 
miles,  there  is  a  good  coal  seam,  sufficient  to  furnish 
those  ten  cities  with  firing  for  10,000  years, — Within  those 
ten  miles,  are  three  navigable  rivers,  Ouse,  Ware,  antf 
Wharfe,  at  the  foot  of  which  a  man  may  take  shipping 
and  sail  to  any  part  of  the  world. — Vv^ithin  those  ton 
miles,  are  seventy  gentlemens'iiouscs,  ail  keeping  coaches, 
and  the  least  of  them  an  esquire;  and  ten  parks  and  fo- 
rests well  stocked  with  deer. — Within  those  ten  miles, 
there  are  ten  maiket-towns,  each  of  which  may  be  sup- 
posed to  return  10,(X)0/.  per  week." 


EXTRAORDINARY  CHARACTER. 

IN  the  month  of  March,  1803,  died,  at  her  house  in 
St.   Petei's-itreet,    Canterburv,  Mrs.  Celestina  Collins^ 

widow. 


S50  EXTRAORDINARY  CHAEACTEE. 

widow,  aged  70  years.  Although  possessing  an  inconie 
of  70l.  per  annum,  her  habits  of  Hfe  were  singularly 
disgusting;  her  disposition  and  peculiarities  were  so  ec- 
centric, that  she  may  be  truly  said  to  have  verified  the 
old  adage,  "  De  gustibus  nil  dhputandum.*'  During 
many  years,  her  constant  companions  were  from  l6  to 
20  fowls,  whose  excrements  defiled  not  only  her  bed^ 
and  every  article  of  her  furniture,  but  even  the  plate  out 
of  which  she  ate.  A  favorite  cock,  whose  age  might 
be  calculated  from  his  spurs,  which  were  three  inches 
long,  and  an  equally  favoured  rat,  were,  for  a  length  of 
time,  constant  attendants  at  her  table,  each  partaking  of 
the  fragments  which  even  her  penury  shared  with  them; 
till,  one  day,  the  rat,  not  preserving  due  decorum  to- 
wards his  rival,  met  his  death  from  the  hands  of  his  mis- 
tress. Her  predilection  for  vermin  was  such,  that,  at 
her  death,  a  nest  of  mice  was  found  in  her  bed.  The 
house,  in  v/hich  she  re-sided,  contained,  besides  the  room 
in  which  she  constantly  lived  and  slept,  two  others,  that 
had  not  been  permitted  to  be  opened  for  man^jr  years. 
Among  the  bequests  in  her  will,  were  50/.  to  the  Kent 
and  Canterbury  hospital;  the  same  sum  to  the  parish  of 
St.  Peter  ;  ol.  to  the  Minister  of  the  parish,  for  a  funeral 
sermon,  and  one  guinea  to  each  of  the  persons  who 
should  carry  her  to  the  grave,  besides  many  other  lega- 
cies, generally  to  persons  in  no  degree  related  to  her. 
•^-^••^••^^^-^^.^.^^ 

De&cription  of  a  remarkabiT/  savage  T'RI'bEj  inhabiting 
the  Valley  of  Slosella,  in  Dalmatia. 

1  HE  scenery  of  the  valley  of  Slosella  is  frightful,  on 
account  of  the  aridity  of  the  mountains,  their  deep  clefts 
and  the  sterility  of  the  soil,  or  rather  dust,  which  collects 
in  thejf  crevices.  In  this  corner  of  the  earth,  vegetates 
a  Tribe,  the  most  brutalized  and  destitute  of  understand- 

in» 


SAVAGE  TRIBE  IN  DALMATIA.  S51 

ing  of  any  in  all  Dalmatia,  or  perhaps  on  the  whole  con- 
tinent. This  truly  degraded  tribe  possesses  no  instinct 
but  that  of  destruction.  In  the  district  inhabited  by  it, 
not  a  blade  of  corn,  not  a  fruit  tree,  shrub  or  useful 
plant  of  any  description  is  to  be  seen ;  these  senseless 
and  improvident  wretches  tear  up  every  thing  that  the 
earth  is  inclined  to  produce  for  their  nourishment.  As  an 
instance  of  their  inconceivable  imbecility,  while  they 
destroy  trees,  grain,  und  even  grass,  they  shew  respect 
to  thorns,  thistles  and  briars,  so  that,  having  madly  de- 
prived themselves  of  every  vegetable  capable  of  furnish- 
ing the  means  of  protracting  their  deplorable  existence, 
they  are  obliged  to  feed  upon  insects,  fish,  or  muscles, 
which  the  sea  casts  on  their  shores,  or  which  the  compas- 
sion of  the  fishermen  of  the  neighbouring  paits  bestows 
upon  their  disgusting  indigence.  Without  industry, 
care,  energy,  aii^d  probably  even  ideas,  they  sit  the  whole 
day  at  the  doors  of  their  miserable  huts  or  on  the  rock* 
which  surround  them.  Their  features  are  haggard,  their 
complexions  tanned  by  the  Sun,  and  darkened  with  mi- 
sery. Their  looks  are  expressive  of  fear;  their  hair 
black  and  flowing,  their  habits  of  body  meagre,  their 
limbs  slender  and  proportioned.  They  are  more  timid 
than  wicked,  more  brutal  than  ferocious;  the  most  simple 
ideas  never  reach  their  minds!  they  are  incapable  alike  of 
comprehending,  recollecting,  or  imitating,  and  do  notseem 
to  imagine  that  any  thing  in  the  world  can  be  either  useful, 
convenient,  or  agreeable.  It  would  be  aninsult  to  human 
nature  to  call  them  savages ;  they  possess  neither  their 
candour,  simplicity,  courage,  nor  spirit  of  independence. 
Savages  are  the  first  link  in  the  grand  chain  of  man- 
kind, and  these  people  appear  to  be  the  last.  Their  origin 
is  unknown,  but  they  are  said  to  have  been  at  one  time 
formidable  to  the  Turks.  They  may  probably  be 
some  wretched  remnant  of  the  Uscoques,  who  being  held' 

in 


352     ACCOUNT    CF    THE    MAN    WITH    THE    IRON    MASK» 

in  general  detestation,  aud  being  reduced  by  the  change 
of  war,  or  other  calamities,  have  lost  for  ever,  under 
the  lash  of  of  terror,  botli  the  sensation  of  their  misfor- 
tunes and  of  their  misery  ;  in  whom  not  only  the  dignity 
of  human  nature,  but  likewise  the  faculties  of  the  under- 
tlandinc:.  toijether  with  reason  itself  are  cxtin2;uished. 

Such  are  the  observations  of  M.  Cassas  ;  and  they  agree 
with  those  made  on  these  people  by  the  Abbe  Fortis,  who 
says:  "Notwithstanding  the  abundance  and  variety  of 
the  fish  cast  in  various  seasons  of  the  year  on  the  strand 
of  Slosella,  the  indolent  inhabitants  neglect  every  me- 
thod by  which  they  might  be  turned  to  advantage.  They 
are  contented  to  live  from  hand  to  mouth,  and  devour 
without  bread,  and  frequently  without  any  kind  of  pre- 
paration all  the  fish  they  take.  In  spring  these  silly 
peasants  live  entirely  upon  cuttle-fish.  They  catch  them 
bv  immersing  in  the  water  branches  of  trees,  to  ^^hich 
tiiis  fish  adheres  for  the  purpose  of  depositing  its  spawn; 
and  if,  to  procure  even  this  sustenance,  a  more  compli- 
cated contrivance  were  necessary,  I  believe  thev'^  would 
starve,  rather  than  take  the  trouble  to  employ  it.  They 
arc  equally  enemies  to  their  own  weliare,  and  that  of 
others;  so  that  to  prevent  the  introduction  of  large  fish- 
ing nets  by  their  lord,  they  rolled  large  stones  into  all 
the  deep  waters  near  the  shore,  where  they  would  have 
been  of  infinite  advantage  to  them." 


A71  Accou7it  of  the  Birth  aud  Education  of  the  unfortu" 
note  Prince,  zc'ho  zcas  secluded  from  Society  hi)  Cardi" 
?uih  Richelieu  cr^t/MAZARiN  ;  aud  afterwards  impri-^ 
soncd  hij  order  of  Lewis  tlic  xi\th. 

[From  Memoircs  du  Slarcchal  Due  de  Richelieu,  Stc] 

1-  HE  unfortunate  Prince  whom  I  have  brought  up,  and 
taken  care  of  till  the  close  of  my  life,  was  born  Septem- 
ber 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK.   35S 

ber  5,  l638^  at  half  past  eight.  His  brother,  the  present 
sovereign,  was  born  in  the  morning  of  the  same  day, 
about  twelve  o'clock.  But  the  births  of  these  princes 
presented  a  striking  contrast,  for  the  eldest's  was  as  splen- 
did and  brilliant  as  the  ^^ouugcst's  was  melanchol}'  and 
private. 

The  King,  soon  after  the  queen  was  safely  delivered  of 
the  first  prince,  was  informed  by  the  midwife,  that  her 
majesty  was  still   in   labour.     This  intelligence   alarmed 
him  greatly,  and  he  ordered  the  chancellor  of  France, 
the  fiist  almoner,  the  queen's  confessor,  and  myself,  to 
remain  in  her  a[)artment  till  she   was  delivered,  as  he 
wished  us  to  be  witnesses  of  the  steps  which  he  meant  to 
take,  if  she   gave  birth  to  another  dauphin;  for  it  had 
been   foretold  by  some  shepherds,  that  the  queen  was 
pregnant  with  two  sons ;  they  also  reported,  that  they 
had  obtained  this  knowledge  by  divine  inspiration.     This 
report  was  soon  circulated  through  Paris,  and  the  people, 
alarmed   by  it,  loudly  asserted,  that    if  this   prediction 
should  be  verified,  it  would  eause  the  total  ruin  of  the 
state.     The  archbishop   of  Paris  was  soon  informed  of 
these  transactions,  and  after  conversing  with  the  divines, 
ordered  the  shepherds  to  be  closely  confined  in  the  pri- 
son  of  Lazarus;  for   the  serious    effect   their  prophecy 
had  produced  in  tlie  minds  of  the  people,  had  given  the 
king  some  uneasiness,  because  it  made  him  reflect  on  the 
disturbances  he  had  to  fear  in  his  kingdom..  He  inform- 
ed the  cardinal  of  this  prediction,  who  in  his  answer  said, 
that  the  birth  of  two  dauphins  was  not  impossible,  and 
that  if  the  peasants'   prophecy   should   be   realized,  the 
last-born  must  be  concealed  with  the  greatest  care,  as  he 
might,  when  he  grew  up,  conceive  that  he  had  a  right  to 
the  crown,  and  cause  another  league  in  the  kingdom. 

During  the  queen's  second  labour,  which  lasted   seve- 
ral hours,  the  king  was  tormented  by  bis  appreliensions. 
Vol.  II.  Y  Y  for 


S54      ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK. 

for  he  felt  a  strong  presentiment,  that  he  should  soon  be 
the  father  of  two  dauphins.  He  desired  the  bishop  of 
Meaux  not  to  leave  the  queen  till  she  was  delivered,  and 
afterwards  turning  to  us  all,  said,  sufficiently  loud  to  be 
beard  by  the  queen,  that  if  another  dauphin  should  be 
born,  and  any  of  us  should  divulge  the  secret,  our  heads 
should  answer  for  it:  for,  added  he,  his  birth  must  be  a, 
secret  of  state,  to  prevent  the  misfortunes  which  would 
evidently  follow  the  disclosure;  as  the  salic  law  has 
been  silent  concerning  the  inheritance  of  a  kingdom,  oh 
the  birth  of  male  twins. 

The  event,  which  had  been  foretold,  soon  after  arrived, 
for  the  queen,  whilst  the  king  was  at  supper,  gave  birth 
to  a  second  son  much  smaller  and  handsomer  than  the 
first ;  and  the  poor  infant,  by  his  incessant  cries,  seemed 
to  lament  his  entrance  into  a  world  where  so  much  misery 
was  in  store  for  him.  The  chancellor  then  drew  up  the 
verbal-process  of  this  cxtraordary  event,  but  the  king 
not  approving  of  the  first,  it  was  burnt  in  our  presence, 
and  it  was  not  till  after  he  liad  written  a  great  many  that 
his  majesty  was  satisfied.  The  first  almoner  endea- 
voured to  persuade  the  king,  that  he  ought  not  to  conceal 
the. birth  of  a  prince;  to  which  his  majesty  replied,  that 
a  reason  of  .-^tate  absolutely  required  the  most  inviolable 
.secrecy. 

The  king  soon  after  dictated  the  oath  of  secrecy 
which  he  desired  us  all  to  sign;  when  this  important 
business  was  concluded,  lie  sealed  the  oath  to  the  verbal 
process,  and  took  possession  of  it.  The  royal  infant  was 
then  given  into  the  hands  of  the  midwife;  but,  to  deter 
her  from  revealing  the  secret  of  its  birth,  she  was  me- 
naced with  death  if  she  ever  gave  the  least  hint  of  it; 
we  were  all,  likewise,  strictly  charged  not  even  \o  con- 
verse with  each  other  on  the  subject. 

His  majesty  drcadfd  notiiing  so  much  as  a  civil  war, 

«.nd 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK.     355 

and  he  thought  that  the  dissentions  which  would  cer- 
tainly occur  between  the  two  brothers,  if  they  were 
brought  up  as  such,  would  certainly  occasion  one;  the 
cardinal,  also,  when  he  was  invested  with  the  superinten- 
dence of  the  prince's  education,  did  every  thing  in  his 
power  to  keep  this  apprehension  alive. 

The  king  ordered  us  to  examine  carefully  the  poor 
child's  body,  to  see  if  he  had  any  marks  by  which  he 
might  hereafter  be  known,  if  his  brother  should  die  ;  for 
the  king  always  purposed,  in  that  case,  to  put  the  royal 
infant  in  possession  of  his  rights  ;  for  this  reason,  after 
having  made  us  all  sign  the  verbal-process,  he  sealed  it 
with  the  royal  seal. 

During  the  infancy  of  the  young  prince,  Madame  Pe- 
ronnette,  the  midwife,  treated  him  as  if  he  were  hei-  own 
son;  but  from  her  great  care  and  manner  of  living, 
every  one  suspected  that  he  was  the  illegitimate  son  of 
some  rich  nobleman. 

As  soon  as  the  prince's  infancy  was  over.  Cardinal 
Mazarin,  on  whom  his  education  had  devolved,  con- 
signed him  to  my  care,  with  orders  to  educate  him  in  a 
manner  suitable  to  the  dignity  of  his  birth,  but  in  private. 
Mad.  Peronnette  continued  to  attend  him,  in  my  house 
in  Burgundy,  till  her  death ;  and  they  were  warmly  at- 
tached to  each  other. 

I  had  frequent  conversations  with  the  queen  during 
the  subsequent  disturbances  in  this  kingdom;  and  her 
majesty  has  often  said  to  me,  that  if  the  prince's  birth 
should  be  discovered  during  the  life  of  the  young  king, 
his  brother,  the  mal-contents  would,  she  feared,  take 
advantage  of  it  to  raise  a  revolt  among  the  people;  ior, 
she  added,  that  it  was  the  opinion  of  many  able  physi 
cians,  that  the  last-born  of  twins  was  the  first  conceived," 
and  of  course  the  eldest.  This  fear  did  not,  however, 
prevent   the  queen  from  preserving,  with  the   greatest 

y  V  <Z  care. 


556     ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK. 

care,  the  written  testimonies  of  the  prince's  birth;  for 
she  intended,  if  any  accident  had  befallen  his  brother, 
to  have  recognised  him,  though  she  had  another  son.    ' 

The  young  prince  received  as  good  an  education,  as  I 
could  have  wished  to  have  received  mj'self  in  similar 
circumstances;  and  a  better  one  than  was  bestowed  on 
the  acknowledged  princes. 

When  he  was  about  nineteen,  his  desire  to  know  who 
he  was  increased  to  a  great  degree,  and  he  tormented 
me  with  continual  solicitations  to  make  him  acquainted 
with  the  author  of  his  existence ;  the  more  earnest 
he  was,  the  more  resolute  ^^ere  my  refusals ;  and  when 
he  saw  that  his  entreaties  did  not  avail,  he  endeavoured 
to  persuade  me  that  he  thought  he  was  my  son.  Often 
when  he  called  me  by  the  tender  name  of  father,  did  1 
tell  him  that  he  deceived  himself;  but,  at  length,  seeing 
that  he  persevered  in  this  opinion,  I  ceased  to  contra- 
dict him,  and  gave  him  reason  to  believe  that  he  was 
really  my  son.  He  appeared  to  credit  this,  with  a  view, 
no  doubt,  of  forcing  me  by  these  means  to  reveal  the 
truth  to  him;  as  I  afterwards  learned  that  he  was,  at 
that  very  time  doing  all  in  his  power  to  discover  who  he 
was.' 

Two  years  elapsed  in  this  manner,  when  an  imprudent 
«ction,  for  which  I  shall  ever  reproach  myself,  revealed 
to  him  the  important  secret  of  his  birth.  He  knew  that 
I  had  received,  at  that  time,  mciny  expresses  from  the 
king;  and  this  circumstance,  probabi}'',  raised  some 
doubts  in  his  mind,  which  he  sought  to  clear  up  by 
opening  my  scrutoirc,  in  which  I  had  imprudently  left 
many  letters  from  the  queen  and  the  cardinal.  He  read 
them;  and  their  contents,  aided  by  his  natural  penetra- 
tion, discovered  the  whole  secret  to  him. 

I  observed   about  this  time,   that   his   manners  were 
quite  changed,  for  instead  of  treating  me  with  that  affec- 
tion 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  lEON  MASK.     35? 

tion  and  respect  which  I  was  accustomed  to  receive  from 
him,  he  became  surly  and  reserved.  This  alteration  at 
first  surprised  me,  but  I  too  soon  learnt  the  cause. 

My  suspicions  were  first  roused  by  his  asking  me,  with 
great  earnestness,  to  procure  him  the  portraits  of  the 
late  and  present  king,  I  told  him  in  answer,  that  there 
had  been  no  good  resemblances  of  cither  drawn  yet; 
and  that  I  would  wait  till  some  eminent  painter  should 
execute  their  pictures. 

This  reply,  which  he  appeared  extremely  dissatisfied 
with,  was  followed  by  a  request  to  go  to  Dijon:  the  ex- 
treme disappointment  he  expressed  on  being  refused, 
alarmed  me,  and  from  that  moment  I  watched  his  mo- 
tions more  closely.  I  afterwards  learnt  that  his  motive 
for  wishing  to  visit  Dijon  was,  to  see  the  king's  picture; 
he  had  an  intention  also  of  going  from  ihence  to  the 
court,  that  was  then  kept  at  St.  Jean-de-Luz,  to  see,  and 
compare  himself  with  his  brother. 

The  young  prince  was  then  extremely  beautiful;  and 
he  inspired  such  an  affection  in  the  breast  of  a  young 
chambermaid,  that,  in  defiance  of  the  strict  orders  which 
all  the  domesticks  had  received,  net  to  give  the  prince 
anything  he  required  without  my  permission,  she  pro- 
cured him  the  king's  portrait, 

As  soon  as  the  unhappy  prince  glanced  his  eye  on  it, 
he  was  forcibly  struck  by  its  resemblance  to  himself;  and 
well  he  might,  for  one  portrait  would  have  served  for 
them  both. — This  sight  confirmed  all  his  doubts,  and 
made  him  furious.  lie  instantly  flew  to  me,  exclaim- 
jng,  in  the  most  violent  passion.  This  is  the  king!  and  I 
am  his  brother:  here  is  an  undeniable  proof  of  it.  He 
then  shewed  me  a  letter  from  Cardinal  Mazarin  that  he 
had  stolen  out  of  my  scrutoirc,  in  which  his  birth  was 
mentioned. 

I  now  feared  that  he  would  contrive  means  to  escape  to 

the 


558     ACCOUNT  or   the  man  ■with  TItE  IRON   MASK. 

the  court  duifing  the  celebration  of  his  brother's  nup- 
tials ;  and  to  prevent  this  meeting,  which  I  greatly  dread- 
ed, 1  soon  after  seni  a  messenger  to  the  king  to  inform 
him  of  the  prince's  having  broken  open  my  scrutoire;  by 
ivhich  means  he  bad  discovered  the  secret  of  his  birth ; 
1  also  informed  hi  in  the  effect  this  discovery  had  pro- 
duced in  ills  mind.  On  the  receipt  of  this  ^Mter,  his 
Majesty  instantly  ordered  us  both  to  be  imprisoned.  The 
cardinal  was  charged  witli  this  order ;  and  at  the  Sxime 
lime  acquainted  the  prince,  t'nat  his  improper  conduct 
•was  the  cause  of  our  common  misfortune. 

I  Inive  continued  from  that  time  till  this  moment  a 
fellow  prisoner  with  the  priu'-e  ;  and  now  feeling  that  the 
awful  sentence  to  depart  this  life  has  been  pronounced  by 
my  heavenly  Judge,  I  can  no  longer  refuse  to  <;alm  both 
my  own  mind  and  my  pupil's,  by  a  candid  declaration  of 
this  important  fact,  which  may  enable  him  to  extricate 
himself  from  his  present  ignominious  state,  if  the  king 
should  die  without  issue.  Ought  I  to  be  obliged  by  a 
forced  oath  to  keep  a  secret  inviolably,  with  which  poste- 
rity ought  to  be  acquainted  ■ 

This  is  the  historical  memoir  which  the  regent  delivered 
to  the  princess :  it  does  not,  indeed,  certify  that  this  prince 
was  the  prisoner  known  by  the  name  of  the  iron-mask, 
but  all  the  foregoing  facts  agree  so  well  with  the  extra- 
ordinary anecdotes  related  of  this  mysterious  pca'sonage, 
that  it  appears  beyond  contradiction,  that  this  memoir 
fills  up  the  vacuum  relative  to  the  beginning  of  his  life. 
I  will  therefore  sulyoinsome  of  the  authentick  anecdotes 
which  have  been  given  to  the  publick  of  the  Iron  Mask, 
since  he  arrived  with  Mr.  de  Saint-Mars  at  the  state  pri- 
son in  the  Lde  Sainte  Marguerite. 

I'he  first  person  who  inentions  the  Iron-mask  is  an 
anon^'mons  author,  in  a  work  entitled,  Memoirs  ol  the 
Court  of  Persia;  he  related   many  authei\liek  anecdotes, 

respect  u\i^ 


ACCOtINT  OF  THE    MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK.       359 

respecting  the  prisoner,  but  is  totally  mistaken  in  his 
conjectures  concerning  his  r^nk.  These  memoirs  no 
sooner  appeared,  than  a  crowd  of  literary  men  endea- 
voured to  prove  who  this  prisoner  was  whose  extraordi- 
nary treatment  had  excited  such  universal  curiosity.  One 
asserted  that  he  was  the  Duke  of  Beaufort,  who  was  cer- 
tainly killed  by  the  Turks  whilst  he  was  defending  Can- 
dia,  in  the  year  1699.  For  in  the  first  place  it  is  well 
known  that  the  Iron-mask  was  in  confinement  at  Pigne- 
jol  belbre  he  came  to  the  Isle  Saint  JNlarguerite,  in  the 
year  l6G2:  besides,  how  was  it  possible  for  the  duke  to 
be  stolen  from  his  army  so  secretly  as  to  escape  disco- 
very? For  what  reason  also  was  he  imprisoned?  and  why 
was  it  necessary  for  him  to  be  constantly  masked  ?  Others 
contested,  that  the  prisoner  was  the  Count  Vermandois, 
a  natural  son  of  Louis  the  XlVth,  who  died  publicly  of 
the  small-pox  in  \6SS.  Another  author  contended,  that 
he  was  the  duke  of  Monmouth,  v.ho  was  beheaded  at 
London  in  l67o  :  even  allowing  it  possible  that  Louis 
would  have  consented  to  imprison  the  Duke  to  oblige 
king  James,  is  it  probable  that  he  would  have  continued 
the  pleasing  office  of  jailor,  after  his  death,  to  oblige  a 
sovereign  with  whom  he  was  at  war  ? 

All  these  chijneras  are  now  dissipated  by  this  impor- 
tant relation ;  and  the  uncommon  precautions  whicli 
were  used  to  conceal  the  face  of  the  man  in  the  iron- 
mask,  is  a  further  proof  that  he  was  the  identical  prince 
mentioned  in  tlie  memoirs;  for  he  was  never  permitted 
to  walk  in  the  court  of  the  Bastille  without  his  mask : 
which  he  was  forbiddcR  to  take  off,  even  in  the  presence 
of  his  physicians.  Would  this  precaution  have  been 
taken,  if  his  face  hud  not  been  a  striking  likeness  of  one 
well  known  throughout  all  France  ?  and  what  face  could 
this  be  but  that  of  his  brother,  Louis  the  XlV'fh,  to 
whom  this  unfortunate  prince  bore  so  great  a  resemblance 

that 


360     ACCOUNT  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IRON  MASK. 

that  a  slight  glance  of  hhn,  it  was  feared,  would  have 
Letrayed  the  secret  which  was  so  ardently  wished  to  be 
concealed?  Wh}',  also,  had  he  an  Italian  name  given 
-him,  though  he  had  no  foreign  accent?  for  in  the  regis- 
ter of  his  burial  at  St.  Paul's  church  he  is  called  Marchi- 
ali.  Voltaire  seems  to  have  been  the  only  writer  who 
was  acquainted  with  the  mystery  of  this  extraordinary 
prisoner's  birth ;  though,  notwithstanding  he  related 
manv  autheritick  anecdotes  of  him,  he  carefully  concealed 
it. 

We  will  now  give  the  reader  a  succinct  account  of  the 
man  in  the  iron  mask,  extracted  from  the  writings  of 
Voltaire,  and  many  other  eminent  authors.  A  few 
months  after  the  death  of  cardinal  Mazarin,  a  young 
prisoner  arrived  at  the  Isle  of  Sainte  Marguerite, 
whose  appearance  excited  universal  curiosity;  his  man- 
ners were  graceful  and  dignified,  his  person  above  the 
middle  size,  and  his  face  extremely  handsome.  On  the 
way  thither  he  constantly  wore  a  mask  made  with  iron 
springs,  to  enable  him  to  eat  without  taking  it  off.  It 
was,  at  first,  believed  that  this  mask  was  made  entirely 
of  iron,  from  whence  he  acquired  the  name  of  the  man 
with  the  iron  mask.  His  attendants  had  received  orders 
to  kill  him,  if  he  attempted  to  take  off  his  mask,  or  dis- 
cover himself. 

The  prisoner  remained  in  this  isle  till  the  year  169O, 
when  the  governor  of  Pignerol  being  promoted  to  the 
government  of  the  Bastille,  conducted  him  to  that  for- 
tress. In  his  way  thither,  he  stopped  with  him  at  his 
estate  near  Palteau.  Tiie  prisoner  arrived  there  in  a 
iitier,  surrounded  by  a  numerous  guard  on  horseback. 
Mr.  de  Saint  Mars  ate  at  the  same  table  with  him 
all  the  time  they  resided  at  Palteau;  but  the  latter 
was  always  placed  with  his  back  towards  the  win- 
dows ;  and  the  peasants,  w  horn  curiosity  kept  con- 
stantly 


AN'  ACCOUNt  OF  THE  MAN  WITH  THE  IKON  MASK.    SGl 

stantlv  on  the  watch,  observed  that  Mr.  de  Saint  Mars 
always  sat  apposite  him  with  two  pistols  by  the  side 
of  his  plate.  They  were  waited  on  by  one  servant 
only^  who  received  the  dishes  in  the  anti-chamber_,  and 
always  shut  the  dining-room  door  carefully  after  him 
when  he  went  out.  The  prisoner  was  always  masked, 
even  when  he  passed  through  the  court;  the  governor 
also  slept  in  a  bed  in  the  same  room  with  him.  In  the 
course  of  their  journey,  the  iron-mask  vas,  one  day, 
heard  to  ask  his  keeper,  whether  the  king  had  any  de- 
sign on  his  life?  No,  my  prince,  he  replied,  provided 
that  you  allow  yourself  to  be  conducted  without  oppo- 
sition, your  life  is  perfectly  secure.  The  s: ranger  was  ac- 
commodated as  well  as  it  was  possible  to  be  in  the  Bas- 
tile;  and  every  thing  he  expressed  a  desire  for  waa  in- 
stantly procured  him.  He  was  particularly  partial  to 
fine  linen,  which  did  not  proceed  from  vanity,  for  he 
was  really  in  want  of  it;  because  his  constant  confine- 
ment, and  sedentary  life,  had  rendered  his  skin  so  deli- 
cate, that,  unless  his  linen  Avas  extremely  fine,  it  incom- 
moded him, 

He  was  also  fond  of  playing  on  the  guitar.  He  never 
complained  of  his  confinement,  nor  gave  a  hint  of  his 
rank.  The  tones  of  his  voice  were  uncommonly  pleas- 
ing and  interesting. 

He  was  served  constantly  in  plate;  and  the  governor 
always  placed  his  dishes  on  the  table  himself}  and  when 
he  entered,  or  retired,  he  locked  the  door  after  him.  He 
tutoiyoit  (theed  and  thoued)  the  governor,  who,  on  the 
contraiy,  treated  him  with  the  greatest  respect,  and 
never  wore  his  hat,  or  sat  down  in  his  presence,  unless 
he  was  desired. 

Whilst  he  resided  at  Sainte  Marguerite,  he  wrote  his 
name  on  a  plate,  and  threw  it  out  of  his  window  towards 
a.  boat  lying  at  the  foot  of  the  tower.  A  fisherman  picked 

Vol.  H.  2  2  it 


SGQ.   an  account  of  the  man  ^ITIl-AN  IRON  MASK. 

it  up,  and  carried  it  to  the  governor.  He  was  alarmed 
at  the  sight  of  it;  and  asked  the  man  with  great  anxiety, 
whether  he  could  read,  and  whether  any  one  else  had 
seen  the  plate?  I  cannot  read,  rephed  the  fisherman; 
and  no  one  else  has  seen  the  plate,  as  I  have  this  instant 
found  it.  The  man  was,  however,  kept  till  the  governor 
was  well  assured  of  the  truth  of  his  assertions. 

He  made  another  attempt  to  make  himself  known^ 
which  was  e(;ually  unsuccessful.  A  young  man,  who 
lived  in  the  isle,  one  day  perceived  something  floating 
under  the  prisoner's  window,  and  on  picking  it  up,  he 
discovered  it  to  be  a  very  fine  shirt,  written  all  over.  He 
carrried  it  immediately  to  the  governor,  who,  after  un- 
folding it,  appeared  in  the  greatest  consternation.  He 
enquired  of  the  young  man  whether  he  had  had  the 
curiosity  to  read  what  was  written  on  it?  He  answejcd 
no;  but  notwithstanding  this  reply,  he  was  found,  a  few 
days  after,  dead  in  his  bed. 

The  fate  of  the  Iron^mask  excited  great  curiosity;  and 
i.  young  officer,  who  visited  Mr.  de  Saint  Mars,  when 
he  resided  at  Sainte  Marguerite,  was  so  desirous  to  see 
him,  that  he  bribed  a  sentinel,  who  was  stationed  in  a 
gallery  under  the  prisoner's  window,  to  let  him  take  his 
place  for  a  shorf  time. — He  had  a  perfect  view  of  him 
from  thence,  as  he  was  then  without  his  mask.  His  face 
was  fair  and  handsome;  and  his  person  tall,  and  finel/ 
formed.  His  hair  was  perfectly  grey,  though  he  wasonl^ 
in  the  flower  of  his  age.  He  bpent  the  whole  night  if 
walking  up  and  down  the  room. 

Father  Griflet,  in  his  Journal  of  the  Bastile,  sfiys, 
that  on  the  8th  of  September,  I698,  INlr.  de  Saint  Mars, 
newly-created  governor  of  that  fortress,  made  his  first 
entrance  into  it,  bringing  with  him  an  ancient  pri- 
soner, whom  he  had  taken  care  of  at  Pigncrol,  and  at 
the  lale  Sainte  Marguerite.  His  ua*ue  was  not  meutioned, 

aad 


AN  ACCOUNT  O'    Till:  MAN   WITH  AN  IIJON   MASK.    ."O.) 

and  1)0  \\as  kept  coiislaiitlv  masked.  Au  aparliruiit  uas 
pr('[>aied  (or  liiiii,  bv  ortlcr  of  the  govcMior,  Lxlore  liis 
arrival,  litted  up  in  the  iu(i>l  coiivciiieiit  style.  V\  hen 
he  was  allowed  to  jjo  to  iiia^s,  he  was  strictly  lorbiddcii 
to  s[)eak',  (jr  uiienver  lii->  lace;  and  orders  were  liiveii  to 
the  suldieis  to  lire  upon  hin»  il"  he  attempted  cither.  A:i 
lie  passeil  t!iroiii;li  the  (.•oiut^  their  jiieccs  were  aiwavs 
pointed  towards  iiiin. 

'iliis  nnrortiniatc  [)rinee  died  the  I'llhot"  Novcmher, 
17():Jj  alter  a  short  illness,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Patd's 
rhurch.  The  ex[)eiicc  «jf  hi^  fmieral  amounted  onh'  to 
forty  livrcs.  His  real  natne  and  iiij;c  wcne  concerded  IVoiii 
the  priests  who  buried  him;  <"(>r,  in  the  r<>t;ister  made 
ol"  his  Juneral^  it  was  mentione<l,  that  he  was  about  (orty 
years  old;  and  he  luul  told  his  aj^j'. becary,  .some  time 
bf^fore  his  death,  that  he  thought  he  must  be  sixty. 

It  is  a  well-kii<nvn  iael,  that  every  thinq  which  he  liad 
r.sed  was,  aiter  his  tie. ■th,  burnt  and  destroyed ;  even  to 
llie  donrs  ct"  his  prison.  Ills  plate  was  iiK.'lted  down; 
and  the  walls  ol  his  chamber  wtfre  scrapi^d  and  wliito 
wa>lied.  Nay,  such  was  the  I'ear  ol"  his  having  left  a 
letter  or  any  mark,  wliicdi  might  lead  to  discover  wiio  he 
was,  that  the  vei  v  Moor  of  his  room  was  taken  up,  and 
the  ceiling  taken  down.  In  short,  every  corner  was 
searched  into,  that  no  trace  might  remain  of  him. 

The  result  of  these  extraordinary  accounts  is,  that  the 
iron-mask  must  havr"  been  a  person  of  great  consequence; 
and  what  i)erson  enuld  have  been  of  suflicicnt  consr- 
quence,  excepting  this  prince,  to  give  rise  to  the  above- 
mentioned  precautions  to  prevent  any  discovery  of 
his  face  and  rank.  Tor,  on  the  slightest  piobabilitv  of 
a,  dis(M)very,  the  governor  expressed  the  greatest  con- 
sternation; and  the  eHeelual  steps  which  he  took  to 
silence  all  thosi-  who  were  so  unfortunate  as  in  liiul  am- 
Vhing  on  which  the  poor  prisoner  had  writteu,  wai  ano- 

z   z  ii  fh,:^ 


:3t»t  ACCOl'NT  OF  A  MURDER  I.N  r  1;1P1M,E.C,  ATE   PARISH. 

ther  stiiking  proof  thai  his  beiiiL^   oonrcalod  u:is  oi'  the. 
iitinosi  coiiso<pic:icc  to  the  king  and  the  minir,tiy. 


jln  Accuunf,  6)C.  of  <t  Mvkder,  conDnlitcd  in  CiIipple- 
GATE  pAiusii,  Dec.  1'),  Kifjo,  related  by  Mr,  Smi- 
iiiiES,    Curat <    nj  thai    Pari^/i,   and   attested  h\j  jJk. 

rO"WLr.K,     iiu-.l      }l,':://Cp     .''/■    G  LOVC>:5.TEU. 

i.  IlRl-.r.  nw/A  I  iiiiic  to  aMr.  Slockcicn's  house  in  tlio 
fvouinu,  aiiu  c.'.llod  jor  urii:k,  and  staid  kite,  thouuU 
JNJr.  Stoc'kd'ju  cK.-iird  thom  lo  be  gone.  As  lie  s.it  in  hi^ 
I  hail",  cue  of  thcr.i  cried  come,  and  imnicdiaiely  seized 
him,  and  i\Iary  Footman  hii  kinswoman  and  house- 
kee[)er,  l)Ound  her,  and  thrust  a  handkcMchiel'  into  her 
mouth  ;  two  ul"  liiem  .-;tr::nglcd  ^ir.  Sloekden  with  a  iin- 
iicn  cloth,  si  ruck  him  willi  tlie  lock  of  a  pistol  on  tlic 
forehead,  and  kilUd  him.  They  took  what  money  and 
{date  they  could  Hml. 

Soon  after  .Mr.  Stockden  appeared  to  IVIrs  Greenwood^ 
a  neighbour  (in  a  drtum)  and  shewed  her  a  Imuse  in 
Thames  Street,  where  Mriynaid  one  of  the  murderers 
■was  ;  the  next  morning  slie  went  and  en([uired  for  iiim, 
and  was  inlonnt.d  he  was  just  gone  out.  Mr.  Stockdeu 
appeared  again,  and  described  him,  and  told  her  a  AVire- 
drawcr  must  take  him;  one  of  thiu  trade,  and  his  inti- 
mate, was  ;ic  eordingly  I'ound,  w  ho  lur  a  rewaYd  of  Ten 
Pounds  wTij  [ne  ailed  upon  to  umlertake  it:  uj)on  which 
he  v/as  taken,  .\;id  c;;..  .  •  >  Newgate,  confessed  the 
fact,  and  impeached  t...  others.  Marsh,  Bcvil,  and 
Mercer.     jViarsh,  though  ;.ot  present  at  the  murder,  was 

lie  setter  on,  and  liaila  share  of  the  booty;  antl  hearing 
of  the  iiifurmatioii  against  him,  ran  auay. 

.Mr.  Stoekden  a[)j)earc'd  again  to  Mr.-*.  Greenwood,  and 
led   her  to   a  lioiu-c  in   Old  ^irt^ J,    hewed   lier  a.})air  of 

ttairs. 


P1.K20NS   Dr.SlUOYEU    B  V    INTERNAL  FinE.  305 

-Uiif'^.^  ;tiul  lohl  her  one  of  tlicm  Iodised  tluTc.  Thithcc 
tlie  iicxL  moniiiiijj  she  went,  lie;inl  of  liiiiij  and  hy  [)ur- 
i;uiiii)-  IVoni  phiu'.'  b)  |>hice,  M;ii.-;h  was  lukcii, 

Jievi!  \v;is  d;'^e!,•\\M^  '.  in  '.I'-.c  I/Uiiiijc  i  \>\  Mrs.  Ci'kx  iiwo.i'i 
t]ic;ui)i!)^-  tiiat  Ml.  S  :,'  Kcica  hud  her  ovei'  the  bridL^e,  up 
f  lie  Ijoroi;::!)  i.;Lo  a  y;u<i.  'rhereii|>()n  she  went  the  nexi  (]dj 
io  llrj  Mi\.i>\:\.\y"a,  \vh(,i','  siu;  found  him,  heln^-  l)i()ii;j,ht 
liiilh^r  fur  eulni;!^';  lie  was  reiuovc  !  io  2Se\V'.;aLf,  and 
<:oiii"cs:'>ed  lite  iaet, 

?»lereer  d  I  not.  consenL  to  llie  niurdiT  of  Mr.  Stoek- 
den,   aiiJ  ■:■.  a\   the    lile    of  Mrs  FooUnan  ;    jk.-i    did 

lS\i>..  "'.ccnw..  .1  dream  a.nv  thini;  eoneerninq,  him.  lie 
beeame  evidenee  and  escaped  ;  tlu  oihij"  three  were  exe- 
cuted. xMu-r  this  ^[r.  Stoek  I.  ii  came  lo  licr  and  said, 
"  ClizabeLh,  1  ihank  ihce,  the  (Jod  of  Heaven  reward 
thce,  for  what  thou  hast  dune!"  alter  whieh  bho  rep'jsed 
(|uiet. 


rAniiii;R  accl>\  nt  or  i'lk^ons  uEsiuoviiD  hy  init.i..- 

N  \1.   !■  IKK. 

ICojicluilt'ilfrom  Page  341.] 

IN  a  ^leuioir  on  spontaneous  burnin'^,  Le  Cat  mcntion.5 
several  otlier  instances  of  condjustion  of  the  huuKiii 
body.  Having,  says  he,  spent  several  months  at  llheinis 
in  tlic  years  J7'24,  and  17-J,  1  lodged  at  the  house  of 
Sieur  Millet,  whcse  wile  got  inloxieated  every  day. 
Tiie  domestic  concerns  of  the  family  were  managed  by  a 
pretty  liandsoine  young  girl,  Wj[iieh  1  must  not  omit  lo 
remark,  in  order  tiiat  all  the  circumstances  wiiich  I  am 
about  to  reiale  mav  be  betit  r  undeisiood.  'lliis  woman 
V. aa  found  consnmed  (ju  the  'iOih  of  l'e!)iiiary,  17 --"i,  ^it 
the  distance  ci"  a  foot  and  a  lialllrs^i:!  the  hearth  in  her 
kitcix.'M.  A  pair  of  her  head  only,  uilh  a  portion  ol  the 
lower  <'x;iemities.  and  a  lew  of  liie  verlebrx.  hail  cse.i])- 


ed  combustion.  A  fowL  and  a  half  ol"  tlic  flooriug  under 
the  bodv  had  bceu  consumed  ;  but  a  kneading-trough 
find  a  tlour-tnli  wnich  ucre  very  near  tlic  body  su^Tuincd. 
no  injiirv.  M.  Chiiteen,  a  surgeon,  examined  the  re- 
main? ot'  the  body  with  every  judicial  formahty,  Jeaji 
]\liUet,  tb.c  husband,  being  interrogated  ])y  tlie  Judges, 
who  instituted  the  enquiry  into  the  affair,  deehnred,  that 
about  ci'jht  in  the  evening  of  the  jfjih  of  Tebruary,  he 
had  retired  lo  rest  with  his  wife,  who  not  being  able  to 
slcpp,  had  gone  into  the  kitchen,  where  he  thought  she 
\v;!S  warming  herself;  that  having  fallen  asleep,  he  was 
wakcn*'d  ulxmt  two  o'clock  by  an  infectious  odour,  and 
tiiat  having  run  to  the  kitchen,  he  found  the  remains  of 
his  >\ife  in  the  state  described  in  the  re[)ort  of  the  physi- 
cians and  surgeons.  The  judges  having  no  suspicion  of 
the  real  cause  of  this  event,  prosecuted  the  all  air  with 
the  utmost  diligence.  It  was  very  unfoitunate  for  Mil- 
let, that  he  had  a  handsome  servant  maid,  lor  neither 
]]is  [irobitj-  nor  innocence  was  able  to  save  hiui  fiom  the 
.'^iis^ncion  of  having  got  rid  of  his  wife  by  a  concerted 
plot,  and  of  having  arranged  the  circumstances  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  give  it  th("  appearance  of  an  acculent. 
lie  experienced,  therefore,  the  whole  severity  of  the 
hiwi  and  though  by  an  appeal  to  a  superior  and  very  en- 
lightened court,  which  discovered  the  cause  of  ihe  com- 
bustion, he  came  ofl'  vicloritnis,  he  suffered  so  much 
iioia  uneasiness  of  mind  that  he  was  obliged  to  ^ass  the 
remainder  of  his  melancholy  days  in  a  hospital. 

Another  instanc'e  almost  exactly  similar  to  the  preced- 
ing is  also  related  by  Le  Cat.  M.  Boineau,  cure  of 
l'ler(pier  Tiear  Dol,  bays  he,  wrote  to  me  the  following 
letter,  dated  Tv-hruary  22,  1749. — Allow  me  to  commu- 
nicate tu  you  a  fact  which  took  place  here  about  a  fort- 
nigl'.t  ago,  Madame  de  Boiseon,  eighty  years  of  age, 
exceedingly  meagre,  who  luul  d/unk  nothing  but  spirits 

for 


PERSONS    Di^TUOTM;    UY   INTT-RNAL  fJltr,  5^)7 

f<>r  several  years,  wassittinu  in  lur  elbow  cliair  luforL'  tlie 
lire,  .vhile  licr  wailin^-inaicl  unit  out  of  llie  loom  a  lew 
moiiifiits.  ()\i  liei  leLiini,  seeing  lier  ini>lre>s  on  lire,  slu.' 
iinincdiaU'lygave  an  alarui,aiKl  scjiuc  j)eo|)le  havhiLJi;  come 
lolier  assistance,  one  of  them  enrleavourefl  to  ext;ii^uis|i 
the  Haiues  with  liia  hands,  but  they  adhered  to  it  as  it"  ihcy 
had  been  di[)()ed  in  brandy  or  oil  on  lire.  AV'aler  was 
Lruught  and  thrown  on  the  lady  in  abundance,  yet  thti 
fire  ajipeared  more  violent,  and  was  not  extinguishcrl  liU 
she  was  all  eonsiuned.  lier  skeleton,  exeee<lin^ly  b!a<;k, 
remained  entire  in  the  chair,  which  was  onl\'  a  lift'e 
■jcorelied,-  one  leu;  onlv  mul  the  two  isands  (letaeh':-d 
themselves  Irom  the  rest  of  the  bones.  It  is  not  kn(j\\  a 
whether  lier  clothes  cauL;ht  fire  by  a()[)roaelMni;  the 
gra*v..  The  lady  was  in  the  same  place  in  which  she  saL 
eve.v  day;  there  was  no  extraordinary  lire,  and  r,he  had 
Hot  tallen.  What  makes  me  su[)pose  that  the  u<e  of 
spirits  might  I'.ave  prcniuced  this  effect,  is  that  1  Jiave 
been  assuied,  tliat  at  the  gate  of  Dinan  an  accident  of 
the  like  kind  iia]>pcned  to  another  woinan^  under  similar 
circumstances. 

To  the  above  wc  shall  add  two  other  faet^  of  the  same 
kind  published  in  the  Journal  dc  MctUcine  (Vol.  Oy.  p. 
440.)  The  first  took  j)laee  at  Aix  in  Provence,  and  i-; 
thus  related  by  Mnraire  a  sur^^eon  :  In  the  month  of  Fe- 
bruary 1770,  Mary  JaulFrct,  widow  of  Nicholas  Gravicr, 
shoemaker,  a  short  woman,  but  exceedingly  corpulent, 
and  addicted  to  drinking,  having  been  buined  iu  her 
tipartment,  my  colleague,  M.  Hocas,  who  was  com- 
missioned to  make  h  re])ort  respecting  her  body,  found 
nothing  but  a  mass  of  ashes  and  a  few  bones,  calcincc* 
in  such  a  manner,  that  on  the  least  pressure  tliey  we* 
reduced  to  dust.  The  bones  of  the  craniunj,  one  Ir'*^ 
ajid   a  foot  Lad   in  part  ticaped  th(j  acLiou  oi"  djf  ^'^^' 

Ne*<r 


)GH 


I'lajsoNs  ur.5Ti;ovr.D  wv  i :> t l iiN a i.  riRK, 


Xcur  llicsc  remains  stood  a  tai>le  iiiitouclu-clj  and  iuh'lv-:r 
tlic  li.!>!e  u  ^niall  wcKnlen  stove,  ilie  cfratinc^  of  whieii 
liaving  been  long  burni'd,  allordcd  an  a])Cilure  tlHOiig'u 
wliieh  piolta'oly,  Lhc  lire  whieh  occasioned  (lie  n^elan- 
clioly  accident  was  eoniuiiia'..nlcd  :  one  chiv,'-  wl-iich 
stood  t(n)  near  liic  flames  luid  the  seat  and  ibrc-fect 
hui  iied.  In  otlier  rcs[)ects  there  was  no  appearance  of 
(ire,  either  in  the  chimney  or  thii  nj;artnient ;  so  that, 
excepting  the  loic-parl  of  the  eliair,  it  aj)pears  to  mc 
that,  no  other  comb'.istil/ie  matter  conliibnted  to  tl.'is 
speedy  incineraiion  whieh  was  efleeted  in  the  .-pace  oi 
seven  or  eight  hotns. 

'I'hc  second    iiiilant'C  took  phice  at   Caen,  and  is  tlius 
lokited    by  MerilK^  ;i   surgeon  of  that  city.     Iking  ix-^- 
<]U(sled  on  ihe  .";d  ol"  Jur.e,   17SC,  by  llie  king's  olliccrs  to 
thaw  np  a  report    of  the  state  in    which    1  found   Made- 
moiselle Tiiiiars,     vvlio    is  said    to    have  been   burned,    I 
made  llic  lollou  imj;  observations. — The  body  la}'  with  the 
crow  n  of  the  head  resting  against  one  of  the   and.rons, 
at  the  distance  i)f  cighieen  inches  iVom  the  'Ire;    the  re- 
in.under  of  the   lujdy    was  placed   eblicpiely    'ocforc    the 
chimney,  the  whole   being  nothing  but  a  niass  of  a.shcs. 
liven   the  most  solid   bones  had  lost  their  form  and  con- 
sistence ;  none  ol"  ihem  could  l)C   distinguished,  except- 
ing the  eoron;d,   the  two   parietal  bones,   the  tv.o    lumbar 
Vertebra",   a   [mrtion  of  the  tibia,   and  a  })art  of  4he  om- 
bplate :    a.id    these  were    so   calcined  that    they  became 
dust  by  the  least  [)ressiu"e.     The  right  foot  was  found  en- 
tire, and  seorelietl  at   its  upper  junction  ;  the   left    was 
more  burned.  The  day  was  cold,  but  there  was  nothing 
'ii  Llie  grate  cxcej)llng  two  or  three  bits  t>f  wood  about  an 
^'"h    in   diameler,   burnt   in    the   middle.     None  of  the 
^^"  iiure  in  the  ai)artment  was  damaged.     The  chair  in 
^■"'^>   Mademoisene  Thuars  h;;d  been  >ltting  was  iuund 
^^   '•"<•' distance  of  a  i'ooi.   from  lu'i,  a;ul  ubiolulclv  un- 
touched 


ANECDOTES  OF  JAMES  BURNS.  SGQ 

touched.  I  must  here  observe  that  this  lady  was  exceed- 
ingly corpulent,  that  she  was  above  sixty  years  of  age, 
and  much  addicted  to  spirituous  liquors  ;  that  on  the  day 
of  her  death,  she  had  drank  three  bottles  of  wine,  and 
about  a  bottle  of  brandy ;  and  that  the  consumption  of 
the  body  took  place  in  less  than  seven  hours,  though  ac- 
cording to  appearance,  nothing  round  the  body  was  burnt 
but  the  clothes. 


TO^THE  EDITOR  OF  THE  SCIENTIFIC  MUSEUM,  OR  MAGA- 
ZINE OF   REMARKABLE  CHARACTERS. 

Sir, 

On  perusing  the  Account  of  the  Ventriloquist,  James  Borss,  (in  the  §rst 
Vol.  of  your  Museum,  i>age  230)  given  by  j-our  Correspondent  Veritas,  I 
was  reminded  of  some  Anecdotes  of  him  which  I  had  in  my  possession,  as 
well  as  his  Portrait,  taken  in  the  year  1794,  both  of  which  you  will  find, 
inclosed.  I  should  hare  transmitted  them  to  you  before  your  first  Volum« 
Was  concluded,  to  follow  the  Account  of  Veritas,  had  I  then  known  his 
real  name,  but  j'ou  will  be  pleased  to  observe,  that  lie  alwaj's  went  by  th« 
name  of"  Shelford  Tommy,"  or  "  Squeaking  Tommy,"  while  he  resided  in 
Nottinghamshire,  and  his  real  name  was  unknown  to  the  generality  of  the 
people.  There  has  not  aS  yet  been  any  regular  history  of  him  published 
down  to  his  death :  the  fellowing  Anecdotes  are  selected  from  Throsby's 
History  of  Nottinghamshire,  and  other  authorities,  or  communicated  by 
persons  of  respectability,  whose  veracity  I  could  depend  upon.  If  you 
think  they  are  worthy  of  being  classed  among  the  many  remarkable  Cha- 
racters in  your  Repository,  by  allowing  them,  with  the  plate,  a  place  la 
some  of  the  future  numbers  of  the  same,  it  will  confer  an  obligation  oa 
Your  Humble  Servant, 
Nottingham,  ^pril  1804.  D.  B  L. 

Anecdotes  q/"  James  Burns,  formerly  a  conspicuous  Cha" 
racter  in  the  Counti/  of  Nottingham,  with  his  Portrait. 
(Never  before  published.) 

1  HAT  eccentric  and  well  known  Character,  James 
Burns,  (more  generally  known  by  the  appellations  of 
*'  Shelford  Tommy,"  or  "^  Squeaking  Tommy,)"  the  cele- 
brated Ventriloquist,  was  a  native  of  Ireland,  butre- 
V'oL.  II.  A  A  u  sided 


370  ANECDOTES  OF  JAMES  Bt'RNS. 

sided  several  years  in  this  kingdom.  Having  marrieS  a 
wife  at  Shelford,  he  always  afterwards  considered  that  vil- 
lage as  his  home,  whenever  his  inclination  led^  or  eccen- 
tricity suffered  him  to  desist,  for  short  intervals,  from  his 
perambulations  through  different  parts  of  this  country. 
He  had  several  liberal  offers  from  different  companies  of 
Itinerants  to  induce  him  to  engage  with  them  for  limited 
periods,  in  the  exercise  of  his  wonderful  and  extraordi- 
nary faculty;  but  as  Tommy's  mind  could  not  brook  the 
idea  of  confinement,  he  never  thought  proper  to  accede 
to  their  proposals.  Although  he  was  a  bird  of  passage, 
he  was  most  frequently  to  be  seen  at  Nottingham,  where 
^y  his  extraordinary  natural  powers  he,  in  a  great  mea- 
sure, subsisted  for  some  years.  He  always  carried  in 
his  pocket,  an  ill-shaped  doll  with  a  broad  face,  wrapped 
up  in  a  piece  of  linen  cloth,  which  he  exhibited  at  pub- 
lic houses  on  race-days,  fair-dnys,  market-days.  See.  as 
giving  utterance  to  his  own  childish  jargon.  The  gaz- 
ing crowd  gathered  around  him  to  see  this  wooden  baby, 
and  hear  as  they  supposed  its  speeches. 

Among  the  many  ludicrous,  but  well  attested  and  sin- 
gular anecdotes  related  of  this  extraordinary  man,  the 
following  are  not  the  least  v.orthy  of  recording  : 

Tommy  was  one  day  in  the  month  of  June,  1789,  at 
rhe  week-day  cross,  at  Nottingham,  and  there  so  muck 
sur])rized  a  country  girl  in  a  frolicsome  moment,  by  her 
hearing  as  she  thought,  a  child  speak  to  her,  and  seeing 
none,  that  her  Jistonishment  w  as  wrought  up  to  such  s 
pitch,  as  to  bring  on  a  succession  of  alarming  fits,  by 
which  the  poor  girl  suffered  for  some  time.  This  wan- 
ton exercise  of  his  talents  got  Tommy  a  lodging  for 
a  short  time  in  the  House  of  Correction  by  order  of  the 
magistrates;  William  Smith,  Esq-  then  mayor  of  the 
town. 

Some  tune  in  the  month  of  March  1790^  ^^^  writer  of 

this 


ANECDOTES  OF  .TAMES  BUR^'S.  371 

this  sketch  was  in  the  shop  of  the  late  Mr.  Barton,  a 
respectable  grocer,  who  lived  at  the  bottom  of  Hollow- 
stone,  which  is  the  south  entrance  into  the  town  of  Not- 
tingham, when  Tommy  entered  and  purchased  an  ounce 
of  tobacco,  and  turning  himself  round  apparently 
as  if  going  out,  he  observed  a  young  man  belong- 
ing to  the  shop,  with  his  hand  in  a  large  cannistcr  (which 
stood  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  shop,  getting  tea  out  of 
it  into  a  smaller  one.  Tommy  immediately  threw  a 
sound  to  the  bottom  of  the  cannister,  and  imitated  the 
groans  of  an  animal  as  if  at  the  point  of  death  so  natu- 
rally, that  the  young  man  as  well  as  Mr.  Barton  stood 
aghast  at  the  noise,  and  were  preparing  to  search  the 
cannister,  when  1  undeceived  them,  by  informing  them 
of  the  real  cause,  as  I  had  several  times  before  been 
witness  to  his  extraordinary  powers  as  a  Ventriloquist. 

Another  of  his  jokes  is  told  thus:  In  August  179-^ 
following  John  Badderly,  (who  was  then  servant  to  a 
respectable  farmer  at  Car-(>olston;  upon  the  public  high- 
way between  Bingham  and  Newark,  driving  a  waggon 
top  laden  with  trusses  of  hay,  he  so  artfully  imitated  the 
crying  of  a  child,  as  proceeding  from  the  middle  of  the 
hay,  that  tlie  waggoner  stopped  his  horses  several  times 
on  the  road,  to  examine  the  waggon,  conceiving  that 
the  cries  of  the  child  came  from  within  his  carriage. 
But  on  examining  the  hoy  at  the  tail  of  the  waggon,  he 
could  discover  no  child,  and  consequently  proceeded  on 
his  journey,  with  the  wily  Ventriloquist  by  his  side.  The 
noise  was  several  times  repeated,  and  the  waggoner  was 
induced  through  motives  of  humanity,  seconded  by  the 
earnest  entreaties  of  Tommy  {he  kindly  offering  his  as- 
sistance) to  unlade  the  waggon,  expecting  on  the  remo- 
val of  each  truss  to  find  the  fiarmless  infant,  particularly 
as  the  cries  became  louder  and  more  frequent. — Tommy 
having  thus  succeeded  in  getting  the  hay  of  the  waggon, 

A  A  a  2  aftej 


372  ANECDOTES  OF  JAMES  BURNS. 

after  laughing  heartily  at  the  countryman's  simpUcity, 
left  him  to  replace  the  same  in  the  best  manner  he  could, 
the  poor  fellow  bestowing  on  him  in  return  a  volley  of 
heart}'  curses. 

Our  Ventriloquist  was  at  anotber  time  in  the  house  of 
"Mr.  Hogg,  who  kept  the  Milton's-head  Inn,  Cow-lane, 
Nottingham,  and  who  at  that  time  was  a  stranger  to  his 
extraordinary  powers,  where  a  servant  girl  in  the  kitchen 
was  about  to  dress  some  fish,  not  long  taken  from  the 
river  Trent,  but  apparently  dead. — When  she  was  about 
to  cut  off  the  head  of  one  of  them.  Tommy  at  the  instant 
she  laid  the  knife  on  the  fish's  neck,  uttered  in  a  plain- 
tive voice,  "  don't  cut  my  head  off"  The^irl  upon  this 
being  much  alarmed,  and  knowing  not  whence  the  voice 
proceeded,  hastily  drew  the  knife  from  the  little  fish  and 
stood  for  sometime  in  motionless  amazement.  At  length, 
however,  recovering  herself,  and  not  seeing  the  fish  stir, 
she  hud  courage  to  proceed  to  her  business,  and  took  up 
her  knife  the  second  time,  to  sever  the  head  from  the 
body.  Tommy  at  that  moment  uttered  rather  sharply, 
but  mournfully,  ''  zchat  r/ou  zcill  cut  my  head  offT'  Upon 
which  the  frightened  female  threw  down  the  knife,  and 
positively  refused  to  dress  the  fish. 

The  following  is  another  anecdote  of  him. — In  Sep' 
tember  ]  795,  going  to  a  fish  stall,  in  Shefiield,  he  asked 
the  price  of  a  tench,  which  being  lold  him,  he  took  the 
fish  in  his  hand,  and  crammed  a  finger  into  its  gills, 
opened  its  mouth,  at  the  same  time  asking  "  zchether  it 
Tcas  fresJiT'  to  which  the  fish-woman  replied,  '<  I  vow 
to  God  it  zcas  in  the  tcatcr  yesterday."  Tommy  imme- 
diately threw  a  sound  into  the  fish's  mouth,  which  arti- 
culated, "  It  is  a  d d  lie,  I  have  not  been  in  the  water 

this  zceek,  and  you  know  it  very  well."  The  woman  con- 
scious that  she  had  been  telling  an  untruth,  was  struck 
with   the  utmost  consternation.      She  felt  the  reproof 

with 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANT3.  S73 

V,  ith  all  the  force  of  a  miracle,  and  such  TV'cre  its  whole- 
some effects^  that  she  is  said  to  liave  been  more  cautious 
in  her  assertions  concerning  her  fish  ever  since. 

This  singular  character  died  on  Thursday  the  7th  of 
January,  179^,  at  SheUbrd,  near  Bingham,  in  the  Coun- 
ty of  Nottingham. 


Observations  on  Giants,  with  an  Jccoimt  of  some  Fcr^ovs 
zcho  have  exceeded  the  ordinary  Stature,  and  a  Ijcscrip- 
tion  of  the  gigantic  Inhabitants  of  Patagonia. 

V  HAT  there  exist  men  of  a  stature  considerably  above 
the  ordinary  standard,  ^Yith  more  or  less  regularity  of 
proportion,  the  celebrated  O'Brien  affords  ocular  demon- 
stration. It  is  but  natural  to  suppose,  and  indeed  it  i» 
confirmed  by  the  concurrent  testimony  of  numerous  wri- 
ters, that  such  instances  have  been  seen  in  every  age. 
Respecting  the  stature  of  ditfercnt  individuals,  as  re- 
corded by  various  authors,  it  is  necessary  to  make  a  few 
remarks  before  I  proceed  to  the  proposed  subject  of  the 
present  paper. 

In  all  the  accounts  of  giants  that  have  been  handed 
down  to  us  from  the  most  remote  period  of  antiquity,  we 
find  none  of  any  living  individual,  who  arrived  .at  a 
greater  height  than  nine,  or  at  most  ten  feet,  whence  it 
may  be  fairly  inferred,  that  these  dimensions  are  the  nc 
plus  ultra  of  human  growth.  Supposing  this  to  be  the 
case,  (and  of  this  opinion  I  must  profess  myself  to  be) 
the  pretended  discoveries  of  immense  human  skeletons, 
related  by  many  respectable  writers,  must  be  regarded  as 
altogether  fabulous. 

Numbers  of  incidents  of  this  kind  are  to  be  met  with, 
for  the  authenticity  of  which  we  have  no  other  voucher 
ihan  the  confidence  due  to  first  rate  historians,  but  who 

mi2:ht 


S74.  OBSERVATIONS  ON   GIANTS. 

might  themselves  have  been  deceived  in  the  credit  they 
gave  to  the  relations  of  others  from  whom  they  borrowed 
the  facts.  In  order  to  gratify  the  curiosity  of  our  rea- 
ders, we  shall  introduce  a  few  incidents  of  this  nature. 

During  the  Cretan  war,  the  rivers  and  waters  are  said 
to  have  risen  to  an  unusual  height,  making  various 
breaches  in  the  earth.  When  the  floods  had  retired,  in  a 
deep  cleft  and  great  fall  of  the  earth,  was  found  the 
body  of  a  man,  measuring  thirty-three  cubits,  or  forty- 
nine  feet  and  a  half.  Metellus  the  Roman  general,  and 
his  lieutenant  Lucius  Flacius,  allured  by  the  novelty  of 
the  report,  went  on  purpose  to  view  it,  and  were  con- 
vinced of  the  truth  of  what  they  had  before  regarded  as 
a  fable. 

Pliny,  in  his  natural  histor\',  speaks  of  a  mountain  in 
Crete,  that  had  been  overturned  by  an'earthquake,  where 
a  body  was  found  standing  upright,  sixty -nine  feet  in 
height;  and  Plutarch  says,  that  upon  opening  a  se- 
pulchre in  jNIauritania,  a  carcase  was  found  of  the  enor- 
mous length  of  seventy  cubits,  or  one  hundred  and  five 
feet ! 

Philostrato  informs  us,  that  by  the  falling  in  of  one  of 
the  banks  of  the  Orontes,  a  body  forty-six  feet  in  length 
was  discovered  in  the  sepulchre  belonging  to  the  Ethio- 
pian Ariadnes.  He  adds  that  in  a  cavern  of  Mount 
Sigea,  the  body  of  a  giant  was  found  measuring  upwards 
of  thirty  icet. 

In  the  58th  Olympiad,  by  the  admonition  of  the  oracle, 
the  body  of  Orestes  was  found  at  Tegica  by  the  Spartans, 
and  its  length  was  exactly  seven  cubits  or  above  ten  feet. 

In  the  description  of  Sicily  by  the  historian,  Thomas 
Tasellus,  we  read,  that  in  the  year  1.S42,  some  rustics 
having  been  digging  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Erix,  noW 
called  Monte  de  Tripani,  they  discovered  a  large  ca- 
vern. 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANTS.  37-5 

vern,  known  by  the  appellation  of  the  giant's  cavern,  in 
which  they  saw  the  body  of  a  colossal  figure  seated.  He 
had  in  his  hand,  says  the  historian,  the  mast  of  a  vessel 
for  a  stick,  in  which  was  enclosed  a  mass  of  lead  weiirh- 
ing  1500  pounds. 

The  same  writer  tells  us,  that  in  1516,  John  Franci- 
forte.  Count  of  Mazarine,  having  caused  a  pit  to  be 
dug,  in  a  plain  about  a  mile  distant  from  the  village  of 
i^hich  he  was  the  lord,  found  in  a  sepulchre,  the  body 
of  a  Gfiant  measurinsr  thirtv  feet.  - 

In  1547,  Paul  Lcontino,  examining  the  soil  at  the 
foot  of  a  mountain  in  the  territory  of  Palermo,  prepara- 
tory to  the  erection  of  saltpetre  works,  met  with  the  bod^' 
©f  a  giant  twenty-seven  feet  in  length. 

Tasellus  likewise  says,  that  in  a  small  villa'ge  between 
Syracuse  and  Lcontium,  a  great  number  of  sepulchres, 
and  gigantic  skeletons  were  discovered,  and  that  many 
more  of  the  like  kind  were  met  with  near  the  ancient 
village  of  Hicara,  which  the  Sicilians  call  Carini,  in  an 
immense  cavern  situated  at  the  foot  of  a  mountain. 

But  Sicily  is  not  the  only  place  where  mighty  carcases 
and  enormous  skeletons  are  said  to  have  been  found. 
Phlegenitral  assures  us,  that  in  the  famous  cavern  of 
Diana,  in  Dalmatia,  many  bodies  were  discovered  of  the 
length  of  six  yards.  He  likewise  tells  us  that  the  Car- 
thaginians when  sinking  their  trenches,  met  with  two 
coffins,  each  containing  the  skeleton  of  a  giant.  The 
length  of  the  one  was  twenty-three,  and  of  the  other 
twenty-four  cubits.  He  adds,  that  in  the  Cimmerian 
Bosphorus,  an  earthquake  having  thrown  down  a  hill,  se- 
veral huge  bones  were  found,  which  being  arranged  ac- 
cording to  the  disposition  of  the  human  body,  formed  an 
enormous  skeleton  twenty-four  cubits  in  length. 

Saxo  the  grammarian  relates,  that  the  giant  Harte- 
benunf  was  thirteen  feet  and  a  half  high,  but  that  he  had 
twelve  companions  who  were  each  twenty  eight  feet. 


S?6  OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIAKTS* 

Pioafetta  says,  that  he  met  with  men  amons:  the  can- 
nibals  twice  the  size  of  an  European  ;  and  that  in  the 
sti'aights  of  Magellan  there  exist  men  of  prodigious  sta- 
ture. 

Melchior  Nugnez,  in  his  letters  from  India,  speaks  of 
soldiers  who  guarded  the  gates  of  the  imperial  city  of 
Pekin,  in  China,  of  the  formidable  size  of  fifteen  feet. 

The  history  of  tlie  giant  Pallas  is  related  by  a  number 
of  giave  authors^  who  all  assure  us  that  in  the  reign  of 
the  Emperor  Henry  II.  the  body  of  a  giant  was  found  in 
a  stone  sepulchre  near  Berne,  which^  when  standing  up- 
right, might  have  overlooked  the  walls  of  the  city. 
This  body  was  as  entire  as  if  it  had  been  deposited  there 
onl}'  a  short  time  before.  A  wound  was  discovered  on 
the  breast,  four  feet  and  a  half  wide,  and  on  the  se- 
pulchre the  following  epitaph  was  legible: 

Filius  Evimdri,  Pallits,  quem  laiicea  Tumi 
Militis  occidit,  mortc  sua  jacct  liic, 

Sigibert  relates,  that  in  the  year  177  1^  an  overflowing 
of  the  water  in  England,  discovered  the  body  of  a  giant 
fifty  feet  in  length. 

Eulgesius  says,  that  in  the  reign  of  Charles  VII,  king 
of  France,  a  sepulchre,  with  the  bones  of  a  giant  thirty 
feet  long,  was  to  be  seen,  which  the  Rhone  in  its  exca- 
vations had  exposed  to  view  in  the  hills  of  Vivarais,  op- 
posite \  alence. 

Coelius  Rhodiginus  soys,  that  during  the  reign  of  Louis 
XI.  the  body  of  a  giant  eighteen  feet  in  length,  was  dis- 
covered upon  the  banks  of  a  river  which  flows  through 
the  village  of  St,  Peray,  opposite  Valence  in  Dauphine. 

According  to  the  rcliiiion  of  Pather  Jerome  de  Mon- 
ceaux,  the  skeleton  of  a  giant  ninety-six  feet  long,  was 
found  in  a  wall,  in. a  village  named  Chailliot,  six  leagues 
from  Thcssalouica,  in  Macedonia.  This  fact  v,as  com- 
municated 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANT^.  377 

municated  to  him  by  Father  Jerome  de  Rhetel,  mis- 
sionary in  the  Levant,  who  in  a  letter  written  from  the 
island  of  Scio^,  adds  that  this  giant's  skull  was  found  en- 
tire, and  was  so  capacious  as  to  contain  210  pounds  of 
corn ;  that  a  tooth  belonging  to  the  under  jaw,  when 
drawn,  weighed  fifteen  pounds,  and  was  seven  inches 
two  lines  in  length  ;  that  the  smallest  bone  of  the  little 
toe  of  one  of  his  feet  was  equal  to  it  in  size;  that  the 
arm  bone  from  the  elbow  to  the  v;rist,  was  two  feet  four 
inches,  eight  lines  round  ;  and  that  two  soldiers  with  their 
jackets  and  coats  with  large  sleeves,  found  no  difficulty 
in  running  their  arms  thus  covered  through  the  cvity  of 
this  stupendous  bone.  Qaenel,  French  Consul  at  Thes- 
salonica,  ordered  an  account  of  this  monstrous  skeleton 
to  be  drawn  up  and  deposited  among  other  public  acts  in 
Chancery.  He  received  from  the  Pacha,  the  principal 
bones,  and  purchased  the  remainder  from  other  persons 
who  had  taken  them  into  their  possession. 

In  digging  at  the  foot  of  a  great  oak,  commonly  call- 
ed the  Giant's  Oak  near  Ancona,  in  Italy,  v/as  found  an 
entire  skeleton  of  prodigious  size.  Near  this  skeleton. 
were  discovered  eleven  entire  bodies,  all  nearly  of  the 
same  size.  These  eleven  bodies  were  laid  on  the  back, 
with  the  face  turned  towards  the  sky,  but  the  first  was 
the  only  one  that  lay  stretched  on  the  belly,  and  his  size 
exceeded  that  of  the  other  eleven,  for  he  measured  tea 
Roman  palms  in  length,  and  liis  teeth  were  exactly  like 
those  of  a  large  horse. 

Thomas  Cornelio  relates,  that  at  Triolo,  a  castle  of 
Upper  Calabria,  some  labourers  discovered  in  a  garden 
an  entire  skeleton  measuring  eighteen  Roman  feet  in 
length  i  the  head  was  two  feet  and  a  half  long ;  each  mo- 
lar tooth  weighed  about  an  ounce  and  one  third,  sopie 
more,  others  less ;  and  each  of  <hc  other-  teeth  weighed 
upwards  of  three  quarters  of  an  ounc<;.  The  bones 
.     ypL,  II.  B  B  B  were 


578  OBSERVATIONS  ON   GIANTS. 

were  become  extremely  brittle,  and  easily  crumbled  int» 
dust;  but  the  teorh  were  much  harder.  The  skeleton 
lay  stretched  upon  a  mass  of  bituminous  matter  like 
pitch. 

Thus  we  are  not  without  numerous  authorities  to  prove 
that  giants  have  existed  in  all  ages ;  but  it  must  likewise 
be  allowed,  that  the  improbable  size  attributed  to  those 
above-mentionpd  can  scarcely  engage  our  confidence  in 
behalf  of  the  truth  of  those  tacts.  I  shall  now  proceed 
to  such  accounts  of  persons  of  extraordinary  stature,  a? 
rest  upon  undeniable  authority,  or  at  least  are  free  from 
those  circumstances  by  which  the  foregoing  statement^ 
are  rendered  absolutely  incredible. 

In  the  Scripture  we  read  of  giants  who  were  produced 
by  the  marriages  of  the  sons  of  God,  with  the  daughters 
of  men.  This  passage  has,  however,  been  variously  in- 
terpreted ;  so  that  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  word  there 
translated  giants,  implies  any  extraordinary  stature.  In 
other  parts  of  Scripture,  giants  with  their  dimensions  are 
spoken  of  in  such  a  manner  as  to  admit  of  no  doubt; 
as  in  the  case  of  Og,  king  of  Bashan  and  Goliah. 

Og,  we  are  told,  was  "  of  the  remnant  of  the  giants," 
fcis  bed-stead  was  of  iron,  nine  cubits  in  length,  and  four  in 
breadth  ;  that  is  about  thirteen  feet  by  six.  The  height 
of  the  champion  of  Gath  was  six  cubits  and  a  span, 
'which  is  equal  to  about  nine  feet  three  inches.  He  had 
a.  helmet  of  brass,  and  was  armed  with  a  coat  of  mail, 
the  wei<rlit  of  which  was  five  thousand  shekels  of  brass; 
*'  and  the  staff*  of  his  spear  was  like  a  weaver's  beam,  and 
his  spear's  head  weighed  six  hundred  shekels  of  iron." 

The  Roman  En)peror  Maximin,  equally  remarkable 
for  his  extraordinary  stature  and  uncommon  strength, 
has  already  been  mentioned  in  yoiu-  first  volume. 

An  Arabian,  named  Gabara,  brought  to  Rome  during 
th«  i"«i^n  of  th«  Eiaptror  Claudius,  was  esteemed   the 

t^est 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANTS.  379 

tallest  man  of  that  age,  being  nine  feet  nine  inches  in 
height. 

ViteJlius  sent  Darius  ihe  son  of  Aitabanus  an  hostage 
to  Rome,  with  various  presents,  which  were  accompa- 
nied by  a  Jew  named  Eleazur,  of  the  height  of  seven 
cubits,  or  ten  feet  two  inches- 

.  Antonius,  born  in  Syria  during  the  reign  of  Theodo- 
sius,  was  seven  feet  seven  inches  high,  but  his  fe-t  were 
not  proportionate  to  the  magnitude  of  his  body.  We 
are  informed  by  Nicephorus  that  he  died  at  the  age  of 
twenty-five. 

Aventine,"  an  historian  very  deserving  of  credit,  a*- 
eures  us  in  his  work  entitled  Annals  of  Bavaria,  tluit  the 
Emperor  Cliarleracigne,  had  in  his  army  a  giant  named 
JEnotherus.  a  native  of  Turgau,  near  the  lake  of  Con- 
stance, who  threw  down  whole  battaUons  with  the  s  ime 
case  thaf.  he  would  have  mowed  a  field  ;  but  he  is  iilent 
with  respect  to  his  dimensions. 

I  Thuanus,  in  his  account  of  the  incursion  made  by  the 
Tartars  into  the  Polish  territories,  in  the  year  157j, 
speaks  of  a  Tartar  of  prodigious  bulk,  who  was  killecl  by 
a  Pole,  "  His  forehead,"  he  says,  *'  was  twenty-four 
fingers  broad,  and  liis  body  of  such  magnitude,  that  the 
carcase,  as  it  lay  upon  the  ground,  would  reach  to  the 
navel  of  any  ordinary  person  who  stood  by  it." 

In  the  year  l6l,3,  a  young  man  named  Jacobus  Dam- 
man,  then  twenty-two  years  old,  was  brought  to  Basil, 
and  exhibited  as  a  shew  on  account  of  his  extraordinary 
stature.  He  had  then  no  beard,  his  body  and  limbs 
being  strong  built,  but  rather  lean.  He  was  eight  feet 
high  complete,  and  his  hand  measured  one  foot  four 
inches. 

About  the  middle  of  December  1671,  one  Thomas 
Birtles,  a  native  of  Cheshire,  living  near  Macclesfield, 
arfived  at  Coventry.     He  had  been  at  London,  and  on 

B  B  B  2  his 


580  OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANT'S, 

his  journey  homewards,  made  a  public  shew  of  himself 
for  his  extraordinary  stature.  His  heignt  was  about 
seven  feet.  His  father  was  a  man  of  rnoderaie  stature, 
and  his  mother  iie:::ily  six  feet.  He  himself,  at  that 
time,  liad  a  daughter,  about  sixteen  years  of  age,  who 
had  aheady  arrived  at  the  height  of  six  feet  complete. 

Iri  the  anatomical  room  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin, 
is  preserved  the  skeleton  of  one  Magrath,  who  was  horn 
near  Cloyne.  It  measures  between  seven  and  eight  feet. 
This  man  was  carried  through  various  parts  of  Lurope, 
and  exhibited  as  the  prodigious  Irish  giant;  but  such  was 
his  e.^rly  imbecility,  both  of  body  and  mind,  that  he 
died  pf  old  age  in  his  twentieth  year.  Concerning  this 
liiari,  the  following  parciculavs  are  given  by  a  very  intel- 
ligent writer.  ^' In  his  infancy  he  became  an  orphan, 
and  was  provided  for  by  the  fanious  Berkeley,  then 
Bishop  of  Cloyne.  This  acute  philosopher,  who  denie4 
the  existence  of  matter,  was  as  inquisitive  in  his  physi- 
cal researches  as  he  was  whimsical  in  his  metaphysical 
speculations.  When  I  tell  you  that  he  had  well-nigh 
put  an  end  to  his  own  existence,  by  experimenting  what 
are  the  sensations  of  a  person  dying  on  the  gallows,  you 
will  be  the  more  ready  to  forgive  him  for  his  treatment 
of  this  orphan.  The  Bishop  had  a  strange  fancy  to 
know  whether  it  was  not  in  the  power  of  art  to  increase 
the  human  stature,  and  this  unhappy  infant  appeared  to 
him  to  be  a  fit  subject  for  the  trial.  He  made  his  essay 
according  to  his  pre-conceived  theory,  whatever  it  might 
be,  and  the  conscqueL)t;e  was,  that  he  became  seven  feet 
high  in  his  sixt^eptii  ye^r." 

Coricer.-;!- ,  the  existence  of  a  race  of  giants,  the 
learned  h  vc  been  greatly  divided.  Ferdinand  Magel- 
lan was  the  first  who  annoimced  the  discovery  of  such  a 
race  of  people  on  the  coast  towards  the  extremity  of 
South  America.     It   appears  that   during  one  hundred 

years. 


OBSERVATIONS  ON   GIANTS.  381 

5«ears,  almost  all  succeeding  navigators  agreed  in  affirm- 
ing the.  existence  of  a  race  of  giants  upon  this  coast ; 
but  during  another  century,  a  much  greater  number 
agreed  in  de  lying  ttje  iVxt,  and  treating  their  predeces- 
sors as  idle  laDulists.  Some  time  before  the  voyage  of 
Gomniodore  Byron,  in  1764,  it  v/as  the  subject  of  a 
warm  contest  among  men  of  science,  whether  a  race  of 
mankind  above  the  common  stature  did  really  exist  oij 
Ithe  coast  of  Patagonia,  and  the  contradictory  reports 
made  by  eye-witnesses  terided  greatly  to  perplex  the 
questioii. 

M.  de  Bougainville  who  visited  part  of  this  coast,  in 
1767,  asserts  that  the  Patagonians  are  not  gigantic,  and 
that  what  makes  taeai  appear  so,  is  their  prodigious 
broad  s'loulders,  the  great  size  of  their  heads,  and  the 
thickn'  -:ij  of  all  their  limbs. 

Tha'.  some  giants  inhabit  these  regions  can,  however, 
no  longer  be  doubted;  since  the  fact  is  established  by 
the  concurrenL  tesriuioiiy  of  several  English  navigators, 
particularly  Commodore  Byron,  and  Captains  Wallis  and 
Carteret,  the  two  latter  of  whom  saw,  conversed  with, 
and  even  measured  tin.se  people.  Mr.  Clarke  who  sailed 
with  (Jommodore  Byruii,  and  who  in  the  last  voyage  of 
discovery  succeeded,  on  the  death  of  Captain  Cook,  to 
the  command  of  the  two  ships,  addressed  a  paper  to  the 
Secretary  of  the  Ptoyal  Society,  confirming  the  gigantic 
height  of  the  Patagonians. 

Byron  gives  the  following  account  of  this  monstrous 
people: — 

**  Just  as  we  came  to  an  anchor,  I  saw  with  my  glass 
a  number  of  horsemen  riding  backwards  and  forwards.— 
As  I  was  very  desirous  to  know  what  these  people  were, 
-1  ordered  out  my  boat,  and  went  towards  the  beach  with 
Mr.  Marshall,  my  second  lieutenant,  aiul  a  parly  of  men; 
Mr.    Cumming,  my  first    lieutenant,     following  in   the 

six 


382  OBSERVATIONS  ON  GIANTS. 

six-oared  cutter.  When  we  came  near  the  shore,  we  saw 
about  five  hundred  people,  the  far  greater  part  of  whom 
M'ere  on  horsebaek.  The}'  drew  up  on  a  stony  spot,  and 
kept  waving  and  hallooing,  which  we  understood  to  be 
invitations  to  land.  When  we  landed  I  drew  up  my  peo- 
ple on  the  beach,  with  my  officers  at  their  head,  and  or- 
dered that  none  should  move  from  that  station,  till  I 
should  call  or  beckon  to  tbem.  I  then  went  forward 
alone  towards  the  Indians.  I  made  signs  that  one  of 
them  should  come  near,  was  understood,  and  one,  who 
as  it  afterwards  appeared  was  a  chief,  came  towards  me. 
He  was  of  a  gigantic  stature,  and  seemed  to  realize  the 
tales  of  monsters  in  human  shape.  He  had  the  skin  of 
some  wild  beast  thrown  over  his  shoiildcrs,  and  was 
painted  so  as  to  make  the  most  hideous  appearance  I 
had  ever  beheld.  Round  one  eye  was  a  large  qircle  of 
white,  a  circle  of  black  surrounded  the  other,  and  the 
rest  of  his  face  was  streaked  with  ditTerent  colours.  I 
did  not  measure  him,  but  if  I  may  judge  of  his  stature 
by  my  own,  he  could  not  be  less  than  seven  feet  high. 
When  this  frightful  colossus  came  up,  we  muttered 
somewhat  to  each  other  as  a  salutation,  and  I  then 
walked  with  him  towards  his  companions.  There  wer« 
among  them  many  women;  who  seemed  to  be  proportion- 
ably  large;  and  few  of  the  men  were  less  than  the  chief 
who  had  come  forward  to  meet  me. 

"  Mr.  Gumming  then  came  up  witlisome  tobacco,  and 
I  could  not  but  smile  at  the  astonishment  which  I  saw  ex- 
pressed in  his  countenance,  upon  perceiving  himself, 
though  six  feet  two  inches  high,  become  at  once  a  pig- 
my among  giants.  Our  sensations  upon  seeing  five  hun- 
dred people,  the  shortest  of  whom  were  at  least  six  feet 
six  iii(  lies  high,  and  bulky  in  proportion,  may  easily  be 
imagined." 

Mr.  Clarlw,  in  the  letter  above  alluded  to,  says,  "  We 

were 


©BSEKVATIONS  ON   «IAKTS.  3^5 

were  with  tkem  near  two  hours  at  noon  day,  though  none 
had  the  honour  of  shaking  hands  but  Mr.  Bvron  and  Mr. 
Gumming;  however,  we  were  near  enough  and  long  enough 
with  them  to  convince  our  senses  so  far,  as  not  to  be  ca- 
villed out  of  the  very  existence  of  those  senses  at  that 
time,  which  some  of  our  countrymen  and  friends  would 
■  absolutely  attempt  to  do.  They  are  of  a  copper  colour, 
with  long  black  hair,  and  some  of  them  are  certainly  nine 
feet,  if  they  do  not  exceed  it.  The  Commodore,  who 
is  very  near  six  feet,  could  but  just  reach  the  top  of  one 
•f  their  heads,  which  he  attempted  ou  tiptoes,  and  there 
were  several  taller  than  he  on  whom  the  experiment 
was  made.  They  are  prodigiously  stout,  and  as  propor- 
tionably  made  as  ever  I  saw  people  in  my  life.  Tlie  wo- 
jQien  I  think  bear  much  the  same  proportion  to  the  men 
as  our  Europeans  do.  There  w^as  scarcely  a  man  among 
ihem  less  than  eight  feet,  most  of  them  considrrably 
more ;  Uie  women  I  believe,  run  from  seven  and  a  half 
to  eight." 

Notwithstanding  these  concurring  testimonies,  M.  de 
Buffon  would  not  admit  the  existence  of  a  race  of  giants, 
which  point  is  strenuously  contended  for  by  Lord  Mon- 
))oddo.  That  nobleman  relates,  that  M.  Guyot,  Captain 
«f  a  French  ship  trading  to  the  South  Sea,  brought  from 
the  coast  of  Patagonia,  a  skeleton  of  one  of  these  giants, 
measuring  between  twelve  and  thirteen  feet,  purposing 
to  bring  it  to  Europe;  but  happening  to  be  overtaken  by 
a  violent  storm,  and  having  tlie  Spanish  archbishop  of 
Lima  on  board,  the  ecclesiastic  declared  that  the  storra 
was  caused  by  the  bones  of  the  pagan  then  on  board, 
and  insisted  on  having  the  bkiKton  thrown  into  the  sea. 
**  The  archbishop,"  adds  his  lordship,  ''  died  soon  after- 
wards, and  was  thrown  overboard  in  his  turn.  I  could 
bave  wished  that  he  had  been  thrown  overboard  sooner, 
and  then  the  bones  of  the  Patagonian  w  wuld  have  ar- 
rived 


384  ADVENTURES  OP  JOHN  METCALF. 

rived  safe  in  France,  though  I  am  persuaded  they  would 
not  have  made  BufFon  alter  his  opinion^  but  he  would 
have  still  maintained,  that  it  was  only  ira  accidental  va- 
riety of  the  individual,  not  any  difference  of  the  race." 

I  shall  just  observe,  that  if  the  ^^iccounts.of  the  English    1 
navigators  are  at  all  to  be  depended  upon,  the  opinions  of 
his  lordship  must  undoubtedly  be  adopted  in  preference 
to  that  of  tl\2  celebrated  French  philosopher. 


Interesting  Particulars,  and  zconderfal  ^idventures  of  that 
extraordinary  and  eccentric  character  John  Metcalf, 
commonly  called  Blind  Jack  of  Knaresboroughf  xeith  a 
striking  Likeness. 

It  has  been  jusHy  remarked,  that  those  who  have  the  Misfortune  to  le 
deprived  of  one  sense,  generally  enjoy  the  others  in  greater  perfection  than 
those  who  do  not  labour  under  such  a  deficiency.  This  we  find  strikingly 
exemplified  in  the  subject  of  the  present  article,,  who,  notwithstanding  hia 
eccentricities,  has,  during  a  great  part  of  his  long  life,  been  an  active  and 
useful  member  of  society. 

John  metcalf  was  bom  at  Knaresborough  in  York- 
shire, on  the  15th  of  August  1717.  At  the  age  of  four 
years,  his  parents,  who  were  labouring  people,  put  hiin 
to  school,  where  he  continued  two  years,  when  he  was 
seized  with  the  small-pox,  which  deprived  him  of  his 
sight  in  spite  of  all  the  means  that  were  employed  for  its- 
preservation. 

About  six  months  after  his  recovery,  he  was  able  to  go 
from  his  father's  house  to  the  end  of  the  street,  and  to 
return  without  a  guides  and  in  about  three  years  he 
could  find  his  way  to  any  part  of  Knaresboiough.  About 
this  period  he  begun  to  associate  with  boys  of  his  own 
age,  among  whom  he  acted  a  distinguished  part  in  the 
juvenile  pranks  of  taking  birds  nests,  robbing  orchards, 
&c. 

Hi» 


QX\ 


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0//./ur     /n</-  <'/   '   /\  //n  trrjrf>/<>fif7 A      . 


Ap'ed  88. 


J'lLbfjaU/Zg.tSO.Ibj.B.S.Kub^U^Iio/ldrn  Ucu^  Jayrf  itL^ct>lt.'J -f^  SOeuid  . 


k 


AbVEKtURES  OF  JOHN  METCALP.  S85 

His  father  keeping  horses_,  he  learned  to  ride,  and  'm 
a  short  time  became  a  good  horseman,  a  gallop  being 
his  favourite  pace.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  was  taught 
music,  in  which  he  made  great  proficiency,  though  th« 
cry  of  a  hound  or  a  harrier  was  more  congenial  to  his 
taste  than  the  sound  of  any  instrument.  He  kept  a  cou- 
ple and  a  half  of  hounds  of  his  own,  ahd  frequently 
hunted  with  a  Mr.  Woodburn  of  Knaresborough,  who 
kept  a  pack,  and  was  always  very  desirous  of  Metcalf's 
company  in  the  chace. 

AVhen  about  fourteen  years  old,  his  activity,  and  the 
success  with  which  his  exploits  were  usually  attended, 
led  him  to  imagine  that  he  might  undertake  any  thing 
without  danger,  and  consoled  him  greatly  for  the  want 
of  sight;  but  he  was  taught  to  regret  that  infirmity  by  a 
severe  wound  he  received  in  the  face  in  consequence  of 
a  fall  into  a  gravel  pit,  while  making  his  retreat  from  a 
plumb-tree  in  which  he  had  been  surprized  by  the  owner. 

About  this  period,  1731,  he  learned  to  swim,  and  soon 
became  so  very  expert,  that  his  companions  did  not 
chuse  to  come  near  him  in  the  water,  it  being  his  custom 
to  seize,  plunge  them  to  the  bottom,  and  swim  over 
them  by  wa}'  of  diversion.  In  this  year  two  men  being 
drowned  in  the  deeps  of  the  river  Nidd,  Metcalf  was 
employed  to  seek  for  their  bodies,  and  succeeded  ia 
bringing  up  one  of  them. 

A  friend  oF  his  named  B-irker,  having  carried  two 
packs  of  yarn  to  Avash  at  that  river,  they  were  swept 
away  by  a  sudden  swelling  of  the  current,  and  carried 
through  the  arches  of  the  bridge,  which  stands  on  a 
rock.  A  little  below  there  is  a  piece  of  still  water,  sup- 
posed to  be  ubout  twenty-one  feet  in  depth :  as  soon  as 
the  yarn  came  to  this  place  it  sunk.  Metcalf  promised 
his  friend  to  recover  his  yarn,  but  the  latter  smiled  at  the 
supposed  absurdity  of  the  attempt.     He,  however,  pro- 

VoL.  H.  c  c  c  cured 


S8^  ADVENTCKES  OF  JOHN  MEtCAtf* 

cured  some  long  cart-ropes,  fixed  a  hook  at  one  en^^ 
and  leaving  the  other  to  be  held  by  some  persons  on  the 
High  Bridge,  he  descended,  and  by  degrees  recovered 
the  whole  of  the  yarn. 

He  continued  to  practise  on  the  violin,  till  he  was  able 
to  play  country  dances.  During  the  winter  season  he 
performed  as  a  wait  at  Knaresborough,  with  three 
©thers;  he  likewise  constantly  attended  the  assemblies 
which  were  held  every  fortnight,  and  went,  be&ides,  to 
jiuiny  other  places  where  there  was  public  dancing. 

Notwithstanding  this  application,  he  found  opportu- 
nity for  playing  his  neighbours  a  number  of  mischievoua 
tricks,  and  for  a  long  lime  escaped  suspicion.  At  length, 
however,  his  expertne.ss  became  known,  and  when  any 
arch  trick  had  been  played,  the  first  enquiry  always  was, 
>vhere  Metcalf  was  at  the  time, 

Though  his  time  was  pretty  well  engaged,  he  still  re- 
tained his  fondness  for  hunting,  and  also  began  to  keep 
game-cocks.  Whenever  he  went  to  a  cock-pit,  it  was 
his  custom  to  place  himself  on  the  lowest  seat,  near  som« 
friend  wiio  v»as  a  good  judge,  and  who,  by  certain  mo- 
tions enabled  him  to  bet,  hedge,  &c. 

In  1732,  he  was  invited  to  Harrowgate  to  play  at  the 
assembly,  as  successor  to  a  poor  old  man  who  had  played 
there  for  twenty  years,  and  who,  being  borne  down  by 
the  weight  of  one  hundred  years,  began  to  play  too 
slow  for  country  dances.  Here  he  was  well  received  by 
the  visiting  nobility  and  gentry.  In  this  employment 
he  passed  his  evenings,  and  the  mornings  he  spent  in 
cocking,  hunting,  and  coursing.  About  tl)is  period,  also, 
he  bougiit  a  horse,  and  often  ran  him  for  small  plates; 
and  his  engagements  increasing,  he  took  a  partner  who 
was  likewise  a  good  performer. 

lu  summer  he  often  played  at  bowls,  and  singular  as 
it  may  seem,  wa«  frequently  the  winner  j  curds  likewise- 

begau 


ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALF.  SS7 

began  to  engage  his  attention,  and  he  generally  won  tlie 
majority  of  the  games.  But  these  atchievemepts  were 
far  from  being  the  hmits  of  his  ambition  or  capacity, 
for  he  now  began  to  attend  the  races  at  York,  and  other 
places ;  at  the  race  ground  he  commonly  rode  in  among 
the  crowd,  and  was  often  successful  in  his  bets,  in  which 
he  was  however  assisted  by  several  gentlemen  to  whom 
he  was  known. 

Having  once  matched  one  of  his  horses  to  run  three 
miles  for  a  considerable  wager,  and  the  parties  agreeing 
each  to  ride  his  own  horse,  they  set  up  posts  at  certain 
distances  on  the  Forest  Moor,  describing  a  circle  of  one 
mile;  having  consequently  to  go  three  times  round  the 
course.  From  the  supposition  that  Metcalf  would  be 
unable  tc.  keep  the  course,  great  odds  were  laid  against 
him.  His  ingenuity  furnished  him  with  an  expedient  in 
this  dilemma.  He  procured  a*  many  bells  as  possible, 
and  placing  a  man  with  one  of  them  at  each  post, 
was  enabled  by  this  ringing  to  Judge  when  to  turn.  By 
these  means,  and  the  superior  speed  of  his  horse,  he 
came  in  winner,  amidst  the  applause  of  all  present,  ex- 
cepting those  who  had  betted  against  him. 

At  different  times  he  bought  horses  to  sell  them  aa,ain, 
which  he  often  did  with  a  large  profit,  so  accurate  was 
his  judgment. 

In  1738,  Metcalf  attained  the  age  of  twenty-one; 
he  was  then  extremely  robust,  and  six  feet  one  inch  and 
a  half  in  height.  He  about  this  time  acquiicd  consider- 
able celebrity  as  a  pugilist  from  the  following  circum- 
stance.  A  friend  of  his  being  insulted  in  a  public-house, 
by  a  man  of  the  name  of  Bake,  who,  from  his  ferocious 
temper  and  great  strength,  was  the  general  dread  of  the 
neighbourhood,  Metcalf  bestowed  on  iuii;  such  discipline 
as  soon  extorted  a  cry  of  mercy. 

c  c  c  iJ  Retufn*rij 


388  ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALE. 

Returning  one  day  on  foot  from  Harrowgate,  he  had 
proceeded  about  a  mile,  when  he  wab  overtaken  by  a 
Knaresborough  man  on  horseback,  who  proposed  for  two 
shilHngs  worth  of  punch  to  let  him  ride  in  turn,  dividing 
the  distances  equally.  To  this  Metcalf  agreed,  upon 
condition  that  he  should  have  the  first  ride,  which  his 
townsman  assented  to,  on  these  terms:  that  he  should 
ride  a  little  beyond  Poppleton  Field,  where  on  his  right 
hand  he  would  see  a  gate,  to  which  he  should  fasten  the 
horse.  Metcalf  however  rode  on  to  Knareshorough, 
which  was  seventeen  miles  from  the  place  where  he  left 
his  fellow-traveller.  The  latter  was  greatly  enraged  at 
being  obIi2;ed  to  vviilk  so  far,  but  Metcalf  pleading  in  ex- 
cuse that  he  never  saw  the  gate,  he  found  it  his  interest 
to  join  in  the  laugh. 

He  was  now  in  the  prime  of  life,  and  possessed  a  pe- 
culiar archness  of  disposition,  with  an  uncommon  flow  of 
spirits,  and  an  unparalleled  contempt  of  danger;  and 
though  his  conduct  was  long  marked  by  a  variety  of  si- 
milar tricks,  yet  he  afterwards  planned  and  brought  to 
perfection  several  schemes,  both  of  private  and  public 
utility. 

When  the  Harrowgate  season  was  over,  Metcalf  always 
remained  a  few  days,  and  passed  his  evenings  at  one  or 
other  of  the  different  inns.  At  the  Royal  Oak,  now  the 
Granby,  he  attracted  the  notice  of  the  landlady's  daugh- 
ters, whose  constant  attention  and  kindness  soon  inspired 
him  with  a  reciprocal  affection.  Knowing,  however, 
that  her  mother  would  oppose  their  union,  various  suc- 
cessful devices  were  employed  to  conceal  their  mutual 
partiality,  and  frequent  meetings.  An  event  however 
occurred  which  obliged  Metcalf  to  quit  not  only  the  ob- 
ject of  his  attachment,  but  likewise  that  part  of  the 
country. 

Among  Metcalfs  acquaintances  were  two  young  men, 

whose 


ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALF*        389 

whose  sister  lived  with  them  as  housekeeper.  One  even- 
ing in  her  usual  jocular  way,  she  apprised  Metcalf  of  her 
intention  to  pay  him  a  visit  in  the  night,  desiring  him  to 
leave  his  door  unlocked.  Knowing  the  mirthful  propen- 
sity of  this  female,  he  was  inclined  to  consider  this  i\s  a 
joke,  but  on  the  other  hand  he  thought  it  possible  that  a 
real  assignation  might  be  intended,  and  being  too  gallant 
to  disappoint  a  lady,  he  told  her  he  would  obey  her  or- 
ders. The  lady  was  punctual  to  her  appointment,  and 
the  consequence  of  her  imprudence  was  evident  in  a  few 
months.  She  intreated  Metcalf  to  marry  her,  but  she 
having  made  the  first  advances,  he  did  not  feel  his  con- 
science interested,  and  refused.  Her  only  resource  was 
to  apply  to  the  parish,  which  finding  she  had  done,  he 
with  some  difficulty  obtained  a  meeting  with  Miss  Ben- 
son of  the  Royal  Oak,  proceeded  to  Whitby,  and  went 
on  board  an  alum-ship  bound  to  London. 

After  an  absence  of  seven  months,  he  retiu'ned  to 
Knaresborough,  where  he  found  the  woman  who  had 
been  the  cause  of  his  journey  comfortably  situated,  and 
not  inclined  to  trouble  him;  and  he  was  also  affectionate- 
ly received  by  Miss  Benson.  During  his  absence  a  IMr. 
Dickinson  had  paid  his  addresses  to  Miss  Benson,  and 
now  urged  his  suit  with  such  ardour,  that  the  banns  were 
published,  and  the  wedding-day  appointed  to  the  no 
small  mortification  of  Metcalf,  who  thought  himself  se- 
cure of  her  aflcction.  Though  he  loved  her  tenderly, 
his  pride  prevented  him  from  manifesting  his  feelings, 
or  attempting  to  prevent  the  match. 

On  the  day  jMcceding  that  on  which  the  nuptials  were 
to  be  solemnized,  Metcalf  riding  past  the  Royal  Oak, 
was  accosted  with,  "  One  wants  to  speak  with  you." 
He  immediately  turned  towards  the  stables  of  the  Oak, 
and  there  to  his  joyful  surprize,  he  found  the  object  of 
]xi%  love,  who  had  sent  her  mother's  servant  to  call  him. 

After 


S90  ADVENTURES  OP  JOHN  METCALF. 

After  some  explanation,  an  elopement  was  resolved  npon, 
which  Metcalf  with  the  assistance  of  a  friend,  cft'ected 
that  night,  and  the  next  morning  they  were  united. — ^The. 
confusion  of  his  rival,  who  had  provided  an  entertain- 
ment for  two  hundred  people  may  easil}"^  he  conceived. 

Mrs.  Benson  being  much  enraged  at  her  daughter's 
conduct,  refused  either  to  see  her  or  to  give  up  her 
clothes;  nor  was  she  reconciled  to  her  till  she  was  deli- 
vered of  her  second  child,  on  which  occasion  she  stood 
sponsor  to  it,  and  presented  INIetcalf  with  twenty  gui- 
neas. 

He  now  purchased  a  house  at  Knaresborough,  and 
continued  to  play  at  Harrowgate  during  the  season.  He 
likewise  set  up  a  four-wheel  chaise,  and  a  one-horse 
chair,  for  public  accommodation,  which  were  the  first 
of  the  kind  kept  there.  These  vehicles  he  kept  two  sum- 
mers, but  the  innkeepers  beginning  to  run  chaises,  he 
relinquished  that  scheme,  and  with  it  racing  and  hunt- 
ing. He  then  bought  horses  and  went  to  the  coast  for 
fish,  wiiich  he  took  to  Leeds  and  Manchester,  and  was 
BO  indefatigable,  that  he  would  frequently  walk  for  two 
nights  and  a  day,  with  little  or  no  rest.  But  the  profits 
of  this  business  being  small,  and  the  fatigue  excessive, 
he  soon  abandoned  that  likewise. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  rebellion  in  1745,  he  ex- 
changed his  situation  as  violin  player  at  Harrowgate,  for 
the  profession  of  arms.  This  singular  event  was  brought 
about  in  the  followinsr  singular  manner: — 

William  Thornton,  Esq.  of  Thornville,  having  re^ 
solved  to  raise  a  company  at  his  own  expence,  asked 
Metcalf,  who  was  well  known  to  him,  whether  he  would 
join  the  company  about  to  be  raised,  and  whether  he 
knew  of  any  spirited  fellows  likely  to  make  good  sol- 
diers. Upon  his  replying  in  the  affirmative,  he  was  ap- 
pointed assistant  to  aseijeant;  aiul   in   two  da}'s  raised 

one 


Adventures  of  john  metcali".  SQi 

one  hundred  and  forty  men,  out  of  whom  the  Captain 
drafted  sixty-four,  the  number  of  privates  he  wanted. 
^  With  this  compan}^,  among  whom  was  Metcaif  as  mu- 
sician. Captain  Thornton  joined  the  army  under  Gene- 
ral Wade.  The  first  battle  in  which  they  were  engaged, 
twenty  of  the  men,  the  lieutenant  and  ensign  were  made 
prisoners,  nnd  Captain  Thornton  very  narrowly  escaped 
\)y  the  kindness  of  the  woman  in  whose  house  he  had 
taken  refuge. 

Metcaif,  after  a  variety  of  adventures  rejoined  his  pa- 
tron, and  was  always  in  the  field  during  the  different  en- 
gagements which  afterwards  occurred,  and  after  the  bat- 
lie  of  Culloden,  returned  to  his  family  at  Knaresborough, 

Being  again  at  liberty  to  chuse  his  occupation,  he  at- 
tended Ilarrowgate  as  usual ;  and  having,  during  his 
Scotch  expedition,  become  acquainted  with  the  various 
articles  manufactured  in  that  country,  and  judging  that 
he  might  dispose  of  some  of  them  to  advantage  in  Eng- 
land, he  repaired  in  the  spring  to  Scotland,  and  fur- 
nished himself  with  a  variety  of  cotton  and  worsted  arti- 
cles, for  whicli  he  found  a  ready  sale  in  his  native  coun- 
try. Among  a  thousand  articles  he  knew  what  each  cost 
him,  from  a  particular  mode  of  marking  them.  He  alsp 
dealt  in  horses,  directing  his  choice,  b}'  feeling  the  ani- 
mals ;  and  engaged  pretty  deeply  in  the  contraband 
trade,  the  profits  of  which  were  at  that  time  much  more 
considerable  than  the  risk. 

In  the  year  17ol,  he  commenced  a^  new  employ,  he 
set  up  a  stage-wuggon  between  York  and  Knaresborough, 
being  the  first  on  that  road,  and  conducted  it  himself 
twice  a  week  in  the  summer,  and  once  in  winter ;  and 
this  business,  with  the  occasional  conveyance  of  army 
baggage,  employed  his  attention  till  the  period  for  his 
first  Gonuacting  for  the  making  of  roads;  which  suiting 
fhim  better,  he  relinquished  every  other  pursuit. 
:/■  .  During 


592  ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN   METCALP* 

During  his  leisure  hours,  he  had  studied  measurement 
in  a  way  peculiar  to  himself;  and  when  certain  of  the 
girth  and  length  of  any  piece  of  timber,  he  was  able 
accurately  to  reduce  its  contents  to  feet  and  inches,  and 
could  bring  the  dimensions  of  any  building  into  yards 
and  feet. 

The  first  piece  of  road  he  made  was  about  three  miles, 
of  that  between  Fearnsby  and  Minskip.  The  materials 
for  the  wliole  were  to  be  procured  from  one  gravel-pit ;. 
he  therefore  provided  deal  boards,  and  erected  a  tempo- 
rary house  at  the  pit,  took  a  dozen  horses  to  the  place, 
fixed  racks  and  mancrcrs,  and  hired  a  house  for  his  men 
at  Minskip.  He  often  walked  from  Knaresborough  in 
the  morning  with  four  or  five  stone  of  meat  on  his 
shoulders,  and  Joined  liis  men  by  six  o'clock.  He  com- 
pleted the  road  much  sooner  than  was  expected  to  the 
entire  satisfaction  of  the  surveyor  and  trustees. 

Soon  after  this  lie  contracted  for  building  abridge  at  Bo- 
rough-bridge, which  he  completed  with  great  credit  to  his 
abilities.  This  business  of  making  roads,  and  building 
and  repairing  bridges  in  Yorkshire,  Lancashire,  Derby- 
shire, and  Cheshire,  he  continued,  with  great  success  till 
the  year  1792,  when  he  returned  to  Yorkshire. 

In  the  summer  of  1788,  he  lost  his  wife  in  the  sixty- 
first  year  of  her  age,  and  the  fortieth  of  their  union, 
leaving  four  children.  She  was  interred  in  the  church- 
yard of  Stockport,  in  Cheshire,  where  she  then  resided. 

In  his  treatment  of  his  wife,  Metcalf  never  forgot  the 
original  difference  in  their  circumstances,  always  in- 
dulging her  to  the  utmost  that  his  ability  would  allow ; 
but  she  had  no  wish  beyond  his  power  to  gratify. 

After  some  unsuccessful  speculations  in  the  cotton 
trade,  Metcalf  returned  to  his  native  county,  and  for 
want  of  other  engagements,  he  bought  hay  to  sell  again, 
measuring  the  stacks  with  his  arms,  and  having  learned 

the 


ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN   METCALF.  393 

tlie  height^  he  could  readily  tell  what  number  of  square 
yards  were  contained  in  a  stack  of  any  value  between 
five  and  one  hundred  pounds.  Sometimes  he  bought  a 
little  wood  standing,  and  if  he  could  get  the  girth  and 
height,  would  calculate  the  solid  contents. 

In  addition  to  the  anecdotes  already  ^ivenof  this  sin2:u- 
lar  character,  the  reader  will  not  be  displeased  to  find  the 
following,  which  are  of  a  nature  equally  extraordinary. 

JNIetcalf  had  learned  to  walk  and  ride  very  readily 
through  most  of  the  streets  of  York;  and  being  once  in 
that  city,  as  he  was  riding  past  the  George,  the  landlord 
called  to  him  to  stop,  and  informed  him  that  a  gentleman 
in  the  house  wanted  a  guide  to  Harrowgate,  adding,  ''  I 
know  you  can  do  as  well  as  any  one."  To  this  proposal 
Metcalf  agreed,  upon  condition  that  his  situation  should 
be  kept  secret  from  the  gentleman  who  might  otherwise 
be  afraid  to  trust  him.  The  stranger  was  soon  ready, 
and  they  setoff,  Metcalf  taking  the  lead.  When  they 
came  to  Allenton-Mauleverer,  the  gentleman  enquired 
whose  large  house  that  was  on  the  right,  to  which  Met- 
calf replied  without  the  least  hesitation.  A  little  farther 
the  road  is  crossed  by  that  from  Wetherby  to  Borough- 
bridge,  and  runs  along  by  the  lofty  brick  wall  of  Aller- 
ton  Park.  A  road  led  out  of  the  park  opposite  to  the 
gate  upon  the  Knaresborough  road,  which  Metcalf  was 
lifraid  of  missing;  but  perceiving  the  current  of  wind 
that  came  through  the  park  gate,  he  readily  turned  his 
horse  towards  the  opposite  one.  Here  he  was  under 
some  difficulty  to  open  the  gate,  in  consequence,  as  he 
imagined,  of  some  alteration  that  had  been  made  in  the 
hanging  of  it,  as  he  had  not  been  that  way  for  several 
months.  Therefore,  backing  his  horse,  he  exclaimed, 
*'  Confound  thee,  thou  al\va3's  goes  to  the  heel  of  the 
gate  instead  of  the  head."  The  gentleman  observed 
that   his  horse  was  rather   aukward,  but  tkat  his   own 

Vol.  II.  D  D  D  "  own 


304  ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALF. 

mare  was  good  at  coming  up  to  a  gate,  upon  vhich 
Metcalf  cheerfully  permitted  hiin  to  perform  that  office. 
Passing  through  Knaresborough,  they  entered  the  Forest 
which  was  then  uniuclosed,  nor  was  there  as  yet  any 
turnpike  road  upon  it.  Having  proceeded  a  little  way 
upon  the  forest,  the  gentleman  saw  a  light,  and  asked 
what  it  was.  Metcalf  took  it  for  granted  that  his  com- 
panion had  seen  what  is  called  a  Will-o'-the-Wisp, 
which  frequently  appear  in  a  low  and  swampy  spot,  near 
the  road ;  but  fearful  of  betraying  himself,  did  not  ask 
in  what  direction  the  light  lay.  To  divert  his  attention 
from  this  object,  he  asked  him  if  he  did  not  see  two 
lights,  one  to  the  right,  the  other  to  the  left.  The 
stranger  replied  that  he  saw  but  one,  on  the  right. — 
*'  Well  then.  Sir,"  says  ]Metcalf,  "  that  is  Harrowgate." 

Having  arrived  at  their  journey's  end,  they  stopped  at 
the  house  now  called  the  Granby,  where  Metcalf,  being 
well  acquainted  with  the  place,  led  both  horses  into  the 
stable,  and  then  went  into  the  house,  where  he  found 
his  fellow  traveller  comfortably  seated  over  a  tankard  of 
negus,  in  which  he  pledged  his  guide.  Metcalf  tooj:  it 
of  him  very  readily  the  first  time,  but  the  second  time 
he  was  rather  wide  of  his  mark.  He  therefore  withdrew, 
leaving  the  landlord  to  explain  what  his  companion  was 
yet  ignorant  of. 

The  latter  hinted  to  the  landlord  his  suspicion  that  hi» 
guide  must  have  taken  a  great  quantity  of  spirits  since 
their  arrival,  upon  which  the  landlord  enquired  his  rea- 
son for  entertaining  such  an  opinion — "  I  judge  so,"  re- 
plied the  traveller,  ''  from  the  appearance  of  his  eyes" — 
Eyes !  bless  you  Sir  !  do  not  you  know  that  he  is  blind  r" 
"  What  do  you  mean  by  that?" — ^^  I  mean  Sir,  that  he 
cannot  see?" — "Blind!  gracious  God!!" — "Yes,  Sir, 
as  blind  as  a  stone,  by  heaven!" — Tiie  stranger  desired 
Metcalf  to  be  called,  and  upon  his  confirming  the  land- 
lord's 


ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALF.  SQj 

lord's  account :  "  Had  T  known  that,"  said  he,  ^'  I  would 
nothave  ventured  with  you  for  ahundved  pounds." — ''And 
I,  Sir,"  said  Metcalf,  "  would  not  have  lost  my  way  for 
a  thousand." — The  services  of  the  evening  were  reward- 
ed with  two  guineas,  and  a  plentiful  entertainment  the 
next  day  by  the  gentleman,  who  considered  this  circum- 
stance as  the  most  extraordinary  adventure  he  had  ever 
met  with. 

During  Metcalfs  residence  in  London,  he  found  out 
several  gentlemen  who  were  in  the  habit  of  visiting  Har- 
rowgate,  and  among  the  rest  Colonel  Liddell,  Member  of 
Parliament  for  Berwick,  who  gave  him  a  general  invita- 
tion to  his  house.     This  gentleman  on  his  return  from 
London  to  the  North,  was  accustomed  to  make  a  slay  of 
a  h\y  weeks  at  Harrowgate,  and  before  his  departure  he 
proposed  to  Metcalf  to  take  him  down,  either  on  the 
the  top  of  his  carriage,  or  behind  it.     Metcalf  declined 
the   offer  with  thanks,    assuring  the  Colonel,    that  he 
could  with  ease  walk  as  far  in  a  day  as  he  would  chuse  to 
travel.     They  accordingly  started  on  Monday  at  noon, 
and  he  actually  arrived  at  the  end  of  every  stage  before 
the  Colonel,  with  whom  he  stopped  during  the  night. 
On  coming  to  Wetherby,  he,  as  usual,  arrived  at  the  Inn 
before  the  Colonel,  informing  the  landlord  that  he  might 
expect  the  latter.     This  being  Saturday  night,  the  Colo- 
nel  proposed   halting    at  Wetherby   till  Monday,    but 
Metcalf    continued    his    route    to    KnaresborouQ-h    that 
night,  and   on  the   Monday  he  met  him,  according  to 
promise,  at  Harrowgate. 

Our  hero  happened  once  to  be  at  Scriven,  at  the  house 
of  one  Green,  an  innkeeper,  where  two  persons  had  a  dis- 
pute concerning  some  sheep,  which  one  of  them  had  put 
into  the  penfold.  The  owner  of  the  sheep,  a  townsman  of 
Metcalfs,  appeared  to  be  ill-treated  by  the  other  party, 
who  wished  to  take  an  unfair  advantage.     Metcalf  per- 

D  D  D  2         -  ceiving 


ceiving  that  they  were  not  likeh'  to  agree  about  the  da- 
mages, departed.  It  being  about  midnight^  he  resolved 
■to  do  his  friend  a  good  turn  before  he  got  home.  The 
penfold  being  walled  round,  he  climbed  over,  and  laying 
hold  of  the  shee])  one  after  the  other,  he  fairly  threw 
them  over  the  wall.  The  difliculty  of  the  undertaking 
encreased  as  the  number  diminished,  as  they  were  not 
so  ready  to  catch  ;  but  not  deterred  by  that  circumstance, 
he  fully  completed  the  business.  On  the  return  of  day, 
when  the  penfold  was  found  untenanted,  though  the 
door  was  fast  locked,  a  considerable  degree  of  surprize 
was  excited,  and  various  conjectures  formed  relative  to 
the  rogues  who  had  liberated  the  sheep,  but  Metcalf 
passed  unsuspected,  and  enjoyed  the  joke  in  silence. 

Parsing  once  througli  Hahfax,  he  stopped  at  an  Inn 
called  the  Broad  Stone.  The  landlord's  son,  and  some 
others  who  frequented  Horrowgate,  having  heard  of 
Metcalf's  exploits,  expressed  a  wish  to  play  at  cards  whh 
him.  He  complied,  and  a  pack  was  accordingly  sent 
for,  which  he  requested  permission  to  examine;  but  as 
the  landlord  was  his  friend,  he  could  rely  upon  him,  to 
prevent  any  deceptioii.  They  began,  and  -Nletcalf  beat 
four  of  them  in  turn,  playing  for  liquor  only.  Not  satis- 
fied with  this,  some  of  the  company  proposed  to  play 
for  money,  and  at  shilling-wliist,  Metcalf  won  fifteen 
shillings.  The  losing  party  then  proposed  to  pay  double 
or  quit,  but  he  declined  playing  for  more  than  hali-a- 
guinea  points.  At  length  yielding  to  their  iinportuniry, 
he  engaged  for  guineas,  and  being  favoured  by  fortune, 
he  won  ten,  and  a  shilling  for  liquor  each  game.  The 
loser  taking  up  the  cards,  went  out,  and  soon  returned 
with  eight  guineas  more,  which  soon  followed  the  other 
ten. 

Among  the  numerous  roads  which  Metcalf  contracted 
to  miike,  was  part  of  the  Manchester  road  from  Black- 
Moor 


ADVENTURES  OF  JOHN  METCALF.  397 

Moor  to  Standish-Foot.  As  it  was  not  marked  out,  the 
surveyor,  contrary  to  his  expectation,  took  it  over  deep 
marshes,  out  oi"  which  it  was  tlie  opinion  of  the  trustees, 
that  it  would  he  necessaiy  to  dig  the  earth  till  they 
came  to  a  solid  hottom:  This  plan  appeared  to  Metcalf 
extremely  tedious  and  expensive,  and  liable  to  other  dis- 
advantages. He  therefore  argued  the  point  privately 
with  the  surveyor,  and  several  other  gentlemen,  but  they 
were  all  immoveable  in  their  former  opinion.  At  their 
next  meeting  Metcalf  attended,  and  addressed  them  in 
the  following  manner:  "^  Gentlemen,  I  propose  to  make 
the  road  over  the  marshes  after  my  own  plan,  and  if  it 
does  not  answer,  I  will  be  at  the  expence  of  making  it 
over  again  after  your's." — ^This  proposal  was  agreed  to. 
Having  engaged  to  complete  nine  miles  in  ten  months, 
he  began  in  six  different  parts,  having  nearly  four  hun- 
dred men  employed.  One  of  tiie  places  was  Pule  and 
Standish  Common,  which  was  a  deep  bog,  and  over 
which  it  was  thought  impracticable  to  make  any  road. 
This  he  cast  fourteen  yards  wide,  and  raised  in  a  circu- 
lar form.  The  water,  which  in  many  places  ran  across 
the  road,  he  carried  olf  by  drains ;  but  he  found  th^ 
greatest  difficulty  in  conveying  stones  to  the  spot  on  ac- 
count of  the  softness  of  ihc  ground.  Those  who  passed 
that  way  to  Huddersfield  Market,  were  not  sparing  of 
their  censure  of  the  undertaking,  and  even  doubted 
whether  it  would  ever  be  completed.  Having,  however, 
got  the  piece  levelled  to  the  end,  he  ordered  his  men  to 
collect  heather  or  ling,  and  bind  it  in  round  bundles  that 
they  could  span  with  their  bauds.  These  bundles  were 
placed  close  together,  and  another  row  laid  over  them, 
which  they  were  well  pressed  down,  and  covered  with 
stone  and  gravel.  This  piece,  being  about  half  a  mile 
in  length  when  compleated,  was  so  remarkably  fine,  that 
any  person  might  have  gone  over  in  winter  unshod  without 

being 


)        PERSONS  RESTORED  FROM  DEATH. 

being  wet;  and  though  other  parts  of  the  road  soon  af- 
terwards wanted  repairing,  this  needed  no  repairs  for 
twelve  years. 

Since  his  return  to  his  native  county,  this  extraordi- 
nary man  has  resided  at  Spofforth,  near  Wetherby,  Nvith 
a  daughter  and  son-in-law  who  keep  his  house. 

In  perusing  the  above  account,  we  are  at  a  loss  whether 
most  to  admire  the  wonderful  versatihty  of  INIetcalfs  ge- 
nius, or  the  apparent  facility  with  which  he  executed  un- 
dertakings, for  which  the  faculty  he  was  bereft  of  seems 
absolutely  indispensible.  It  is  however  probable,  that, 
had  he  possessed  the  blessing  of  sight,  his  intellectual 
**  powers  would  never  have  attained  that  degree  of  perfec- 
tion, which  the  abstraction  from  external  objects  has 
doubtless  tended  to  promote. 


Hxtr  a  ordinary  and  interesting  Accounts  of  the  Reiloration 
to  Life  of  Persons  supposed  to  be  dead. 

M,  MISSON,  a  French  traveller,  upon  occasion  of  a 
picture  in  the  Church  of  the  Aposiles  at  C|ologne,  gives 
the  following  account  of  the  circumstance  commemo- 
rated in  it:  Reichmuth  Adolch,  the  wife  of  a  Counsellor 
of  Ccilogne,  was  supposed  to  have  died  of  the  plague, 
which^  in  1571,  swept  away  the  greatest  pare  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  that  city.  She  was  therefore  interred,  with  a 
rina:  of  considerable  value  on  her  tino;er.  The  niirlit 
flfter  the  funeral,  the  sexton  opened  the  grave,  with  the 
design  of  taking  away  the  ring.  His  astonishment  may 
be  more  easily  conceived  than  described,  when  he  felt 
something  grasp  his  hand,  and  when  the  good  lady  laid 
fast  hold  of  him,  and  exerted  herself  to  get  out  of  the 
coffin.  He  however  disengaged  himself,  and  fled  with 
the  utmost  precipitation.      Tlie  woman   thus  providcn- 

tialiv 


PERSONS  restohed  from  death.      399 

tially  raised  from  the  dead,  quitted  her  disagreeahle 
mansion,  and  proceeding  to  her  own  home,  knocked  at 
the  door.  She  called  one  of  the  servants  by  his  name, 
and  related  the  circumstance  as  briefly  as  possible,  that 
she  might  not  be  suliered  to  languish  at  the  door  ;  but 
the  servant  treated  her  as  a  phantom.  He  however  run 
in  a  fright  to  acquaint  his  master,  who,  equally  incredu- 
lous, called  him  a  madman.  The  poor  woman,  mean- 
while, stood  shivering  in  her  shroud,  waiting  for  admit- 
tance. At  length  the  door  was  opened  for  her,  and  by 
means  of  proper  treatment,  she  was  restored  to  perfect 
health,  and  afterwards  had  three  sons  who  were  clergy- 
man. She  lived  with  her  husband  in  great  credit  seve- 
ral years  after  this  deliverance,  and  at  her  death,  was  in- 
terred near  the  gate  of  the  church  of  the  Apostles,  where 
a  monument  was  erected  to  her.  In  memory  of  the 
above  extraordinary  event,  a  large  picture  was  placed 
over  her  grave,  on  which  the  stor}'  is  pourtrayed,  and  a 
relation  of  it  annexed  in  German. 

It  is  evident  that  this  story  has  given  rise  to  the  popular 
tradition  relative  to  a  monument  near  the  Communion 
Table,  in  St.  Giles's  Cripplcgate,  which,  however  is 
merely  the  monument  of  a  young  female  half  out  of  her 
coffin,  intended  to  represent  the  resurrection. 

Among  other  circumstances  of  a  similar  nature,  the 
same  author  introduces  the  history  of  Frangois  de  Ci- 
ville,  a  Norman  gentleman,  who,  according  to  his  own 
expression,  was  "  thrice  dead,  thrice  interred,  and  thrice 
by  the  grace  of  God  restored  to  life."  The  mother  of 
Civille  having  died  during  pregnancy,  in  the  absence  of 
her  husband,  was  interred  without  any  means  being  em- 
ployed to  save  the  child.  The  day  after  tlie  funeral  her 
husband  arrived  ;  he  heard  with  surprize  of  his  wife's 
death,  and  the  little  care  that  had  been  taken  to  preserve 
his  offspring.     He  had  her  taken  up,  and  by  means  of 

tbe 


400  I»ERSONS  RESTORED  FROM  DEATH* 

t\xe   Caesarean  operation,  a  living  child  was  extracted 
from  her.     This   child  was  Francois  de  Civille,  who  at 
the  age  of  twenty-six  years,  was  captain  of  a  company 
of  one  hundred  men  in  the  city  of  Rouen  when  it  was 
besieged  by  Charles  IX.     Being  mortally  wounded  at 
the  conclusion  of  an  assault,  and  having  fallen  from  the 
rampart  into  the  ditch,  some  pioneers  after  stripping  him 
of  his   clothes,  threw   him  into  a  grave,  together  with 
another  dead  body,  and  covered  him  slightly  with  earth. 
Here  he  remained  from  eleven  o'clock  in  the  morning 
till  half  past  six  in  the  evening,  when  his  servant  came 
and  dug  him  up.     This  faithful  domestic,  embracing  the 
body  of  his  master,  perceived  some  signs  of  remaining 
life,  and  carried  him  to  the  house  in  which  he  used  to 
lodge.     There  he  lay  five  days  and  five  nights  without 
speaking,  stirring,  or  shewing  any  sign  of  sense,  but  as  hot 
from  a  fever  as  he  had  before  been  cold  in  the  grave. 
The  city  being  taken  by  assault,  the  servants  of  an  officer 
of  the  victorious  army  who  was  to  lodge  in  the  house 
where  Civille  was,  threw  him  on  a  bundle  of  straw  in  a 
back  room,  where  being  found  by  some  of  his  enemies, 
they  threw  him  out  of  the  window.     He  fortunately  fell 
upon  a  dunghill,  where  he  lay  in  his  shirt  more  than 
three  days  and  nights.     Being  then  discovered  by  one  of 
his  relations,  who  was  surprized  to  find  him  alive,  he  re- 
moved him  to  a  place  of  safety  about  a  league    from 
Rouen,  where  he  perfectly  recovered  from  the  injuries 
he  had  received. 

The  following  cxtraordinar}'  narrative  is  related  by  M. 
Bruhier,  in  his  '^  Dissertation  on  the  Uncertainty  of 
the  signs  of  Death." 

Two  tradesmen  of  the  Rue  St.  Honore  at  Paris,  con- 
nected by  the  most  intimate  friendship,  of  equal  fortune, 
and  following  the  same  business,  had  each  a  child,  one  a 
son,  and  the  other  a  daughter,  nearly  of  the  same  age. 

The 


PERSONS  RESTORED  TO   I.irE*  401 

The  first  sentiments  that  taught  the  girl  that  slie  had  a 
heart,  convinced  her  at  tlie  same  time  th;it  it  helcnged 
to  the  youth,  who  was  equally  attached  to  her.  This  re- 
ciprocal inclination  was  strengthened  hy  their  frequent 
mutual  visits  with  the  approbation  of  their  parents,  who 
observed  with  pleasure  that  the  sentiments  of  their  chil- 
dren accorded  so  completely  with  their  own  intentions. 
Their  marriage  was  on  the  pointof  being  celebrated,  when 
tiie  whdle  plan  was  destroyed  by  a  rich  banker,  who  de- 
manded the  young  lady  for  his  Vv'ile.  The  temptation  of 
a  much  more  brilliant  fortune,  suddenly  changed  the  sen- 
timents of  her  parents.  Notwithstanding  the  repugnance 
to  the  match  which  their  daughter  testified,  she,  how- 
ever, yielded  to  the  intreatiesof  those  to  whom  she  owed 
her  existence,  married  the  banker,  and,  like  a  virtuous 
woman,  forbade  the  young  man  whom  she  loved,  licr  pre- 
sence for  ever.  The  melancholy  into  which  she  was 
plunged  by  the  fatal  engagement  she  had  contracted, 
brought  on  a  disorder  which  overpowered  her  senses  in 
such  a  manner,  that  she  was  supposed  to  be  dead,  and  was 
accordingly  interred. 

The  lover  was  not  the  lust  to  be  informed  of  the  me- 
lancholy fate  of  his  mistress.  Recollecting  that  she  had 
formerly  experienced  a  violent  attack  of  lethargy,  he  flat- 
tered himself  that  her  present  situation  might  be  nothing 
more,  and  this  idea  not  only  suspended  his  grief,  but 
made  liim  resolve  to  bribe  the  sexton,  with  wliose  assist- 
ance he  took  the  deceased  from  her  tomb,  and  carried 
her  to  his  own  house.  lie  instantly  employed  every  kind 
of  means  to  restore  her  to  life,  and  had  the  inexpressible 
happiness  to  find  thejn  attended  with  success. 

It  is  easy  to  conceive  how  great  was  the  astonishment 
of  the  lady,  when  she  I'ound  herself  in  a  strange  house, 
when  she  beheld  her  lover  by  the  side  of  her  bed,  and 
was  acquainted  with  all  that  happened  during  hgr  lethar- 

Vol.  II.  E  E  E  gic 


402  PERSONS   RESTORED  TO  LII  E. 

gic  Stupor.  She  felt  the  magiiitiide  of  the  debt  she  owed 
to  her  deliverer;  the  love  she  had  continued  to  entertain 
for  him  was  the  most  powerful  advocate.  She  recovered, 
and  thinking  that  her  life  belonged  by  right  to  him  who 
had  preserved  it,  they  went  to  England,  where  they 
lived  several  years  in  the  most  affectionate  union. 

Being  inspired,  at  the  end  of  ten  years,  with  a  desire  of 
revisiting  their  native  land,  they  returned  to  Paris,  and 
took  no  precaution  to  disguise  themselves,  under  the  per- 
suasion that  no  one  could  possibly  suspect  what  had  hap- 
pened. By  mere  accident  the  banker  met  his  wife  in  a 
public  promenade.  The  sight  of  her  made  such  a  power- 
ful impression  on  him,  that  the  persuasion  of  her  death 
could  not  erase  it.  He  contrived  to  join  her,  and  not- 
withstandinjj  the  lanijnafje  she  held  in  order  to  deceive 
liim,  he  left  her  more  than  })ersuaded  that  she  was  really 
the  woman  whose  loss  he  had  mourned. 

The  strangeness  of  the  circumstances  having  given  the 
woman  charms  which  she  had  never  before  had  m  the 
eyes  of  the  banker,  he  discovered  her  residence  at  Paris, 
in  s})ite  of  the  precautions  she  had  taken  to  conceal  it^ 
and  preferred  a  judicial  claim  to  her  person. 

In  vain  the  lover  urged  the  rights  which  he  had  ac- 
quired b^'  his  cares  to  his  mistress,  in  vain  he  represented 
that  had  it  not  been  for  him,  she  must  have  died ;  that 
his  opponent  had  divested  himself  of  all  his  rights  bj 
interring  her,  that  he  might  even  be  accused  of  homi- 
cide for  having  neglected  to  take  proper  precautions  to 
ascertain  her  death;  in  vain  he  advanced  a  thousand  other 
reasons  furnished  by  ingenious  love.  Finding  that  the, 
court  inclined  to  the  opposite  side,  he  resolved  not  to 
wait  for  the  termination  of  the  cause,  but  repaired  with 
his  mistress  to  a  foreign  country,  where  they  ended  iheir 
lilays  in  peace. 

C'esaricusis  relates  a  story  of  a  rohber  who  had  been 

hanged, 


PERSONS  RESTORED  TO  LITE.  403 

hanged;  soon  after  \vr\icb,  the  servant  of  a  Canon  of 
Cologne  passed  by  the  gallows.  Perceiving  a  palpita- 
tion, lie  was  toueiied  with  compassion,  cut  the  cord,  and 
Revived  his  patient  wich  some  cold  water  procured  from  a 
neighbouring  brook.  The  robber  gradually  recovered  his 
strength,  accompanied  his  deliverer,  who  was  going  to 
the  next  town,  and,  while  conversing  with  him,  he  caught 
hold  of  the  bridle  of  his  horse,  crying  out  the  horse 
belonged  to  him,  and  that  the  servant  had  stolen  the 
beast  from  him.  This  dispute  attracted  a  great  crowd, 
who  in  the  indignation  with  which  they  were  inspired, 
without  hearing  what  the  young  man  had  to  say  in  his 
justification,  dragged  him  towards  the  gallows  from 
which  he  had  so  lately  released  his  accuser.  Fortunate- 
ly some  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  next  town  observing 
the  concourse  of  people  proceeding  towards  the  place  of 
execution,  which  belonged  in  common  to  both  towns, 
approached  to  see  what  was  the  matter.  The  servant  be- 
ing then  allowed  to  speak,  related  his  adventure,  and  the 
manner  in  which  he  was  rewarded  for  his  kindness  to  the 
robber.  The  latter  being  recognised,  was  again  tied  up 
to  the  gallows,  v/here  hd  paid  the  just  forfeit  for  his 
crimes. 

About  the  year  l683,  a  miller  in  the  vicinity  of  Abbe- 
ville, passing  near  the  place  where  a  robber,  who  had 
been  hanged  the  preceding  day,  was  exposed,  imagiaed 
that  he  was  not  dead.  An  emotion  of  compassion  pro- 
duced a  desire  of  ascertaining  the  truth  of  his  suspicion, 
which  was  well  founded;  he  took  him  down  with  the  as- 
sistance of  his  carman,  put  him  into  his  cart,  and  took 
him  home.  His  endeavours  to  restore  him  to  life  were 
crowned  with  such  success,  that  in  a  fortnight  his  new 
guest  had  recovered  his  perfect  health.  He  intended  to 
dismiss  him  with  a  sum  of  money,  but  unfortunately  he 
neglected  too  long  to  execute  this  design,  and  one  Sun- 

E  E  E  2  day 


404  DREADFUL  ACCIDENT, 

dny  left  him  alone  in  the  house.  The  wrcrcli  forgetting 
what  he  owed  to  his  deliverer,  took  advantage  of  the  op- 
portunitv,  broke  open  a  chest  of  drawers,  and  carried 
oif  all  the  plate  and  cash  he  could  find.  The  miller 
upon  his  return  perceived  that  lie  was  robbed,  and  had 
no  great  difficult}'  to  guess  by  whom,  when  he  discovered 
that  his  patient  had  disappeared.  He  pursued  the  robber 
with  his  two  sons  and  his  carman.  They  overtook  him 
about  a  league  from  the  spot,  and  immediately  carrying 
him  back  to  the  gibbet  from  which  he  had  been  released, 
they  hung  him  up  again,  and  pulled  his  legs  with  such 
violence  as  to  prevent  the  repetition  of  similar  crimes. 
The  king's  attorney  for  the  bailiwick  of  Ab!)cville  being 
inYormed  of  the  circumstance,  directed  the  miller  and 
his  accomplices  to  be  taken  into  custody.  They  were 
however  advised  to  abscond,  till  they  should  obtain 
the  king's  'permission  to  return.  The  letters  of  rccal 
granting  this  permission  were  prepared  by  M.  Guiiain, 
secretary  to  the  king,  by  whose  son  and  grandson  this 
circumstance  was  communicated  to  M.  Bruhier. 


DREADFUL  ACCIDENT,  AND  WONDERFUL   PFvLSERV ATION 
AT  MILE-END. 

A  CALAMITY  threatening  more  dreadful  consequences 
to  the  lives  of  those  involved  in  it,  and  yet  productive  of 
less  personal  injury  than  that  which  on  the  \6ih.  of  July 
1804  happened  in  Duke  Street,  Mile  F.nd  New  Town,  ^ 
has  rarely  occurred.  The  foundation  of  two  very  old 
houses.  No.  So  and  34,  gave  way,  and  the  wretched  in- 
habitants, consisting  of  eight  poor  families,  were  buried 
in  the  ruins.  The  time  rendered  this  event  more  awful 
and  distressing;  jt  was  about  half  past  six  in  the  morn- 
ing, and  the  individuals  were  only  awoke  from  sleep  by 
the  destructive  crash  of  both  houses,  which,  falling  at 

the 


-AND  MONDElirUL  r  RESER  V  ATIOX.  405 

iV.e  same  time,  thiecUeiicd  to  cover  them  in  one  2;rave. 
*riie  fronts  of  both  houses  fell  into  tlic;  street,  but  the  p'ar- 
ty  wall  between  remained  standing;  the  beams  which 
supported  the  floors  likewise  remained  without  falling; 
but  the  roofs,  floors,  joists,  &c.  lell  into  the  cellar.  The 
alarm  in  the  neighbourhood,  occasioned  by  the  tremen- 
dous noise  of  the  descending  ruin,  was  sudden,  and  those 
who  rushed  to  the  spot  at  first  imagined  the  premises  to 
be  on  fire,  as  clouds  of  dust,  which  had  the  appearance 
of  smoke,  veiled  the  true  calamity.  A  scene,  however, 
soon  presented  itself  that  left  no  time  for  delay.  The 
unfortunate  victims  were  heard  to  utter  the  most  doleful 
groans,  and  supplicate  for  assistance  from  beneath 
the  ruins,  and  the  neighbours  with  the  utmost  ala- 
crity flew  to  their  relief.  They  began  by  removing  the 
upper  beams  and  heavy  timber,  and  listening  with  atten- 
tion whence  the  voices  issued,  they  released  no  less  than 
thirty-six  persons  from  their  painful  siluations;  niost  of 
them  were  naked,  and  many  of  them  bruised  in  a  dread- 
ful manner;  but,  astonishing  as  it  may  ap[>car,  not  one 
life  was  lost,  nor  any  bones  broken. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  sufferers  : 

No. 33. —  Groundfloor,  Mrs.  Jones  and  her  twochildren. 

In  the  one  pair  front,  Mr.  Foster  and  two  children. — 
Back  room  ditto,  ]SIrs.  Lambert  and  daughter. 

Second  floor  front,    Mrs.  Lonnon  and    child. — Ditto 
back,  Mrs.  Shepherd  and  daughter. 

Third  floor,  lloyston,  Vv-ife,  and  son. 

No.  34. — Ground  floor,  William  Box,  wife,  and  tliroe 
children. 

One  pair  front.  Tiffin,  wife,  and  three  children. 

Ditto  back.  Nightingale  and  wife. 

Two  pair,  Eagle  (a  sailor  with  one  arm)  and  wife. 

Ditto  back,  Mrs.  Dormer,  aged  95  years,  being  seven 
months  bedridden,  who  was  also  taken  to  the  workhouse, 

without 


405  DrxT-ADFrL  AcncENx,  &:c. 

without  receiving  tlie  smallest  injury;  and  a  Mrs.  Har;- 
kins,  aged  74,  who  hved  with  her  in  the  same  room,  like- 
wise unhurt.  The  wife  of  Eagle,  a  sailor,  had  her  hreast 
and  shoulder  much  torn. 

It  was  nearly  twelve  o'clock  hefore  the  last  was  dug 
out  of  the  ruins.  One  very  remarkable  circumstance 
was^  a  child  of  about  six  months  old,  after  beiug  above 
three  hours  buried  in  the  rubbish,  when  taken  out  naked, 
and  cleaned  from  the  dust,  smiled  in  the  face  of  his  de- 
Jiver. — The  feelings  of  nature  manifested  by  different  in- 
dividuals on  the  occasion,  are  not  unworthy  of  notice: 
One  woman  when  rescued,  exclaimed,  "  A\'hcre  are  my 
three  children:"  Box,  the  tenant  of  one  of  the  houses, 
on  being  taken  out,  asked  for  his  wife  atid  children  ;  and 
being  told  they  were  missing,  resolutely  rescued  them 
himself  though  much  wounded.  Anotlier  person  named 
Tsicholson,  after  having  escaped,  supported  a  piece  of  tim- 
ber in  the  most  perilous  situation,  until  his  wife  got  out; 
after  which  the  whole  mass  again  gave  way,  and  he  was 
dreadfully  wounded  about  the  head  and  breast  before  he 
couldbe  extricated.  A  woman  who  was  delivered  of  a  child 
the  da}-  before,  received  very  little  injur3\  The  unfor- 
tunate sufferers  were  conveyed,  within  one  hour  after  the 
accident,  to  the  London  Hospital  and  parish  work-house. 
The  bruises  experienced  by  these  poor  people  were  but  a 
part  of  their  misfortunes:  their  small  stock  of  cloaths 
and  property,  was  either  pillaged  or  destroyed,  and  many 
of  them  were  scarcely  left  in  possession  of  sufficient  to 
cover  them. 

The  volunteers  remained  on  duty  the  whole  of  the  day. 
A  Colonel  of  the  ninth  Loyal  London  Volunteers  arrived 
there  about  eleven,  and  set  a  laudable  example,  by 
making  a  collection  for  the  unhappy  sufferers.  He  put 
ll.  8s.  fid.  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  John  Gilbert,  landlord 
of  the  Halifax  Head,  who  is  one  of  the  churchwardens 

of 


REMARKABLE  TREESj  &C.  407 

f  the  parish,  for  their  use  and  coniForc.  Jones,  who  is 
a  Custom-house  officer,  was  out  on  duty,  and  arrived  in 
sight  ot"  liis  house  just  in  time  to  see  it  iall. 

The  houses  were  originally  huilt  of"  old  materials,  and 
had  stood  thirty-eight  years.  The  surveyor  of  the  district 
as  well  as  the  landlord  of  the  premises,  gave  notice  to  the 
inhabitants,  some  weeks  before  to  quit,  as  their  lives 
were  not  thought  safe;  and  several  of  the  poor  sufi'crers, 
in  consequence  of  that  advice,  had  looked  out  for  dwel- 
lings to  remove  to;  but,  failing  of  success,  were  under 
the  necessity  of  remaining  where  they  were. 

TO  THE    EDITOR    OF  THE  SCIENTIFIC    AND  WONDERFUL,. 
MUSEUM. 
Sir, 
I  have  transmitted  you  the  following-  Memorandums  of  remarkable  Trees, 
the  produce  of  tliis  Country,  wliich  I  think  merit  preservation  in  j-our  Mis- 
cellany; and  as  I  have  not  seen  any  descriptions  of  the  like  nature  in   it, 
they  will  (I  flatter  myself)  add  to  tiie  pleasing  variety  of  your  very  interest- 
ing Museum,  and  at  the  same  time  prove  acceptable  to  the  admirers  of 
the  singular  productions  of  nature.     If  agreeable,  I  purpose  sending  a  con 
tinuation  of  them  for  some  future  number  of  the  Scientific  Magazine. 
Your  Humble  Servant, 
Nottingham,  Juhj  1S04.  D.  B  L. 

1  HERE  is  not  perhaps  at  present,  in  this  country,  such 
an  elm  as  was,  in  the  year  1674,  cut  down  in  the  park  of 
Sir  Walter  Bagot  in  Staffordshire.  The  particulars  re- 
corded in  the  family  are,  that  two  men  were  five  days  in 
felling  it;  it  measured  40  yards  to  the  top  in  length;  the 
st©ol  was  15  yards  2  feet  in  circumference ;  14  loads  were 
broken  in  the  fall,  48  loads  were  contai;ied  in  the  top ; 
there  were  made  out  of  it  80  pair  of  naves  for  wheels, 
and  8660  feet  of  boards  and  planks.  It  cost,  at  a  time 
when  labour  was  much  lower  rated  than  at  present,  lOl. 
7s.  for  sawing.  The  whole  substance  was  computed  to 
weigh  97  tons.  In  May  176O,  an  oak  was  felled  near 
Ludlow  in  Shropshire,,  the  contents  of  which  were  as  fol- 
low: 


408  ACCOUN'T  or   MR.  DANIEL  LAMBERT. 

low  :  viz.  SG  tons  of  timber,  42  cords  of  wood,  200  park- 
pales,  and  four  cords  and  a  half  of  brackets.  A  bough 
broke  off  before  the  treC  was  felled,  which  wtighed 
seven  tons  and  a  half.  Two  men  were  employed  a 
month  in  stocking  it.     Tiie  treee  was  valued  at  250l. 

In  March  1800,  an  ash-tree  was  cut  down  at  Brough- 
ton-llall,  near  iJliipton,  which  contained  upwards  of  oOO 
feet  of  sound  wood.  The  bole  was  IS  feet  long,  squared 
3  feet  9  inches,  and  contained  1,S2  feet  of  wood. 

Dimensions  of  a  iir  tree  called  the  Duke,  cut  down  in 

Sej)tembcr   1801,    in  his  Grace  the  Duke  of   Gordon's 

wood,  of  Glenniore,    by  the  Kingston  Port  Company ; — 

Length  in  bole  52  feet. 

Fec-t. 
Measured  at  jiine  feet  from  the  root,  09^  square  inches,  is        931 

Ditto  at  33  foet  from  ditto,  28^  ditto  182^ 
I)itto  at  42  feet,  19  ditto  25 

Ditto  one  branch,  15  by  19  inches  square  5~^ 

Ditto,  ditto     12  by  li  ditto  Ifii 

Fi-ct  337 

or,  9  tons,  at  5l.  per  ton,  is  4il.  The  tree  was  370 
years  old,  wa^  perfectly  sound,  excepting  a  little  at  the 
top,  and  at  the  small  end  of  the  branches.  It  was  cut 
down  in  three  hours,  by  two  Hi^ghland  lads  18  ye(M*s  of 
age. 

Some  Account  of  Mr.   Daniel   Lambekt,  o/Leicestef, 

supposed  to  be  the  heaviest  Man  in  England.  j^ 

Mr.  DANIEL  LAMBERT,  of  wh6m  we  have  annex- 
ed an  engraved  Representation,  taken  from  life,  may 
justly  be  considered  one  of  the  greatest  prodigies  at  pre- 
sent existing  in  this  country.  He  is  about  thirty-six 
years  of  age,  of  the  common  stature,  being  about  five 
ieet,  seven  or  eight  inches  in  height,  and  has  attained 
the  enormous  weight  of  forty-nine  stone  twelve  pounds, 
which  is  about  half  a  hundred  weight  heavier  than  the 

celebrated 


i 


M^I])AMI]E]L  I^AIMjBjEMT    of  Leicestoj'. 


AGCOUNTOF  MU.  DANIEL  LAMBERT.  409 

celebrated  Bright  of  Maiden  in  Essex,  whose  waistcoat 
was  so  capacious,  that  seven  men  might  be  buttoned  up  in 
it.  When  seated,  his  thighs  are  so  covered  by  his  bell}'', 
that  nothing  but  his  knees  are  to  be  seen  ;  while  the  flesh 
of  his  legs,  which  resemble  staffed  pillows,  projects  in 
such  a  manner  as  nearly  to  bury  his  feet.  Notwithstand- 
ing his  extreme  obesity,  liowever,  those  who  have  seen 
this  remarkable  man,  declarethat  his  body  and  hinbs 
from  head  to  feet  bear  a  very  exact  proportion  to  each 
other. 

In  his  situation  of  keeper  of  the  Bridewell  at  Leices- 
ter, Mr.  Lambert  evinces  a  humane  and  benevolent  dis- 
position. He  is  an  intelligent  man,  reads  much,  and 
possesses  great  vivacity. 

Till  within  the  last  three  years,  Mr.  Lambert  was  very 
active  in  all  the  sports  of  the  field,  and  though  his  exces- 
sive corpulence  now  prevents  him  from  partaking  in  them, 
he  still  keeps  dogs  to  which  he  is  extremely  attached. 
He  was  likewise  noted  as  an  excellent  swimmer,  and  as  a 
celebrated  feeder  of  cocks. 

The  following  anecdote  is  related  of  ^im : — Some 
time  since  a  man  with  a  dancing  bear,  going  througli 
the  town,  one  of  Mr.  Lambert's  dogs  taking  a  dis- 
like to  his  shaggy  appearance,  made  a  violent  attack 
upon  the  defenceless  animal.  Bruin's  master  did  not  fail 
to  take  the  part  of  his  companion,  and,  in  his  turn,  begaa 
to  belabor  the  dog.  Lambert  being  a  witness  of  the  tiay, 
hastened  with  all  possible  expedition  from  the  seat  or 
settle  (on  which  ho  makes  a  practice  of  sitting  at  his  own 
door,)  to  rescue  his  dog.  At  this  moment  the  bear,  turn- 
ing round  suddenly,  threw  down  hisimwieldy  antagonist, 
who  from  terror,  and  his  own  weight,  was  absolutely 
unable  to  rise  again,  and  with  difficulty  got  rid  of  his 
formidable  opponent. 

Mr.  Lambert  much  dishked  to  let  his  weight  be  known. 
Vol.  IL  f  r  f  and 


410  FARTHER  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CAMELEdN. 

and  frequently  objected  to  being  weighed  for  that  pur- 
pose. Going,  however,  onedayto  a  cocking  match  at 
Loughborough  in  a  carriage,  into  which  he  was  obhged 
to  get  sideways ;  by  a  preconcerted  plan  of  some  of 
his  friends,  he  was  taken  o\ier  a  weighing  machine^  and 
thus,  to  his  no  small  mortificatioHj  it  was  ascertained 
with  the  utmost  facility. 

We  understand  that,  as  it  has  lately  been  resolved  to 
transfer  the  business  of  the  Bridewell  to  the  county  goal, 
Mr.  Lambert  is  about  to  retire  from  a  situation  in  which 
he  has  given  such  satisfaction,  that  the  tovvn  of  Leicester 
has  voted  him  a  pension. 

Farther  Account  of  the  Cameleo.v,  coyitaining  a  Correc- 
tion of  several  vulgar  Hrrors;  zcith  Experiments  on  the 
Zi^onderful  Properties  of  that  animal,  hy  M.  Golbery. 

1 OWARDS  the  end  of  the  year  1786,  I  made  a  collec- 
tion of  several  cameleons,  of  all  sizes  and  ages,  and  I 
derived  pleasure  from  observing  them  with  attention. 

The  first  object  of  my  curiosity  was  the  nature  and  va- 
riety of  colours  whicli  this  animal  was  capable  of  assum- 
ing; and  I  soon  convinced  myself  that  the  cameleon 
does  not  adopt  the  colours  of  the  objects  which  surround 
or  cover  it;  that  the  changes  to  which  its  natural  colour 
is  subject,  are  owing  only  to  the  painful  affections  which 
this  animal  internally  experiences,  and  of  which  it  is 
susceptible  in  a  singular  degree. 

Its  natural  colour  is  that  of  the  finest  green  emerald; 
and  this  hue  I  always  observed  it  to  possess  when  in  a 
state  of  liberty,  and  perched  like  a  parrot  on  the  branch 
of  some  young  tree,  ornamented  with  beautiful  foliage, 
among  which  it  cannot  be  perceived  or  distinguished 
without  difficulty,  no  more  than  when  it  creeps  or  lies 
carelessly  among  the  verdant  herbage. 

At 


FARTHER  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CAMELEON.     411 

At  this  time  it  is  not  only  of  the  finest  emerald  green, 
but  it  is  likewise  most  healthy  and  corpulent.  A  state  of 
liberty,  and  the  privilege  of  living  among  grass,  or  flou- 
rishing trees,  appeared  to  me  two  indispensable  circum  = 
stances  for  maintaining  the  beautiful  green  colour  of  the 
cameleon,  as  well  as  its  general  healthy  appearance. 

From  the  moment  that  the  liberty  and  security  of  this 
reptile  were  troubled  or  restricted,  I  could  perceive  alte- 
rations in  the  freshness  and  brilliancy  of  its  colour,  and 
in  the  plumpness  of  its  whole  body.  W^hen  I  kept  my 
cameleons  in  a  cage,  and  plagued  or  tormented  them, 
I  saw  that  they  laboured  under  anguish  and  rage,  which 
they  expressed  by  expiring  the  air  so  strongly,  that  its 
force  became  audible,  soon  after  which  these  animals 
grew  lean,  and  their  fine  colour  was  tarnished.  On  con  ! 
tinning  to  torment  them,  the  dull  green  became  a  yellow 
green  and  afterwards  a  yellow,  spotted  with  red ;  then 
a  yellow-brown,  spotted  with  red-brown;  next  a  brown- 
grey,  marked  with  hiack  :  at  lehgth  my  cameleons  adopt- 
ed different  shades,  and  became  gradually  thinner.  These 
were  the  only  colours  I  could  make  them  assume. 

After  I  had  thus  tormented  them,  and  kept  them  priso- 
ners for  several  days,  I  used  to  set  thcjn  at  liberty.  I 
conveyed  them  to  the  grass,  or  a  tree,  and  notwithstand- 
ing their  black  and  meagre  appearance,  they  resumed 
their  green  colour  and  their  corpulence. 

I  often  wrapped  my  cameleons,  in  while,  red,  blue, 
violet,  purple,  and  green  stufi's,  in  which  1  left  them 
whole  days  together,  and  on  visiung  my  jMjor  prisoners, 
I  found  that  they  had  assumed  none  of  those  colours,  but 
were  always  of  a  yellow  green,  dull  yellow,  or  hlackish 
grey,  which  are  those  they  always  assume  when  in  dis- 
tress or  pain. 

The  skin  of  the  cameleon  is  of  a  very  fine  and  delicate 
texture;  it  is  extremely  soft  and  cold  to  the  touch,  and 

¥  I-  V  'Z  when 


412     FARTHER  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CAMELEO". 

wlicn  observed  with  a  magnifying  glass  of  considerable 
power,  on  tlie  living  animal,  it  appeared  like  a  shagreen. 
But  though  so  very  tine  and  supple,  it  is  not  glossy;  yet 
the  little  points  or  eminences  upon  it  may  be  said  to  be 
imperceptible,  as  tliey  can  scarcely  be  distingvishcd  by 
the  naked  e^'C.  it  is  exceedingly  tenacious,  and  posse.->se3 
a  great  portion  of  elasticity  as  well  as  the  faculty  of  ex- 
panding and  contracting  to  a  considerable  degree. 

It  is  doubtless  to  this  contexture  of  the  skin,  that  we 
must  attribute  the  faciUty  with  which  the  cameleon 
changes  its  colour,  according  to  the  degree  of  dilatation 
or  contraction  which  it  undergoes ;  and  it  is  equally  cer- 
tain that  those  sudden  ch;ingcs  in  the  animal  which  asto- 
nish us  so  much,  are  derived  from  the  same  cause. 

The  cameleon  however  possesses  a  much  more  extraor- 
dinary faculty  than  the  changing  of  colour,  that  of  di- 
lating and  contracting  itself  at  pleasure,  I'he  cause  of 
its  expansion  is  the  air  wiiieh  it  inspires:  for  this  air  does 
not  remain  in  its  breast,  stomach,  or  intestines,  but  pe- 
netrates through  every  gart  of  its  bod}'  so  generally  and 
completely  that  its  whole  frame  is  filled,  even  to  the  ex- 
tremities of  its  feet  and  tail,  as  well  as  its  eyes,  which  are 
then  more  full  and  projecting. 

This  facility  of  imbing  air  must  be  very  great,  be- 
cause I  observed  my  cameleons,  after  being  several  di^ys 
in  a  declining  or  decaying  state,  recover  their  flesh,  and 
re-expand  to  the  utmost  degree  in  a  short  space  of  time  ; 
and  I  have  likewise  seen  them  remain  fat  and  bloated  for 
a  fortnight  together,  soon  after  which  they  become  so 
contracted,  as  apparcnil}'  to  be  nothing  but  skin  and 
bones. 

But  it  must  not  be  imagined,  that  in  its  state  of  health 

the  eamcloon  merely  resembles  a  skin  filled  with  air;   on 

the  contrary,  it  appears  fat,  and  its  flesh  is  naturally  dis- 

tj-ibuted  over  cverv  part  of  its  bodv. 

in 


f ARTKER  ACCOUNT    OF   THE  CAMELEON.  413 

In  its  last  degree  of  contrac  tion,  when  tl.is  ai)inuil  has 
ahuost  entirely  voided  its  air,  and  retains  only  the  c|uan- 
tit}^  necessary  for  tlie  preservation  of  its  vital  faculties, 
the  extreme  leaiincs;-  of  its  hudy  is  astonishing;  and  it 
appears  extraordinary,  that  when  the  animal  moves,  or 
in  particular  ulien  it  turns,  it  resembles  an  empty  sack 
that  has  been  twisted  up. 

\V'^ishing  to  ascertain  to  what  degree  the  cameleon  is 
capable  of  carrying  the  laeulty  attributed  to  it,  of  living 
upon  air,  and  existing  a  length  of  time  without  eating; 
at  the  end  of  the  year  17S6,  at  Isle  St.  Louis,  in  the  Se 
negal,  I  subjected  my  cameleons,  being  seven  in  number, 
and  in  a  state  of  perfect  health,  to  the  experiments  which 
I  \Yished  to  make  and  describe. 

I  inclosed  five  of  these  animals  in  separate  cages  of 
iron  wire,  which  were  covered  with  a  very  fine  gauze, 
hilt  of  such  a  close  texture,  that  no  insect  could  pass 
through  it.  I  suspended  my  cages  by  means  of  cords 
and  pullies  to  the  ceiling  of  my  chamber ;  the  cords  of  all 
these  little  prisons  being  tied  together,  and  phiccd  in  a 
wooden  box  that  was  fixed  to  the  wall  and  locked.  With 
this  precaution,  1  was  sure  that  nobody  could  let  down 
my  cages,  that  my  cameleons  could  receive  no  food,  and 
that  they  were  condemned  to  the  most  perfect  abstinence. 
I  numbered  my  cages  with  the  figures  1,  2,  3,  4  and  5. 

,It  was  on  the  first  of  November  that  1  began  my  expe- 
riments ;  I  visited  my  unfortunate  prisoners,  who  were 
destined  to  perish  of  hunger,  four  times  in  every  twenty- 
four  hours.  In  a  few  days  they  became  meagre,  and 
turned  to  a  blackish  grey  colour,  which  was  a  certain 
sign  of  their  distress;  but  having  arrived  at  a  great  degree 
of  leanness,  they  renuiined  in  the  same  state  for  the  space 
of  a  month,  without  my  being  able  to  perceive  that  they 
sulfered  any  very  evident  diminution  of  their  strength. 

The  cages  in   which  I  had  confined  them  were  fifteen 

inches 


414  FARTHER  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  CAMELEON. 

inches  high,  and  were  crossed  by  little  sticks  in  the  mid- 
dle, like  the  perches  in  bird-cages. 

Whenever  I  letdown  my  cages,  for  fbe purpose  of  ob- 
serring  ray  cameleons,  they  opened  their  mouths,  and 
expired  the  air  strongly  at  me ;  these  expirations  were 
Yery  perceptible,  and  could  be  distinctly  heard. 

During  the  first  six  weeks,  my  prisoners  moved  about 
their  cages,  from  the  top  to  the  bottom.  In  the  morning 
I  generally  found  them  at  the  top,  but  after  the  abovc- 
joentioned  period,  I  remarked  that  they  did  not  ascend 
so  high  ;  and  in  short,  at  the  end  of  two  months,  they 
no  longer  quitted  the  bottoms  of  their  cages  ;  their  lean- 
ness became  extreme,  their  weakness  and  languor  were 
very  perceptible,  their  skin  was  almost  black,  and  I  ob- 
served a  heaviness  in  the  motion  of  their  eyes.  They, 
however,  retained  the  faculty  of  swelhng  themselves  up, 
but  only  to  about  half  their  usual  size;  their  bodies  were 
never  filled,  and  speedily  became  contracted. 

Ky  the  hrst  daj'  of  January,  they  had  arrived  at  such 
a  degree  of  leanness,  that  they  were  nothing  more  than 
animiitcd  skeletons,  and  I  was  convinced  they  could  not 
long  exist.  Nevertheless  No.  3  which  died  first,  did  not 
expire  till  the  CBth  of  January;  No.  1,  died  on  the  SOih 
of  the  same  month  ;  No.  4,  expired  in  the  night  of  the 
33th  of  February,  and  No.  o  withstood  the  punishment 
of  hunger  till  the  23d  of  February,  on  the  morning  of 
which  day  it  fell  a  victim.  No.  2,  continued  alive  on  the 
24th  of  February,  but  was  so  feeble  and  exhausted,  that 
I  believed  it  to  be  near  the  period  of  its  existence  ;  I  was 
then  inclined  to  release  it,  without,  however,  hoping  tluit 
it  could  live.  It  had  subsisted  upon  air  three  months, 
and  twenty-four  days  at  the  lime  I  delivered  it  from  im- 
prisonment. I  took  it  to  the  garden,  where  1  set  it  at  li- 
bertv,  and  in  a  fortnight  it  had  acquired  colour  and 
strength,  and  even  beG:un  to  re-fill  itself. 


SfArthkr  account  of  the  cameleon*        41-5 

On  the  30th  of  March,  it  was  of  a  green  colour,  but 
still  pale,  and  had  perfectly  recovered  the  faculty  of  ex- 
|>ansion.  Its  health  and  strength  appeared  to  me  to  be 
entirely  restored  in  the  month  of  April;  but  towards  the 
end  of  that  month  it  escaped,  and  my  endeavours  to  find 
it  were  unsuccessful,  so  that  I  was  not  able  to  ascertain 
whether  the  health  of  my  cameleon  was  really  and  com- 
pletely re-established  ;  but  doubtless  the  long  abstinence 
which  it  underwent  must  have  abridged  the  duration  of 
its  life. 

It  now  remains  for  me  to  notice  the  eyes  of  the  came- 
leon, which  arc  covered  with  a  membrane,  that  serves 
instead  of  eye-lids.  This  membrane  is  like  a  case,  perfo- 
rated in  the  middle  by  a  longitudinal  hole,  about  a  line 
wide  in  the  largest  part.  Through  this  orifice  the  ani- 
mal sees  and  exposes  to  view  a  brown  pupil,  bordered  by 
a  small  gxDld  circle,  and  extremely  biiglit  and  shining. — 
This  case  possesses  the  faculty  of  following  all  the  mo- 
tions of  the  eye,  in  wbieh  respect  it  differs  entirely  from 
the  common  organization  of  the  eye-lids  of  otlier  ani- 
mals, in  the  present  case  the  motions  of  the  eye-lid  so 
exactly  correspond  with  those  of  the  eye,  that  they  are  ab- 
solutely one,  and  the  same ;  and  in  all  the  motions  tlie 
little  aperture  of  the  eye-lid  answers  in  every  rcr.pect  to 
the  central  point  of  the  pupil.  But  what  is  still  more 
singular,  and  I  believe  peculiar  to  this  animal  is  the  fa- 
culty of  moving  its  «yes>  in  every  possible  direction,  and 
wholly  independent  of  each  other.  The  cameleon  moves 
one  of  its  eyes,  while  the  other  remains  motionless;  with 
one  he  looks  before,  and  with  the  other  behind,  or  one 
is  turned  up  towards  the  sky,  while  the  other  looks  down 
at  the  ground.  These  contrary  motions  are  executed  to- 
gether with  a  prodigious  rapidity,  or  alternately  with  still 
more  astonishing  quickness ;  and  they  are  carried  to  such 
a  degree,  that  the  pupil  even  passes  under  the  projection 

whicli 


416 


DESCRTFTtON   OF  THE  TERMITr:. 


which  serves  for  the  eye-brow,  and  likewise  buries  itself 
suddenly  in  the  corner  of  the  of  bit;  so  that  the  animal 
readily,  and  at  the  same  time,  discovers  objects  situated 
both  behind  and  before,  widiuut  in  the  least  degree  mov- 
ing his  head,  v/hicli  is  oloselv  confined  to  his  shoulders. 

These  rapid  evolutions  give  the  animal  the  facility  of 
secinii;  at  once  in  every  direction,  and  of  constantly  ob- 
serving whatever  passes  around.  The  object  of  this  con- 
formation is  doubtless  the  securify  of  the  camcleon,  and 
to  enable  it  to  catch  the  small  iusects  and  flies  upon 
•which  it  heds. 


Description  o/'//ic  Termite,  a  curious  J frican  insect,  and 
Account  of  the  wondei^fal  Nests  it  constructs. 

\Vf  Lave  lonj  been  taught  to  rca;aiil  with  adtniration  the  extraordinary 
Industry,  the  amazing  ingenuity,  and  the  internal  regulations  and  cccono- 
my  of  the  cominunwealtli  of  hees;  but  liere  we  find  an  insect  whose  labours 
are  not  only  far  more  wonderful  than  theirs,  but  compared  with  which  the 
tiiost  celebrated  laoauuicnts  of  human  industry  dwindle  into  insignificance. 

1  HE  Termite  is  found  in  almost  all  the  western  reorion* 
of  the  African  Continent,  between  Cape  Bojador,  and 
Cape  Blanco.  Linnaeus  describes  this  insect  by  the  name 
of  Termcs,  but  it  is  commonly  known  by  the  denomina- 
tion of  the  white  ant.  These  little  animals  afford  the  ob- 
server many  subjects  of  astonishment.  They  effect,  in  a 
moment,  inconceival>le  destruction,  and  erect  monu- 
ments of  such  prodigious  magnitude  and  solidit}'^,  that, 
if  compared  with  the  extreme  sinallness  of  the  insects  by 
which  they  are  constructed,  thc}^  appear  far  more  won- 
derful than  the  proudest  productions  of  human  industry. 

Of  this  kind  of  insects  naturalists  are  acquainted  with 
four  sjx'cies.  The  first  is  distinguished  by  the  name  of 
the  Belligerent  Termite,  and  is  the  largest  species.  The 
ncst3  of  these  animals  are  large  handsome  pyramids,  fif- 
teen or  sixteen  feet  in  height  above  the  surface  of  the 

earth 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  TERMITE.  41? 

earth,  and  as  many  below  it.  The  second  species  is  the 
Atrocious  Termite,  whose  nests  are  likewise  of  a  pyrami- 
dal form,  but  neither  so  lofty  nor  extensive  as  the  for- 
mer. Its  ravages,  however,  are  more  fatal,  and  its  punc- 
tures more  painful  and  dangerous.  The  Biting  Termite 
forms  the  third  species,  and  constructs  its  nest  in  the 
form  of  a  cylindrical  turret,  four  feet  high,  and  one  in 
diameter.  The  turret  is  covered  with  a  conical  roof 
which  projects  some  inches  over,  and  beyond  the  build- 
ing, the  object  of  which  is  doubtless  to  prevent  it  from 
being  injured  by  rain.  The  fourth  species  is  termed  by 
naturalists  the  Destroying  Termite,  and  constructs  sphe- 
rical nests  round  the  branch  of  a  tree,  which  passes  in- 
tirely  through  them. 

As  the  manners  of  all  these  species  are  nearly  the 
same,  we  shall  confine  ourselves  to  a  more  particular  ac- 
count of  the  first,  which  is  in  every  respect  the  most 
lemarkable. 

The  termites  are  divided  into  societies,  each  society 
builds  a  nest,  and  each  nest  belongs  to  an  innumerable 
quantity  of  these  insec>ts,  who  are  subject  to  a  king  and 
queen.  These,  like  many  other  insects  pass  through  se- 
veral stages  of  existence  before  they  arrive  at  the  state  of 
a  perfect  animal. 

The  first  state  of  the  life  of  the  termites,  is  that  of 
larvae,  when  the  insect  is  not  more  than  two  jaus  in 
length.  It  is  then  of  a  white  colour,  has  six  ]eiis,  three 
on  each  side,  a  small  head  without  eyes,  antennae  com- 
posed of  small  globules  joined  together,  and  tapering  to 
the  extremity,  with  small  jaws.  The  larva;  are  chained 
Tvith  all  the  labour  of  building,  and  with  the  care  of  the 
provisions,  and  it  is  they  that  reduce  to  an  impalpable 
powder  the  most  enormous  trees,  and  the  strongest 
pieces  of  timber.  In  tiiis  state  of  the  termite  insect,  it 
would  be  the  plague  of  Africa,  if  those  extraordinary 

Vol.  II.  o  G  c  powers 


418  ©ESCRIPTION   OF  THE  TEKMITE, 

powers  of  devastation  with  which  these  larvae  are  indued, 
were  not  directed  to  a  useful  end. 

These  blind  animals  never  attack  green  and  healthy 
woodj  but  only  that  which  being  in  a  state  of  decay, 
tends  but  to  impede  vegetation,  and  the  circulation  of 
the  air  in  the  vast  forests  of  Africa.  It  is  these  larvae 
which  likewise  devour  the  enormous  animals  that  die  in 
the  centre  of  those  solitary  forests,  either  of  old  age,  by 
accident,  or  of  the  wounds  they  receive  in  the  battles  that 
continually  take  place  between  them.  The  putrid  exha- 
lations of  these  large  carcases  would  probably  infect  the 
continent  of  Africa,  if  the  instinct  of  the  termites  did  not 
speedily  effect  their  destruction. 

The  second  state  is  that  of  the  chrysalis.  In  this,  as 
in  the  former  state,  the  insects  are  blind;  the  head  is 
larger,  and  is  provided  with  long  pointed  jaws  without 
teeth.  It  is  the  chrysalids  that  are  charged  with  all  the 
labour  and  the  oeconomy  of  the  nests ;  it  is  they  that 
compel  the  larvae  to  work,  and  that  construct  all  the  in- 
terior recesses  in  which  the  eggs  are  deposited.  They 
are  likewise  the  nurses  and  the  warriors  of  the  commu- 
nity. The  larvae  do  not  fight,  nor  are  they  armed  for 
battle;  the  chrysalids  are  therefore  charged  with  the  de- 
fence of  the  state ;  they  repel  external  attacks,  and  op- 
po^ic  the  daring  invader  of  their  peaceful  habitations, 
biting  him  with  the  utmost  fury. 

The  termites,  at  length  arrive  at  their  perfect  state, 
when  they  have  wings  and  fly  off  in  innumerable  quan- 
tities. It  is  only  in  this  third  state  that  they  are  of  diffe- 
rent sexes,  and  are  capable  of  propagating  their  species. 
After  the  last  transformation  into  winged  insects,  they 
ure  pursued  with  great  avidity  by  the  birds.  Their  wings 
soon  become  dr}',  they  drop  down,  and  cover  the  surface 
both  of  the  earth  and  waters.  In  some  pans  they  are 
collected  by  the  negroes  and  eaten. 

We 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  TERMITE.  419 

We  are  not  acquainted  with  the  duration  of  the  whole 
life  of  the  termite ;  in  its  winged  state  it  does  not  live 
more  than  two  days.  Towards  the  evening  of  the  second 
da\'  they  lose  their  strength,  and  these  little  animals,  so 
active  and  industrious  in  the  state  of  larva?  and  chrysa- 
lids,  hecome  feeble,  stupid,  and  incaptible  of  resisting 
the  s;nallest  insects ;  they  suffer  themselves  to  betaken 
even  by  the  ants,  and  to  be  dragged  to  their  nests  without 
opposition. 

All  the  winged  termites  however  do  not  perish  in  this 
dreadful  destruction.  The  king  and  queen,  whose  busi- 
ness it  is  to  propagate  their  species  are  winged  termites, 
and  some  pairs  of  them,  at  the  moment  of  the  universal 
ruin  of  the  third  class,  are  found  by  the  larva?,  and  car- 
ried off  for  the  purpose  of  founduig  new  colonies.  Be- 
ing conveyed  either  to  an  old  or  newly  constructed  nrst, 
they  are  there  inclosed  in  a  large  cell,  which  is  the  royal 
chamber  or  nuptial  prison.  They  are  fed  by  the  larvae 
and  chrysalids,  lose  their  wings,  and  pass  their  lives  in 
perfect  indolence,  being  apparently  destined  only  for  the 
propagation  of  their  species.  The  length  of  the  king 
iiever  exceeds  four  lines,  but  the  queen  grows  to  the  com- 
paratively enormous  size  of  live  inches. 

Sparman  asserts,  that  the  queen  lays  sixty  eggs  in  a 
minute,  which  makes  eighty-six  thousand^  four  hundred 
eggs  in  twenty-four  hours.  Whether  this  process  be 
continued  has  not  yet  been  ascertained  ;  but  the  infinite 
multitude  of  termites  that  are  every  where  seen  in  Africa, 
,  arc  sufficient  to  induce  a  belief  that  the  laying  is  perpe- 
•     tual. 

The  following  is  the  account  of  the  p^'ramids  or  nests 
constructed  by  the  belligerent  termites,  as  given  by  a  late 
intelligent  traveller,  M.  Golbery. 

*'  I  took  a  ride,"  says  he,  "  ©ne  morning  at  sun-rise, 
followed  by  my  black  servant  and  interpreter,  and  ao- 

<J  G  G  3  comoanicd 


420  DESCRIPTION  OF  TUB  TBRMIT«. 

coinpanied  by  Sonkoary,  a  relation  of  the  king  of  Barra, 
(on  the  river  Gambia),  and  presumptive  heir  of  that  lit-* 
tie  kingdom.  The  object  of  my  ride  was  to  visit  the 
wood  Lamaya,  situated  to  the  west  of  Albreda,  and  about 
two  miles  from  that  village. 

"  This  wood,  which  is  above  two  leagues  in  circumfe-- 
rence,  is  composed  of  trees  of  tlie  largest  species,  the 
leaves  of  which  resemble  those  of  the  plane-tree.  They 
are  all  very  old,  and  upvva:ds  of  fifty  feet  distant  from  each 
other.  Their  superb  heads  touch  and  intermix,  forming 
a  dome,  which  is  the  more  beautiful,  because  the  trunks 
heing  free  from  branches  to  the  height  of  sixty  feet,  havQ 
the  appearance  of  noble  columns. 

"  On  approaching  this  vvood,  I  was  much  astonished  to 
perceive  a  number  of  pyramids,  ten,  fifteen,  and  even 
sixteen  feet  high,  of  a  red  colour,  exactly  similar  to  that 
of  well-burned  brick. 

"  The  size  and  form  of  these  constructions  caused  me 
to  imagine  that  they  were  sepulchral  monuments  erected 
to  the  meiuory  of  tlie  ancient  Manding  warriors  at  Barra, 
till  i  eacjuiifcd  of  my  interpreter.  Sonkoury  replied  that 
these  edificeii  were  the  work  of  the  termites,  and  the 
ncst3  of  those  insects  which  swarmed  in  every  part  of  the 
forest.  1  quickened  my  pace,  and  arrived  at  the  wood 
of  Lamaya,  being  anxious  to  observe  with  attention  the 
astonishing  labours  of  au  insect  with  which  I  was  unac- 
quainted till  I  resided  in  Africa^ 

''■  I  could  scarcely  conceive  how  these  diminutive  ani- 
mals were  capable  of  erecting  such  extraordinary  edifit 
ces;  there  were  upwards  of  forty  pyramids,  three  hun- 
dred, and  in  some  instances  five  hundred  paces  distant 
from  each  other,  rising  ten,  twelve  and  even  sixteen 
feet  above  the  soil;  their  bases  were  all  from  one  hun- 
dred to  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  square.  These  mo- 
liiiiueuts  appeared  to  me  as  surprising  as  the  pyramids  of  | 

Memphis^ 


1>ES€RIPT10N  OF  THE  TERMITE.  4^| 

Memphis,  and  even  more  so,  because  they  were  the  work 
of  ail  insect. 

"  Theje  are  long  galleries  leading  to  the  interior  of 
these  pyramids,  and  these  galleries  contain  an  immense 
number  of  cells  in  fonn  resembling  the  inside  of  half  of 
a  very  small  nut-shell.  These  cells,  are  wainscotted,  being 
internally  lined  with  small  filaments  of  wood,  about  the 
thickness  of  a  hair,  which  are  joined  and  fixed  with 
great  art  by  the  side  of  each  other.  These  when  viewed 
through  a  magnifying  glass,  have  the  appearance  of  a 
floor  formed  of  small  rushes  glued  and  dove-tailed  to  each 
other.  In  this  manner  the  whole  interior  surface  of  each 
cell  is  covered  ;  and  it  can  only  be  by  means  of  a  sub- 
stance perfectly  glutinous,  that  the  insect  can  unite  with 
such  neatness  and  solidity  the  minute  filaments  it  employs 
to  line  the  inside  of  its  nurseries. 

"  It  would  be  both  curious  and  philosophical  to  com- 
pare the  pyramids  of  the  wood  of  Lamaya,  the  admira- 
ble work  of  very  small  insects,  to  the  pyramids  of  Eg\"pt, 
the  boasted  productions  of  human  industry. 

*'  From  this  comparison,  it  is  evident  that  the  Egyptian 
pyramids  are  far  inferior  in  njagnitude  to  those  of  the 
wood  of  Lamaya,  when  we  consider  the  relative  propor- 
tions of  their  respective  architects.  The  highest  of  the 
pyramids  of  Ghiza  is  not  above  four  hundred  and  filty 
feet  in  height,  and  supposing  the  stature  of  the  Egyp- 
tians to  be  only  five  feet  (which  is  far  below  the  ordinary 
height  of  man)  the  proportion  of  the  largest  of  the  Egyp- 
tian pyramids  to  a  man  of  five  feet,  would  only  be  as  four 
hundit'd  and  fifty  to  five,  or  ninety  to  one. 

'^  It  has  been  already  observed,  that  the  termite  lar- 
vie  are  the  builders  and  masons  of  their  empire,  and  that 
their  length  is  not  more  than  three  lines.  Consequently 
the  highest  of  the  pyramids  in  the  wood  of  Lamaya, 
which  was  seventeen  feet  above  the  ground,  when  com- 
pared 


4et 


eVRiaVS  PRODUCTIONS  OF  ARt. 


pared  to  the  termite  larvae,  will  be  as  two  thousand  four 
hundred  and  forty-eight  to  three,  or  eight  hundred  and 
sixteen  to  one. 

**  The  pyramids  of  Lamaya  are,  therefore,  in  a  rela- 
tive proportion,  infinitely  higher  than  those  of  Egypt, 
and  if  we  consider  the  masses,  and  the  time  respectively 
employed  in  the  constructions,  together  with  the  great 
Bumber  of  these  pyramids  of  the  termites,  that  exist  in 
Africa,  we  shall  be  compelled  to  admire  the  powers 
which  the  Creator  has  granted  to  one  of  the  smallest  of 
insects,  and  to  view  with  a  more  modest  eye,  those  cele- 
brated monuments  of  ancient  Egypt,  the  description  of 
which  is  so  flattering  to  the  pride  of  man." 


CURIOUS  PRODUCTIONS  OF  ART. 

1  HE  great  bell  in  Lincoln  cathedral,  called  Tom  of 
Lincoln,  measures  twenty-two  feet  eight  inches  in  cir- 
cumference, weighs  nearly  five  tons,  and  will  hold  four 
hundred  and  twenty-four  gallons,  ale  measure. 


At  Erfurt  in  Germany,  there  is  a  bell,  reckoned  one  of 
the  Uirgest  in  Europe.  It  weighs  upwards  of  twelve  tons, 
is  nearly  eleven  feet  in  height,  and  as  many  yards  in  cir- 
cumference. It  is  said  that  its  sound  may  be  heard  at  tiie 
distance  of  twenty-four  miles. 


Among  the  curiosities  of  Slrasburg  cathedral,  are  tw(y 
large  bells,  one  of  which  is  of  brass,  and  weighs  ten 
tons;  the  other  is  of  silver,  and  is  said  to  weigh  above 
two  tons. 


In  the  Aradcm}'  of  Sciences  at  Petersburg,  is  a  repeat- 
ing watch,  about  the  size  of  an  e^g;  wiihin  is  repre"scnt- 
cd  our  Saviour's  tomb,  with  the  slonc  nt  the  entrance, 

and 


CUmOUS  PRODUCTIONS  OF  AST".  433 

^nd  the  centinels  guarding  it.  While  the  spectator  is 
admiring  this  curious  piece  of  mechanism,  the  stone 
4s  suddenly  removed,  the  angels  appear,  the  women  enter 
the  sepulchre,  and  the  same  chant  is  heard  which  is  per- 
formed in  the  Greek  church  on  Easter  Eve. 


At  Lucern  in  Switzerland,  is  to  be  seen  a  topographi- 
cal representation  of  the  most  mountainous  part  of  that 
country,  the  workmanship  of  General  Pfiffer,  a  native 
of  the  above  town.  It  is  a  model  twelve  feet  in  length, 
and  nine  and  a  half  in  breadth.  The  materials  of  which 
it  is  made  are  principally  a  composition  of  charcoal, 
lime,  cla}',  and  pitch,  with  a  thin  coat  of  wax.  It  is  so 
hard,  that  it  may  be  trodden  upon  without  sustaining 
any  injury.  Tiie  whole  is  painted  with  different  colour*, 
representing  the  objects  as  they  appear  in  nature,  and  it 
is  particularly  worthy  of  observation,  that  not  only  the 
woods  of  oak,  beech,  pine,  and  other  trees,  are  accurately 
distinguished,  but  the  figures  of  the  rocks  are  likewise 
preserved,  each  being  shaped  upon  tht^  spot,  and  formed 
of  granite,  gravel,  calcareous  stone,  or  such  other  sub- 
stance as  compose  the  original  mountains.  The  eieva* 
tions  a)-e  taken  from  the  level  of  the  lake  of  Lueern,  and 
the  plan  is  so  minutely  exact,  that  it  comprehends  not 
only  alith<e  mountains,  lakes,  towns,  villages,  and  forests^ 
but  likewise  every  cottage,  stream,  road,  and  even  foot- 
path, is  distinctly  represented.  In  1791,  when  this  mo- 
nument of  patient  ingenuity  was  examined  liy  Count 
Stollberg,  it  coniained  a  miniature  of  an  extent  of  coun- 
try equal  to  two  hundred  and  twenty  square  leagues. 


Dr.  Oliver  informs  us,  that  in  Holland  an  English  gen- 
tleman oixes hewed  him  a  cherry-sione,  with  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-four  heads  engraven  upon  it,  and  all  so 
perfect  that  the  naked  eye  might  distinguish  those  of 

kin^, 


424  HORRID  MURDER  AT  PETERSBURG. 

kings,  popes,  cardinals,  &c.  by  their  crowns  and  mitres. 
This  curiosity  was  bought  in  Prussia,  for  three  hundred 
pounds,  and  is  said  to  have  been  the  workmanship  of  a 
poor  wretch  in  prison  at  Dantzick. 

In  the  Royal  Museum  at  Copenhagen,  a  stone  of  the 
same  kind  is  preserved,  on  which  are  engraved  two  hun- 
dred and  twenty  heads,  but  they  are  so  small  as  to  appear 
imperfect  aiid  confused. 


Account  of  the  horrid  Murder  of  a  lohoh  Famili/  at  P^- 
tcrsburgh,  and  Description  of  the  cruel  Punishment  z«- 
fictcd  on  the  Ferpeirator. 

About  the  beginning  of  the  winter  of  1803 — 4,  the 
public  attention  at  Petersburg!!  was  much  engaged  by  onp 
of  the  most  atrocious  murders  ever  heard  of:  a  whole  fa- 
mily were  found  massacred  in  their  sleep,  in  the  suburbs 
of  Petersburgh.  A  map  and  his  wife  lay  in  bed  with 
tlieir  headsnearly  cutoff,  a  subaltern  officer  lay  stretched 
on  the  floor  in  the  same  state;  near  the  door  was  a  boy 
_about  twelve  years  of  age,  who  probably  having  attempt- 
ed to  escape^  Mas  beheaded  and  cruelly  mangled;  in  a 
cradle  was  found  a  child  nearly  frozen  to  death,  and  upon 
a  table  in  the  room  were  seen  a  pack  of  cards,  an  empty 
brandy  botlle,,  and  a  few  pieces  of  copper. 

It  was  about  four  d^iys  after  the  niuriJer  before  the  dis- 
covery was  made,  when  his  Imperial  I\Jajesty  attended 
in  person,  and  saw  the  horrid  spectacle,  frozen  into  one 
mass  of  ice;  he  threatened  the  police  with  severe  conse- 
quences if  the  assassins  were  not  apprehended  in  48 
hours,  gave  100  rubles  for  the  relief  of  the  infant,  and 
promised  a  thousand  for  the  discovery  of  the  offenders. 

B}'  the  fclh-wing  day,  147  pcrs>'ns  were  taiicn  into 
cust(  dy,  and  among  them  the  villain  who  had  been  guil- 
ty 


HORRID  MURDER  AT  PETERSBURG.  425 

ty  of  the  crime.  He  was  a  carpenter,  who  had  worked 
in  the  neighbourhood,  and  having  heard  that  the  people 
possessed  a  small  sum  of  money,  went  one  evening  to 
beo:  a  lodEcins:,  when,  after  havino;  resraled  them  with 
brandy,  he  took  an  opportunity  when  they  were  all 
asleep,  to  treat  them  in  the  manner  above  related,  robbed 
the  house  of  about  one  hundred  rubles,  fastened  the  win- 
dows, having  fixed  a  padlock  on  the  door,  and  \yalkea 
oft'  unnoticed.  On  the  Saturday  morning  following, 
about  ten  o'clock,  he  was  conducted  to  the  place  of  exe- 
cution. First  went  the  police  master,  then  a  posse  of 
police  officers  on  horseback,  two  and  two,  four  ranks  of 
foot  soldiers,  twelve  deep,  behind  the  last  rank  was  the 
murderer,  on  each  side  of  him  marched  a  soldier  with  a 
drawn  sabre;  on  his  right  and  left  twelve  others  with 
fixed  baN'onets, 

He  was  a  tall  handsome  young  man,  about  twenty-six 
years  of  age,  about  six  feet  high,  dressed  in  a  blue  coat, 
resembling  that  of  a  blue-coat  boy;  he  was  accompanied 
by  two  others,  who  were  to  suffer  for  forgery,  with  the 
executioner  carrying  the  knoots  tied  up  in  canvas,  and 
about  six  ranks  of  loot  soldiers  closed  the  rear.  The  phy- 
siognomy of  the  murderer  was  such  as  would  have  stag- 
gered even  Lavater  himself;  his  countenance  was  open 
and  honest,  nor  had  he  the  least  appearance  of  possess 
ing  so  base  a  heart. 

The  stake  prepared  for  him  was  a  strong  block  of 
■'  wood,  fixed  in  the  ground,  with  three  grooves  at  the  top, 
and  two  rings  near  the  bottom  :  the  middle  groove  was  for 
the  neck,  and  the  two  others  for  the  arm  pits,  tJiie  rings 
below  to  lock  round  the  ancles;  about  the  stakes  were 
laid  coarse  skins,  especially  where  the  knoot-raaster  trod, 
upon  which  lay  his  whips)  marking-irons,  pincers,  &c. 
An  officer  then  read  a  paper  to  the  people,  signifying  that 
forgery   upon  the  Imperial  bank  being  a  capital  crime. 

Vol.  n,  II  n  If  and 


425 


HOURID  MURDER  AT  PETtRSBURG. 


and  two  of  the  prisoners  convicted  of  it_,  were  condem- 
ned to  receive  eleven  blows  of  the  knoot,  to  have  their 
nostrils  pulled  out,  and  be  banished  for  life  to  Siberia : 
the  murderer  of  so  many  persons  to  receive  399  blows,  to 
be  branded  three  times  in  the  face,  have  his  nostrils  pulled 
out,  and  (if  thou  alive)  be  banished  for  life  to  the  mints 
of  Siberia. 

The  executioner  and  his  assistants  then  stripped  him, 
tied  his  hands  across,  and  led  him  to  the  post;  after  fix- 
ing his  ankles,  they  bent  his  neck  and  arms  over  it,  and 
drew  the  rope  with  which  his  hands  were  tied  through  the 
ring  on  the  opposite  side,  which  seemed  to  stretch  all  the 
muscles  of  the  back.  He  then  retired  about  four  or  five 
yards  from  him,  and  taking  up  one  of  the  knoots,  work- 
ed it  with  his  hand  to  give  it  a  proper  elasticity.  Walk- 
ing towards  the  criminal  with  four  or  five  steady  steps, 
then  taking  a  spring,  he  struck  a  perpendicular  stroke 
with  a  heavy,  loud  crack.  Tlie  first  stroke  cut  from  the 
right  side  of  the  bottom  of  the  neck  to  the  left  arm-pit. 
The  effect  was  visible  in  a  moment,  and  by  the  violence 
of  his  screams  afforded  reason  to  suppose  that  the  pain 
was  very  great;  the  second  was  about  half  an  inch  below 
the  first,  and  so  on  till  ^15,  when  changing  the  whip,  the 
operator  erased  the  former  wounds,  striking  from  the  left 
side  to  the  right,  and  afterwards  quite  perpendicular. 
The  strokes  were  given  with  the  greatest  regularity;  be- 
tween each  a  person  might  deliberately  count  eight,  the 
executioner  always  walking  slowly  to  and  from  the  stake. 
His  cries  were  now  so  terrible,  that  some  of  the  spec- 
tators were  obliged  to  turn  their  backs,  and  put  their  fin- 
gers in  their  ears.  All  were  quiet  and  silent,  and  the 
crack  of  the  knoot  was  heard  to  a  great  distance.  After 
receiving  300  lashes  the  culprit's  voice  grew  faint,  and 
during  the  last  100  he  shewed  no  signs  of  life  whatever, 
the  whole  of  the  upper  part  of  the  back  being  beaten  to 

a  black 


ORIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  OF-PEDLAR's  ACSE.  427 

a  black  mummy.  After  the  last  blow  the  assistants  lift- 
ed up  the  face  by  the  hair^  and  the  executioner  struck 
him  forcibly  three  times  with  an  instrument  that  left  the 
initial  of  murderer,  throwing  each  time  an  handful  of 
black  dust  into  the  wound ;  after  which;,  at  two  pulls,  he 
tore  the  gristle  of  his  nose,  and  loosened  him  from  the 
block.  The  whole  lasted  about  three  quarters  of  an  hour, 
and  it  was  generally  thought  that  he  had  been  dead  some 
time;  however,  he  made  a  feeble  attempt  to  put  on  his 
coat,  and  recovered  sufficiently  to  be  able  to  make  some 
reparation  to  society  by  working  the  iron  mines. 


ORIGIN  OF  THE  NAME  OF  PEDLAR's  ACRE. 

On  the  Surry  side  of  Westminster  bridge,  opposite 
Stangate,  is  a  place  called  Pedlar's  Acre,  traditionally 
Said  to  take  its  name  from  the  following  extraordinary 
circumstance:  A  travelling  Pedlar  accompanied  by  a 
favourite  dog,  seated  himself  on  this  spot  to  take  some 
rest  and  refreshment.  At  this  period  there  were  no  houses 
on  the  place,  nor  any  nearer  than  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lambeth,  which  was  a  more  considerable  place  of  trade 
than  at  present,  in  consequence  of  the  ferry  from  West- 
minster for  passengers,  carriages,  horses,  &c.  tlie  name 
on  the  Middlesex  side  still  retaining  that  of  the  Horse- 
ferry  Road.  The  pedlar  during  his  repast  observed  his 
dog  busily  employed  in  scratching  up  the  eartii  near 
where  he  sat,  nor  could  he  by  any  means  withdraw  the 
animal's  attention  from  his  pursuit,  until  he  discovered  a 
treasure  in  gold  and  silver  to  a  considerable  amount, 
which  when  the  man  had  secured,  he  satisfied  his  brute 
attendant.  The  pedlar  proceeded  to  the  first  house  he 
could  find,  and  enquired  out  the  owner  of  the  land, 
to  whom    he  soon   introduced    himself,     and  made  a 

H  H  H  $  bargain 


425         ORIGIN  OF  THS  NAME  OF  FEDLAr's  ACRE. 

bargain  for  the  ground,  which  from  that  time  he  called 
Pedlar's  Acre.  With  the  remainder  of  his  money  he 
built  several  houses  on  the  place,  and  from  a  pedlar  be- 
came a  considerable  merchant.  Tradition  adds,  that  on 
several  occasions  he  was  a  liberal  benefactor  to  the  poor 
and  parish  of  Lambeth,  and  that  the  memory  of  so  sin- 
gular an  event  might  be  known  to  posterity,  he  by  will , 
left  the  land  called  after  him  to  Lambeth  parish,  on  con- 
dition they  should  perpetuate  his  story,  by  placing  in 
one  of  t!)c  v.'indows  of  their- church,  his  effigy  in  his 
pedlar's  dress,  attended  by  his  faithful  dog  painted  on 
glass,  which  remain  to  the  present  hour  in  the  soutii  east 
window. 

Whether  or  not  the  legend  is  fabulous,  it  is  impossible 
after  such  a  lapse  of  time  to  ascertain. — Success  in  ped- 
dling might  have  enabled  the  man  to  have  accomplished 
an  independence  ;  but  it  is  certain,  however  he  obtained 
it,  whether  by  industry  or  chance,  he  himself  conceived 
his  success  extraordinary.  Thus  far  goes  the  popular 
story,  handed  about  by  tradition  in  the  neigiibourhood. — 
A  very  difl'ereut  account  is  given  by  a  celebrated  antiqua- 
rian, though  we  should  by  no  means  discredit  on  every 
occasion  popular  tradition,  because  an  inquisitive  mind 
cannot  always  lind  authentic  documents  to  establish  or 
contradict  it.  The  Church  authority  and  antiquarian 
opinion  says: — 

At  the  bottom  of  the  middle  compartment  of  the 
south  east  window,  over  the  pulpit,  is  painled,  on  a  pane 
24  inches  by  l6,  the  portrait  of  a  pedlar  and  his  dog. 
This  is  first  mentioned  by  Mr.  Aubrey,  and  copied  from 
him  into  Maitland's  London.  The  tradition  of  the  pa 
rish,  that  the  pedlar  gave  them  Pedlar's  Acl'e,  in  Lam 
beth  Marsh,  for  leave  to  bury  his  dog  in  their  church- 
yard>  is  too  idle  to  be  repeated.  Bishop  Gibson,  who 
was  rector  of  the  parish  at  the  time  he  was  collecting 

materials 


OPcIGINf   OP  THE  NAME  OF  TEDLAK  S  ACRE.  4'2f> 

nialerials  for  his  edition  of"  Camden's  Britannia,  takes 
no  notice  of  this  painting,  though  he  mentions  the  stoiy 
of  Dog  Smith,  who  died  1627^  aged  79,  and  left  nothing 
to  Latnbetn  parish  till  1626.  There  is  no  obligation  on 
the  parish  to  repair  this  pane,  though  it  appears  to  have 
been  repaired  by  orders  of  Vestry  in  1()10.-  Tlie  piece  of 
ground  called  Pedlar's  Acre  adjoins  to  the  river,  and  lies 
ne;ir  the  cast  end  of  the-Hiftry, abutment  of  Westminster 
bridge; .  ■. Tt;contaijis\byj admeasurern'ent one  acre  1 7  poles^ 
and  was  held  in.  1773j  of  the  parish  by  Mr.  Wells.  It 
does  not  appear  among  the  benefactions  in  i.ny  of  the 
registers.  The  parish  were  in  possession  of  it  1504,  at 
which  time  the  rent  arising  from  it  was  applied  to  the  re- 
pairs of  the  churcli ;  and  in  the  churchwardens'  accounts  of 
that  year,  it  is  called  the  church  hoopys,  or  hope,  which 
name  it  retained  till  lti'2.{,  when  it  assumed  that  of  the 
church  oziers;  though  sometimes,  and  more  frc(pKntly, 
it  went  by  that  of  the  church  hope,  tiil  l6j;0,  when  in  a 
lease  of  it,  dated  August  G,  it  is  for  the  first  time.called 
Pedlar's  Acre,  Hope,  or  Hcope,  signifies  an  isthmus  or 
neck  of  land  projecting  into  the  river,  or  an  inxrlosod 
piece  of  low  mcadou'  or  marsh  land.  The  different  rents 
which  this  piece  of  ground  has  let  for,  are  as  follow: 

/.     s.  d.  I 
1505       -         -         0     2     8       1564      - 
1516      -         -         0     4     0      1581       - 

1520  -         -         0     6     0  I   1651 

1521  -         -         0     5     0  I   1705       - 
1556      -         -         0     6     8  j 

Some  years  since  it  was  demised  for  a  term  of  years  in 
consideration  of  a  tine  of  8OOI.  and  the  yearly  rent  of  lOOl. 
and  it  is  expected  at  the  expiration  of  the  term  to  produce 
more  than  double. 

Contiguous  to  Pedlar's  Acre  there  were  formerly  two 
other  pieces  of  land  called  the  Maidens'  and  Archbishops* 

Acres, 


/. 

s. 

(I 

0 

13 

4 

1 

6 

S 

4 

0 

0 

4 

0 

0 

430         ACCOUNT  OF  THE  LIFE  OF  HANNAH  SNELL. 

Acres,  whence  it  is  presumed  that  Pedlars'  Acre  was  so 
called  only  to  distinguish  it  from  the  others;  but  the 
conjecture  is  certainly  strained,  and  far-fetched.  At  the 
Royal  Circus,  St.  George's  Fields,  has  recently  been 
produced,  an  excellent  pantomine  onthis  story,  in  which 
the  subject  is  founded  entirely  on  the  traditional  ac- 
count. 


Account  of   the  Life    and  extraordinary  Jdventures  of 
Hannah  Snell,  with  her  Fort  rait. 

If,  in  the  course  of  the  following"  narrative,  the  reader  should  meet  with 
eircumstaiices  which  appear  to  trespass  on  the  limits  of  credibility,  \vc 
trust  he  will  not  impute  it  to  any  desire  on  our  part  to  mislead.  The  parti- 
culars here  recorded  are  compiled  from  the  most  authentic  materials  that 
could  be  procured,  and  each  is  at  liberty  to  attach  tliat  degree  of  credit  to 
them  which  he  may  think  they  deserve. 

-llANNAII  SNELL  was  born  in  Fryers  Street,  in  the 
city  of  Worcester,  on  the  23d  of  April  1723.  Her  grand- 
father embracing  the  military  profession,  served  under 
William  HL  and  Queen  Anne,  and  terminated  his  career 
at  the  battle  of  Malplaquet,  where  he  received  a  mortal 
wound. — Ker  father  was  a  hosier  and  dyer,  and  had  a  fa- 
mily of  three  sons  and  six  daughters,  of  whom  our 
lieroine  was  the  youngest  but  one. 

In  the  year  1740,  having  lost  her  father  and  mother, 
ILinnah  removed  to  London,  where  s]ie  for  some  time  re- 
sided with  one  of  her  sisters,  married  to  a  Mr.  Graj^,  car- 
penter, in  Ship  Street,  Wapping..  Soon  after  her  arrival 
in  the  metropolis,  she  became  acquainted  with  a  Dutch 
seaman,  named  James  Summs,  who  paid  his  addresses  to 
her,  and  they  were  married  on  the  6th  of  January^  1743. 
It  was  not  long,  however,  before  she  found  herself  mise- 
rably deceived  in  the  opinion  she  had  formed  of  her  hus- 
band. He  abandoned  her  company  for  that  of  women 
ot  the  lowest  description,  with  whom  he  squandered  the 

litllo 


■ACCOUNT  OF    THE  LTFE  OF  HANNAH  SXELt.        431 

little  property  which  his  wife  possessed,  and  having  in- 
volved himself  deeply  in  debt,  he  deserted  her  entirely, 
leaving  her  pregnant,  to  struggle  with  all  the  horrors  of 
povert\\  Two  months  after  his  departure,  she  was  deli- 
vered of  a  girl,  who  died  at  the  early  age  of  seven  months. 

From  the  time  her  husband  abandoned  her,  she  had 
again  resided  with  her  sister;  but  being  by  the  death  of 
her  child,  released  from  every  tie,  she  resolved  to  set  out 
in  quest  of  the  man,  whom,  notwithstanding  his  ill  usage, 
ehe  still  continued  to  love.  In  order  to  execute  this  design 
\yith  a  better  grace,  and  more  chance  of  success,  she  put 
on  a  suit  of  her  brother  in  law's  clothes,  assumed  his  name, 
James  Gray,  and  set  off  on  the  23d  of  November,  1745. 
Having  travelled  to  Coventry,  and  being  unable 'to  pro- 
cure any  intelligence  of  her  husband,  she,  on  the  27th 
of  the  same  month,  inlisted  into  General  Guise's  regi- 
ment, and  in  the  company  belonging  to  Captain  Miller. 

She  remained  at  Coventry  about  three  weeks,  during 
which  time  she  made  m.any  fruitless  enquiries  after  her 
husband.  The  north  being  then  the  seat  of  war,  and  her 
regiment  being  at  Carlisle,  she,  with  seventeen  other  re- 
cruits, left  Coventry,  and  joined  the  regiment  after  a 
march  of  three  weeks,  which  she  performed  witli  as  much 
ease  as  any  of  her  comrades. 

On  her  arrival  at  Carlisle,  she  was  instructed  in  the 
military  exercise,  and  was  soon  able  to  perlorm  it  with 
great  skill  and  dexterity.  She  had  not  been  long  in  this 
place,  when  her  serjeanl,  whose  name  was  Davis,  having 
a  criminal  passion  for  a  young  woman  in  the  town,  and 
considering  our  adventurer  as  a  proper  person  for  pro- 
moting his  design,  applied  to  her  to  assist  him  in  exe- 
cuting it.  She  appeared  to  acquiesce  in  his  desire,  but 
privately  disclosed  the  whole  matter  to  the  intended  vic- 
tim, and  warned  her  of  her  danger.  By  this  conduct  she 
gained  the  young  woman's  confidence  and  esteem,  and 

being 


432,        ACCOUNT  OF  THE  LIFL  OF    HANNAH  SNELL^ 

being  frequently  in  each  other's  company,  the  jealons/ 
of  Davis  was  excited^,  and  gave  birth  to  the  desire  of  re- 
venge. He  accordingly  seized  an  early  opportunity  of 
charging  his  supposed  rival  before  the  comma!  ding  offi- 
cer with  neglect  of  duty;  and  she  was  sentenced  to  re- 
ceive six  hundred  lashes.  Five  hundred,  we  are  told,  were 
inflicted,  but  the  remaining  hundred  were  remitted  in 
consequence  of  tlic  intercession  of  some  of  the  officers. 

This  cruel  punishment  was  not  suffi<  ient  to  satisfy  the 
resentment  of  the  jealous  Davis;  he  omitted  no  opportu* 
nity  to  mortify  her,  and  to  put  her  on  such  duties  as  he 
knew  to  be  disatjrceable  or  difficult.  For  this  ill  usa^e 
she  iiowever  found  some  compensation  in  the  increased 
affection  of  her  female  friend. 

Kot  long  after  the  above  unhappy  occurrence,  another 
cause  of  uneasiness  appeared.  A  fresh  recruit,  a  native 
of  Worcestci-,  b\'  trade  a  carpenter,  and  who  had  lodged 
in  the  house  of  her  brother-in-law,  having  joined  the  re- 
giment, she  became  justly  apprehensive  of  a  discovery 
of  her  sex,  and  her  uneasiness  increased  to  such  a  degree> 
that  she  at  length  resolved  to  desert.  Having  taken  eve- 
ry possible  precaution,  she  repaired  to  her  female  ac- 
quaintance, and  informed  her  of  her  design.  The  latter 
endeavoured  to  dissuade  her  from  such  a  dangerous  en- 
terprize;  but  finding  that  her  resolution  was  fixed,  she 
furnished  her  with  monc}';  and  Hannah  having  taken 
leave  of  her  affectionate  friend,  immediately  commenced 
her  journey  on  foot  for  Portsmouth.  About  a  mile  from 
Carlisle,  perceiving  some  people  employed  in  picking 
peas,  and  their  clothes  lying  at  some  distance,  she  ex- 
changed her  regimental  coat  for  one  of  the  old  coats  be- 
longing to  the  men,  and  proceeded  on  her  journey. 

Arriving  at  Liverpool,  Hannah  stopped  at  a  small  pub- 
lic house,  where  she  acted  the  gallant,  and  rendered  Bo^ 
aiface  "ealous  of  bis  wife.     A  battle  was  the  consequence^ 

ia 


AceOUNT  OF  THE  LIFE  OF    HANNAH  SNELL.        433 

HI  which  the  supposed  gallant  so  completely  drubbed  her 
host,  that  he  was  obliged  to  keep  his  bed  next  day.  From 
this  place  she  suddenly  decamped,  and  proceeded  to 
Chester,  where  what  she  had  obtained  from  the  landlady 
at  Liverpool  enabled  her  to  appear  in  a  more  genteel 
style* 

At  Chester  she  took  lodgings  in  a  private  house,  in 
which  likewise  resided  a  young  mantua-maker,  with  whom 
*  she  soon  contrived  to  ingratiate  herself.  She  pushed  her 
suit  with  much  ardour,  till  at  length  on  some  pretence 
she  obtained  five  guineas  of  the  unsuspecting  female,  and 
then  thought  it  time  to  leave  Chester. 

In  an  intrigue  in  which  she  engaged  with  a  widow  at 
Winchester,  our  galhmt  was  not  quite  so  successful. 
Here  she  met  for  once,  with  her  match ;  the  widow  had 
the  art  to  empty  her  pockets,  leaving  her  lover  to  rumi- 
nate on  her  folly,  and  to  finish  her  journey  on  foot  with 
the  few  shillings  she  had  remaining. 

Hannah  was  about  a  month  in  travelling  from  Carlisle 
to  Portsmouth,  where  she  soon  inlisted  as  a  marine  in 
Colonel  Fraser's  regiment.  Three  weeks  afterwards  a 
draft  was  made  from  the  regiment,  for  the  East  Indies, 
and  Hannah  among  the  rest  was  ordered  to  repair  on 
board  the  Swallow  sloop,  one  of  the  ships  of  Admiral 
Boscawen's  fleet.  She  soon  made  herself  remarkable 
on  board  by  her  dexterity  and  address  in  washing 
mending,  and  cooking  for  her  messmates;  and  these  lit- 
tle good  offices  obtained  her  the  particular  notice  of  Mr. 
Wyegate,  one  of  the  lieutenants  of  the  marines,  who,  in 
a  very  friendly  manner,  requested  her  to  become  one  of 
their  mess.  This  offer  she  readily  accepted,  and  soon 
became  a  great  favourite  wirh  the  crew  of  the  sloop. 

The  Swallow  having  sustained  considerable  damage  in 
a  storm,  was  obliged  to  nut  into  the  port  of  Lisbon  to 
refit.     A  month  having  been  occupied  with  the  necessary 

Vol.  II.  Ill  repairs. 


434        ACCOUNT  or  the  tlFfi  OF  HANNAH  SNEtt, 

repairs,  the  Swallovv  again  put  to  sea,  to  rejoin  the  fleet ; 
but,  the  night  after  her  departure,  another  tempest  equally 
violent  with  the  former,  destroyed  the  greatest  part  oi 
the  new  rigging,  so  that  she  was  reduced  to  a  state  very 
little  better  than  a  wreck.  Hannah  took  her  turn  at  the 
pump,  which  was  kept  constantly  going,  declined  no 
office  however  dangerous,  and  established  her  character 
for  courage,  skill  and  intrepidity. 

The  ship  was  a  second  time  repaired  at  Gibraltar,  and 
having  touched  at  the  Madeiras,  made  the  best  of  her 
way  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  where  having  joined  the 
rest  of  the  squadron,  they  proceeded  to  make  an  attack 
on  the  Mauritius,  which,  however,  proved  unsuccessful. 
The  Admiral  then  bore  away  for  Fort  St.  David,  on  the 
coast  of  Coromandel,  where  the  fleet  soon  afterwards  ar- 
rived. 

The  marines  being  disembarked,  joined  the  English 
army;  encamping  before  Areacopong,  they  laid  siege  to 
the  place,  which  on  the  10th  day  surrendered.  This  ad- 
venture gave  our  heroine  fresh  spirits,  and  afforded  her 
an  opportunity  of  displaying  her  intrepidity,  which  she 
omitted  no  opportunity  of  doing,  so  that  her  conduct 
acquired  the  commendation  of  all  her  officers. 

The  army  then  proceeded  to  the  attack  of  Pondicherry, 
and  after  lying  before  that  place  eleven  weeks,  and  suf- 
fering very  great  hardships,  they  were  obliged  by  the 
rainy  season  to  abandon  the  siege.  Our  heroine  was  in 
the  first  party  of  English  foot,  who  forded  the  river  breast 
high,  under  an  incessant  fire  from  a  French  battery.  She 
was  likewise  on  the  picket  guard,  continued  on  that  duty 
seven  nights  successively,  and  laboured  very  hard  about 
fourteen  days  at  throwing  up  the  trenches. 

During  this  time  she  maintained  her  usnal  firmness, 
and  her  conduct  was  perfectly  consistent  with  the  cha- 
racter of  bravery  which  has  ever  distinguished  the  Bri* 

tisb 


ACCOUNT  OF  THE  LIFE  OF  HANNAH  SNELL.        435 

tish  soldier.  In  one  of  the  attacks,  however,  her  career 
was  well  nigh